Rockwood Holdings 10-K 2007
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission file number 001-32609
Rockwood Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrants telephone number, including area code (609) 514-0300
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. x Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. o Yes x No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. x Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). o Yes x No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2006 was $826,162,522
As of March 9, 2007, there were 73,786,132 outstanding shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Registrant.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III incorporates certain information by reference to the Proxy Statement for the 2007 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed by April 30, 2007.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This document contains forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact and may involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements give our current expectations or forecasts of future events and estimates of amounts not yet determinable. We have used the words anticipate, estimate, expect, project, intend, plan, believe, predict, could, may and other words and terms of similar meaning, including references to assumptions, in this report to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made based on expectations and beliefs concerning future events affecting us and are subject to uncertainties and factors relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in or implied by these forward-looking statements. In particular, these factors include, among other things:
· our business strategy;
· competitive pricing or product development activities affecting demand for our products;
· fluctuations in interest rates, exchange rates and currency values;
· availability and pricing of raw materials;
· fluctuations in energy prices;
· changes in the end-use markets in which our products are sold;
· changes in the general economic conditions in North America and Europe and in other locations in which we currently do business;
· technological changes affecting production of our materials;
· our high level of indebtedness;
· governmental and environmental regulations and changes in those regulations;
· hazards associated with chemicals manufacturing;
risks associated with negotiating, consummating and integrating acquisitions;
· risks associated with competition and the introduction of new competing products, especially in the Asia-Pacific region; and
· risks associated with international sales and operations.
You should keep in mind that any forward-looking statements made by us in this Annual Report or elsewhere speak only as of the date on which we make them. New risks and uncertainties come up from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict these events or how they may affect us. We disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Unless we indicate otherwise or the context otherwise requires, any references to we, our, us, the Company or Rockwood refer to Rockwood Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Rockwood is a global developer, manufacturer and marketer of technologically advanced, high value-added specialty chemicals and advanced materials used for industrial and commercial purposes. Rockwood was incorporated in Delaware in September 2000 in connection with an acquisition of certain specialty chemical businesses from Laporte plc (Laporte) on November 20, 2000 (the KKR Acquisition) by affiliates of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (KKR). The businesses acquired focused on specialty
compounds, iron oxide pigments, timber treatment chemicals, clay-based additives, pool and spa chemicals, and electronic chemicals used in the semiconductor and printed circuit board industries.
On July 31, 2004, we acquired the specialty chemicals and advanced materials businesses of Dynamit Nobel which focused on titanium dioxide pigments, surface treatment and lithium chemicals, advanced ceramics and custom synthesis. Through this acquisition, we have created a further diversified portfolio of distinct specialty chemicals and advanced materials businesses, combining two companies with similar service-driven cultures focused on high margins; expertise in inorganic chemistry; stable profitability; growth platforms; and proven management teams. In addition, we believe the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition bolstered our leading competitive positions by enhancing our ability to develop innovative products and solutions for our customers, expanding our technological knowledge and further reducing our exposure to any particular raw material or end-use market.
Our products consist primarily of inorganic chemicals and solutions and engineered materials. They are often customized to meet the complex needs of our customers and to enhance the value of their end products by improving performance, providing essential product attributes, lowering costs or making them more environmentally friendly. We generally compete in niche markets in a wide range of end-use markets, including construction, life sciences (including pharmaceutical and medical markets), electronics and telecommunications, metal treatment and general industrial and consumer products markets. No single end-use market accounted for more than 16% of our 2006 net sales.
We have a number of growth businesses, which are complemented by a diverse portfolio of businesses that historically have generated stable revenues. Our high margins, strong cash flow generation, capital discipline and ongoing productivity improvements provide us with a platform to capitalize on market growth opportunities.
We operate globally, manufacturing our products in 88 manufacturing facilities in 25 countries and selling our products and providing our services to more than 60,000 customers, including some of the worlds preeminent companies. We believe our products are generally critical to our customers products performance, but account for a small percentage of the total cost of their products. No single customer accounted for more than 2% of our 2006 net sales. For a geographic description of the origin of our net sales and location of our long-lived assets, see Note 4, Segment Information, in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details.
On August 22, 2005, we completed an initial public offering (IPO) of 23,469,387 shares of our common stock, which included 3,061,224 shares issued and sold as a result of the underwriters exercise of the over-allotment option. Net proceeds of approximately $435.7 million were primarily used to reduce indebtedness.
On January 9, 2007, we completed the sale of our Groupe Novasep subsidiary that was one of our reportable segments, which included the former Dynamit Nobel custom synthesis business. As a result, our consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to reflect the former Groupe Novasep segment as a discontinued operation for all periods presented. See Note 2, Discontinued Operations, in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for further details.
We operate our business through the following six business segments: (1) Specialty Chemicals; (2) Performance Additives;
(3) Titanium Dioxide Pigments; (4) Advanced Ceramics; (5) Specialty Compounds; and (6) Electronics. The following table sets forth for each of our six segments net sales of such segment, and the percentage of our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2006, as well as our principal products and our principal end-use markets. For financial information about each segment, see Note 4, Segment Information.
Our Competitive Strengths
Leading Market Positions. We believe we hold leading market positions within many of our businesses. For example, we believe that based on our 2006 net sales, we have leading market positions for the following products in our segments:
Specialty businesses in niche markets with significant barriers to entry. We believe that nearly all of our businesses operate in niche markets protected by significant barriers to entry. We believe that many of our customers would experience significant disruption and costs if they were to switch to another supplier because of the following:
· Customized products and solutions. We develop and manufacture products that meet specific customers performance requirements. For example, our Performance Additives segment provides specialized pigments and color formulations to specific customers by producing synthetic iron oxide pigments in a wide range of colors, grades and physical forms to serve the construction, paints and coatings and specialty applications markets. Our Specialty Chemicals segment provides lithium compounds that are tailored to specific customer applications, including lithium batteries, pharmaceuticals and high performance greases.
· Technological know-how and expertise. We use our technological know-how to improve and develop innovative products to meet our customers specific requirements and needs. For example, our Performance Additives segment developed a proprietary chemical formulation known as Clearwood that acts as a fungicide, insecticide and water repellant to improve the performance of wood windows and doors. In addition, in our Advanced Ceramics segment, we produce ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components used in FDA-approved hip prostheses systems medical devices in the United States and are expanding our focus to additional applications including knee joint and intervertebral disc replacements.
· Significant switching costs. Many of our products have been pre-qualified for use by our customers. We believe that many of our customers would experience significant disruption and costs if they were to switch to another supplier. For example, in our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment, our specialty titanium dioxide pigments represent a small portion of the production cost of our customers products; however, we believe that switching to a new supplier by a customer would require a significant period of production downtime.
Diverse Customer and End-Use Market Base. We operate a diverse portfolio of distinct specialty chemicals and advanced materials businesses. We have more than 60,000 customers worldwide that cover a wide variety of industries and geographic areas. Of our 2006 net sales, 49% were shipments to Europe, 34% to North America (predominantly the United States) and 17% to the rest of the world. No customer accounted for more than 2% of such net sales, and our top ten customers represented only approximately 9% of such net sales. Our largest end-use market represented approximately 16% of such net sales.
The following chart provides a breakdown of our 2006 net sales by end-use markets:
Within these end-use markets, there is further diversification by sector, product and region. For example, within the construction end-use market, our Performance Additives segment companies provide materials for new construction as well as companies that focus on remodeling and renovation. In addition, we serve construction materials clients in both the residential and commercial sectors located in North America, Europe and Asia. Within the life sciences end-use market, we serve a number of sectors, including: the medical applications sector through our Specialty Compounds and Advanced Ceramics segments; and the pharmaceutical sector through our Specialty Chemicals segment.
Limited exposure to raw materials and energy prices. We have a broad raw material base consisting primarily of inorganic (nonpetrochemical) materials, most of which are readily available and whose prices follow their own individual supply and demand relationships and have historically shown little correlation to each other. Our largest and second largest raw material purchases represented approximately 1.7% and 1.5% of our 2006 net sales, respectively, while our top ten raw material purchases represented less than 10% of our 2006 net sales. Further, our exposure to energy prices is limited as energy costs accounted for approximately 3% of our 2006 net sales.
Leading technologies and strong brand names. We believe we are recognized as an innovative industry leader in many of our businesses due to our technological know-how and strong customer focus. We identify, commercialize and market new products, which we develop internally or with third parties, as well as license or otherwise acquire. We believe that a number of our products and business brands have gained strong recognition, including the following:
· Specialty ChemicalsArdrox, which provides a complete range of globally recognized products specifically developed for use in aircraft maintenance programs, ranging from daily cleaning to complete aircraft overhaul;
· Specialty ChemicalsOur Gardo products (such as Gardoclear and Gardobond), which provide complete process solutions for all steps of the chemical treatment of metal surfaces, are often tailored for individual customers and their applications;
· Performance AdditivesGranufin, our patented iron oxide granulated pigment, which provides significant advantages in terms of product handling, color consistency and ease of use when used with our Granumat dispensing system;
· Performance AdditivesPreserve and Preserve Plus, our environmentally advanced ACQ timber treatment products, which we introduced as alternatives to traditional arsenic-based chemicals such as CCA;
· Performance AdditivesGaramite, our clay-based additive, which is used in the manufacture of fiberglass composites and provides production efficiencies and enhanced performance of the end-product;
· Performance AdditivesCloisite, a clay mineral known as nanoclay, which is used in the production of certain plastics;
· Titanium Dioxide PigmentsHombitan, which is recognized as the worlds #1 anatase titanium dioxide pigment for the synthetic fiber manufacturing industry; and
· Advanced CeramicsBiolox, our hip joint replacement components made of advanced ceramic materials.
Experienced and proven management team with significant equity interests. We have an experienced management team with a proven record of financial and operational excellence. Since joining us in 2001, Seifi Ghasemi, our chairman and chief executive officer, and Robert Zatta, our senior vice president and chief financial officer, together with other members of our senior management team, have been responsible for instilling a culture of ownership and introducing several initiatives that have resulted in significant improvement in our business including increased growth in net sales, development of new products, cost reductions, working capital improvements, capital expenditure reductions and improved customer relationships. The heads of our business lines have, on average, over 20 years of experience in the specialty chemicals and advanced materials industry and over ten years at their respective businesses. Members of management and certain other employees currently hold approximately 6.0% of the outstanding shares of our common stock on a fully-diluted basis.
Our Business Strategy
Building on these strengths, we plan to continue our existing strategy to grow revenue and cash flow and increase profitability as follows:
Capitalize on expected market growth opportunities. We expect our businesses to benefit from a number of growth trends, including:
· Specialty Chemicalsincreased demand for longer-life lithium-based batteries and lithium compounds in pharmaceuticals.
· Performance Additivesa growing trend toward the use of color in concrete paving stones and other home remodeling.
· Performance Additivesa growing demand for the use of organic next generation wood preservative products.
· Titanium Dioxide Pigmentssales of newly-introduced nano-particle titanium dioxide pigments that are used to provide ultraviolet light protection for plastics and coatings.
· Advanced Ceramicsa growing trend toward replacing plastics and metals with high-performance ceramics and increasing use of ceramic substrates for electronics.
Focus on our core businesses. We intend to focus on our core businesses that have leading market positions, growth opportunities and higher margins. We set aggressive performance targets for all of our businesses and will refocus or divest those activities that fail to meet our targets or do not fit our long-term strategies. For example, in early 2007 we divested our Groupe Novasep segment, which focused on the custom synthesis and production of active ingredients for pharmaceuticals and the development of purifications solutions, and the US operations of our wafer reclaim business.
Achieve profitable growth through selective acquisitions. We intend to continue to selectively pursue cash flow accretive acquisitions and strategic alliances in order to strengthen and expand our existing business lines and enter into complementary business lines. For example:
· In December 2005, we acquired the rheological additives and carbonless developers businesses of SüdChemie AG. This acquisition complements our existing business and allows us to better serve our customers with a broader product line, enhanced technical resources and increased production capability.
· In January 2007, we formed a joint venture with Rohm and Haas Company bringing together their wood biocide business and our wood protection business and distribution channels to take advantage of customer desire for the introduction of next generation organic wood preservatives. Our alliance expects to begin commercialization of these products in late 2007.
Although we are not subject to any agreement or binding letter of intent with respect to potential acquisitions, we are engaged in acquisition discussions with other parties
Reduce financial leverage. We intend to reduce our financial leverage. Since our initial public offering, we have reduced our debt and our debt-to-adjusted ebitda ratios. In addition, we expect to use a significant portion of the proceeds from the sale of our Groupe Novasep segment to repay indebtedness. We believe that our strong cash flow generation from organic growth opportunities within our existing markets, cost-reduction programs and productivity gains applied to our businesses and improved working capital management will further reduce our leverage ratios.
The following describes each of our operating segments, as well as the principal products or principal divisions within each segment.
Specialty Chemicals (31% of 2006 net sales)
Our Specialty Chemicals segment, which we acquired in the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition, and which operates under the Chemetall brand name, develops and manufactures metal surface treatment products and services, lithium chemicals and fine chemicals for a wide range of industries and end markets. This segment is comprised of two business lines: (1) Surface Treatment, which supplies surface treatment products and solutions for metal processing industries; and (2) Fine Chemicals, which supplies lithium products across the entire value chain from raw materials to specialty lithium compounds and advanced metal-based specialty chemicals to niche markets. Our Specialty Chemicals segment generated net sales of $918.3 million and $842.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Actual net sales for the five months ended December 31, 2004 were $321.1 million and net sales were $759.6 million on a pro forma basis for the year ended December 31, 2004. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Specialty Chemicals segment.
We believe that our Surface Treatment business line is a leading global supplier of surface treatment products and solutions. Surface Treatments products are used for a variety of applications and serve the automotive, aerospace and general industrial markets, including steel and metal-working industries. This business line supplies more than 5,000 different products, many of which are based on proprietary formulations and extensive application know-how, to over 50,000 customers and operates in 29 different locations for production or research and development in over 20 countries. Surface Treatment operates in the following core end-markets: Automotive Technologies, Automotive Components, Cold Forming and Coil Coating, General Industry and Aerospace Technologies.
In Surface Treatment, we develop and supply products and solutions for the chemical pretreatment of metals and other substrates, some of which are customized for individual customers and applications. Our products and solutions are critical to many areas of the metal processing industry because they protect metals from corrosion, facilitate forming and machining, allow parts to be processed in a clean and grease-free environment and ensure good coating adhesion. Other products are used in the cleaning and maintenance of aircraft. As an integrated part of the business, we also offer a full range of customer services, including process control and analysis of chemical baths at clients facilities.
Surface Treatment competes in markets characterized by significant barriers to entry, proprietary manufacturing technologies and know-how, demanding product-handling requirements, rigorous product quality and performance standards and specifications and longstanding service-intensive customer relationships. In order to remain competitive, we are focused on developing new products, improving process technologies and expanding our customer base and broadening our technology capabilities in existing and new markets through internal research and development. In 2006, we increased our marketing efforts in Eastern Europe and Asia, especially in China. In addition, during 2006, there was further development and the market introduction of chrome-free technology in the areas of thin organic coating. We currently have a number of joint ventures across Asia, which we believe will provide us with the opportunities to further penetrate these high growth regions. The core-end markets that Surface Treatment operates in are as follows:
Automotive Technologies. We provide surface treatment products and solutions for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEM), including an entire range of products and services for use in the paint shop step of car-body manufacture. The products and services we provide typically represent a low percentage of total car body production costs, but have high value in terms of corrosion protection and surface quality. Major applications include car body treatment (zinc-phosphating) and paint coagulation. Our services typically include intensive process control and chemical management function in the customers production processes.
Automotive Components. We offer cleaning and pretreatment products and services to automotive parts manufacturers for use in the making of automotive parts, such as axles, seats and other metal components. We believe that products for the treatment of steel and aluminum wheels, including a new generation of products based on self-assembling molecules, represent an attractive growth area in this market.
Cold Forming and Coil Coating. We provide products and services used to facilitate the cold forming of tubes, wire drawing and cold extrusion of metal. We provide products and services used in forming, cleaning and pretreating metal sheets used in the production of steel and aluminum coil.
General Industry. General Industry includes the largest number of customers among the Surface Treatment businesses. The size of these customers varies between small and large. We offer a range of products and services to a broad range of industrial end-markets that have metal surface treatment applications, including cleaning, activation, conversion coating and final rinsing. Our products
include cleaners, iron phosphates, coolants, paint strippers and flocculants. We have introduced a new generation of iron-phosphating products in the U.S. market, which we expect will provide growth in the next few years. In addition, we started to offer silane or oxsilan-based systems. The markets in general industry include household appliances manufacturing, can producers, heating, ventilation, aluminum finishing and other diverse end-markets.
Aerospace Technologies. We provide products and services for aerospace OEMs, airlines and maintenance companies. Aerospace Technologies focuses on four major application areas: cleaning; corrosion protection; maintenance chemicals; and sealants. Cleaning products are used for the interior and exterior cleaning of airplanes. Ardrox products provide a complete range of globally recognized products specifically developed for use in aircraft maintenance programs, ranging from daily cleaning to complete aircraft overhaul. Corrosion protection products include waxes used to protect airframes. Maintenance chemicals for aircraft engines and turbines include high performance cleaners and products for non-destructive testing of engines. Aircraft sealants provide high technology sealing solutions for airplanes and are expected to contribute significantly to growth in the next few years. In 2006, we introduced further variances of low-density sealants in the market place. In addition, we produce specialty products, which are similar to metal surface treatment products, but are used on the glass substrates for glass manufacturers, including specialty cleaners, polishing products, cutting oils and cooling lubricants.
We believe that the top five competitors in the global metal surface treatment market held an estimated market share of more than 50% in 2006. We believe that Henkel Surface Technologies is the global market leader, followed by us. The remaining main competitors include Nihon Parkerizing, PPG and Nippon Paint Co., Ltd. Competition in this market is based primarily on customer service, product quality and technological capabilities.
Surface Treatment serves a large customer base that is dependent on the individual segment and its specific customer mix. Surface Treatments largest customers include Daimler Chrysler AG, RNUR (Renault), Arcelor and Volkswagen AG. The composition of the customer base varies widely among product groups and industries served. Automotive Technologies business division serves approximately 20 customers, primarily global OEMs, and the Automotive Components business division serves approximately 500 small to large customers. Cold Forming and Coil Coating business division serves approximately 800 mid size to large customers and the General Industry business division serves approximately 45,000 small to large customers in a broad range of industries worldwide. Aerospace Technologies business division serves approximately 4,200 small to large customers worldwide.
Our Fine Chemicals business line consists of our lithium, special metals and metal sulfides product lines. We believe that our Fine Chemicals business line is the leading global producer of basic and specialty lithium compounds and chemicals and advanced metal-based specialty chemicals.
Fine Chemicals develops and manufactures a broad range of basic lithium compounds, including lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, lithium nitrate, lithium chloride, and value added lithium reagents, including butyllithium and lithium aluminum hydride. Lithium is a key component in products and processes used in a variety of applications and industries, which range from lithium batteries, high performance greases, thermoplastic elastomers for car tires, rubber soles and plastic bottles to intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry. In our Fine Chemicals business, we operate our lithium business along the following four business divisions reflecting its core end-markets: (1) Specialities/Life Sciences; (2) Base Chemicals; (3) Elastomers; and (4) Electronics.
Lithium carbonate can be resold or used as a primary raw material for more specialized forms of lithium-based materials. We have developed an integrated, low cost manufacturing capability based on a range of proprietary technologies and advanced equipment, including brine processing technology and aqueous chemistry for a broad variety of lithium salts. In addition to developing and supplying lithium compounds, we provide technical service, including training of customers employees, for handling reactive lithium products. We also offer our customers recycling services for lithium containing by-products resulting from synthesis with organolithium products, lithium metal and other reagents. Product quality is critical in the life sciences, elastomers and electronics industries. We believe that these services and our ability to handle highly reactive compounds in large quantities serve to build customer loyalty. We plan to continue to focus on the development of new products and applications. Over the last 20 years, the use of lithium products has grown substantially in a variety of applications, such as life sciences and electronics, largely as a result of innovation and product development. Currently, we are in the process of developing lithium compounds for several near- to medium term, new and potentially high growth products for applications such as fuel cells, batteries for electric vehicles or lithium-aluminum alloys.
Fine Chemicals also develops and manufactures advanced metal-based specialty chemicals along two business divisions based on its principal product groups: (1) Metal Sulfides, which develops and manufactures natural and synthetic metal sulfides used in brake pads and clutch facings and cutting and grinding wheels and (2) Special Metals, which develops and manufactures cesium products for the
chemical and pharmaceutical industries and zirconium, barium and titanium products for various pyrotechnical applications including airbag igniters. Fine Chemicals is a major commercial producer of certain cesium compounds, which are used for X-ray image intensifiers and displays for digital X-ray technology. Fine Chemicals also sells accelerators for the rubber industry.
In our metal-based specialty chemicals business, we are well positioned in the field of metal sulfides and special metals, offering a broad range of products and fully integrated production processes, as a result of which we are a single source supplier for many of our customers. Fine Chemicals benefits from a long-standing expertise in handling, processing and developing new specialty metal products. Fluctuations in purity grades of the products can lead to significant losses in customers production processes. Fine Chemicals has a reputation among its customers for consistently producing highly customized, quality products. We have had strong sales growth over the past three fiscal years in our metal-based specialty chemicals business, driven by the shift towards synthetic sulfides in brake pads. Currently, we are a major supplier of synthetic metal sulfides for use in brake pads. In addition, we hold several key patents, which, we believe, gives us a competitive advantage in the fast growing synthetic metal sulfides market. In order to further strengthen our competitive position in the metal-based specialty chemicals market, we are focused on the production of new variations of synthetic metal sulfides, and new cesium products for organic synthesis. We also continuously monitor our customers industries for potential new applications for our products and often achieve a sole supplier position by being the first to offer our products to potential new customers. In addition, we plan to expand our business by penetrating growth areas such as the United States and Asia.
We believe that demand for synthetic metal sulfides will increase further in the future as a result of the continuing substitution of asbestos-based friction linings, transition from naturally occurring sulfides to synthetic sulfides worldwide and the transition from drum to disk brakes in Asia and the Americas. We also believe that the market for cesium compounds will grow as a result of new applications being developed in the chemicals industry, the pharmaceutical industry, the defense industry and for the use in catalytic applications. As a result of our competitive strengths as a supplier of cesium products for established markets, we believe we are well positioned to take advantage of this market trend.
Principal Business Divisions
Specialities/Life Sciences. We develop and manufacture lithium compounds and other products for life science applications, such as special reagents for the synthesis of drug intermediates as well as for the flavor and fragrances industry. The two principal lithium products are butyllithium and lithium aluminum hydride, in which we believe we have strong market positions. We also produce various other compounds which include lithium metal, grignard reagents and alkoxides. Our research and development team often works closely together with research and development departments of pharmaceutical companies, especially in the European market in order to develop products and solutions tailored for the customers needs. In addition, broad variations of our specialities are designed to produce liquid crystals for flat screens.
Base Chemicals. We develop and manufacture basic lithium compounds, which serve a wide range of industries and applications. Our products include (1) lithium carbonate, which is used as a fluxing agent for enamels, glass and ceramic production to lower process temperature in aluminum electrolysis, and as a cement additive for construction applications; (2) lithium hydroxide, which is principally used in high performance greases for automotive and industrial applications; (3) lithium nitrate, which is principally used in the rubber industry and (4) lithium chloride, which is principally used in gas and air treatment.
Elastomers. We develop and manufacture high-technology lithium compounds for use in rubber and elastomer applications. Our main product, butyllithium, is used as a polymerization initiator for synthetic rubber and thermoplastic elastomers. Generally, these products require a high degree of handling, transport and application know-how and customer service due to their high reactivity. We benefit from being a major supplier with butyllithium manufacturing facilities in all three geographic regions with plants in the United States, Germany and Taiwan.
Electronics. We develop and manufacture lithium products for electronic applications, mainly for the primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable) battery industries. Our major product is lithium metal, which is used as anode material for primary batteries. Lithium ion-based batteries are used extensively in consumer electronics, such as mobile phones, camcorders and laptops. We are currently developing a new generation of conductive lithium salts used for the battery market, which, we believe, has the potential to drive significant growth in the future.
Metal-based Specialty Chemicals
Metal Sulfides. This business division has two major product lines: friction stabilizers and abrasive additives. Friction stabilizers enhance the power and performance of brake pads and clutch facings and primarily serve the automotive supplier industry while abrasive additives are additive compounds. When bound with synthetic resin, additive compounds act as active fillers in cutting wheels, enhancing cutting effectiveness and tool life of cutting and grinding wheels and primarily serve the mechanical engineering industry. The demand for metal sulfides is driven primarily by the demand in the automotive supplier industry.
Special Metals. In this business division, we develop and manufacture a unique range of products based on special metal compounds derived from cesium, rubidium, titanium, zirconium and barium. These products are used in highly specialized, technology-driven end-applications such as X-ray diagnostic systems, airbags, television cathode ray tube and vacuum lamps and serve various endmarkets, such as chemical, pharmaceutical, metallurgical, automotive, electronics and pyrotechnical industries.
Lithium. We believe the global lithium market consists of three major producers and a number of other small producers. We believe that we are the global market leader in the lithium market. While we offer a diverse range of products from raw materials to specialty lithium compounds, FMC Corporation offers mainly specialty lithium compounds and Sociedad Quimica y Minera de Chile S.A. (SQM) offers a more limited product line focused on basic lithium compounds. Competition in this market is based on product quality, reliability of products and customer service.
Metal-based Specialty Chemicals. We believe that in the metal-based specialty chemicals business, Fine Chemicals has a leading market position in its niche markets. It has a leading position in friction materials and is the only supplier offering a full product range of friction stabilizers and abrasive additives based on metal sulfides. Most competitors only offer single product lines in this market. Key competitors include: Dow Corning Corporation, Frimeco Productions GmbH, and American Minerals, Inc., in Metal Sulfides division and Cabot Corporation and SAES Getters, S.p.A. in the Special Metals division. Competition in the metal-based specialty chemicals markets in which Fine Chemicals competes is based on product quality and product diversity.
Fine Chemicals serves approximately 1,000 customers worldwide in its lithium business and 700 customers worldwide in its metal-based specialty chemicals products business. Fine Chemicals customers of lithium products include Bayer CropScience, Kraton Polymers U.S. LLC, Energizer Holdings, Inc. and DSM N.V.
Performance Additives (26% of 2006 net sales)
Our Performance Additives segment consists of business lines, which develop and manufacture a range of specialty chemicals that are used in industrial and consumer products and processes to enhance performance or create unique characteristics. This segment manufactures and markets products that are based on a focused research and development effort and a strong technology base. Our Performance Additives segment generated net sales of $766.3 million, $680.7 million, and $630.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Performance Additives segment.
Color Pigments and Services
Our Color Pigments and Services business line is a global producer of synthetic iron oxide and other inorganic pigments in a wide range of yellow, red, orange, blue, black or blended shades, and serves the construction, paints and coatings, plastics, and specialty application markets with powder, granular and liquid grades. Color Pigments and Services focuses on developing and manufacturing high value-added inorganic pigments. The business also offers a number of unique pigment dispensing systems. Color Pigments and Services generates sales from construction applications, which include colorings for concrete products such as paving stones, bricks, concrete blocks, roofing tiles, ready mix, stucco and mortar; for paints and coatings as well as colorants for plastics, paper and rubber; and for specialty applications including security inks, toners for printers and copiers, catalysts and cosmetics.
Our Color Pigments and Services business line has been driven by product innovation, our brand names and our customer and technical service, including customer-specific color blending. We expect this segment to benefit from the growing trend towards the use of color in concrete paving stones and other home remodeling fueled in part by increased exposure at do-it-yourself home centers.
An important component of Color Pigments and Services product innovation has been our granulated pigment, Granufin, which, when used in conjunction with our Granumat dispensing system, offers significant advantages to customers over traditional pigment systems in the coloring of manufactured concrete products, such as ease of handling and consistency in coloring. We believe that Granumat is the leading granulated pigment dispensing system worldwide and is a result of Color Pigments and Services research and development focus on process and delivery systems for its products. Our Chameleon dispensing system electronically controls the delivery of color pigments to customers and the supply of pigments into ready-mix concrete when used with our liquid pigment product line.
Our iron oxide pigments joint venture in China provides us with a continuing source of pigments, as well as an important platform to expand Color Pigments and Services commercial activities inside the Asia Pacific region. Color Pigments and Services has an agreement pursuant to which an affiliate of W.R. Grace & Co., which sells admixtures and fibers, distributes our liquid pigments and Chameleon dispensing systems to ready-mix and precast producers in the concrete industry. We believe our combined efforts will
provide ready mix and precast customers with added value in the form of colored ready mix concrete.
In September 2004, we acquired the assets of the pigments and dispersions business of Johnson Matthey Plc. The pigments and dispersions business produces transparent iron oxide pigments and dispersions, color concentrates and complex inorganic color pigments used in the surface and wood coatings, plastics, building materials and print ink markets. In addition, during 2004 we acquired the assets of a producer of liquid pigments, which included a facility in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.
Construction Color Pigments and Services. We develop and manufacture principally iron oxide pigments for manufacturers of construction products for use in the coloring of concrete products, including paving stones, bricks, concrete blocks, roofing tiles, stucco and mortar. We also expanded our product portfolio into the brick and decorative market segments through a prior acquisition. This also provided us with access to the packaged mortar tolling business. Color Pigments and Services major U.S. brand is Davis Colors and its key products include Granufin/Granumat, Hydrotint, Mix-Ready and Chameleon. Granufin is a unique, dry, microgranulated pigment that combines the flow characteristics of a liquid with the storage and handling advantages of a powder. The Granumat dispensing system offers a variety of configurations and features designed to accommodate the varying requirements and budgets of concrete product manufacturers. Granufin pigments and the Granumat system improve product handling and color consistency for our customers. The patent on the granulation technology used in Granufin will expire in the third quarter of 2007. Our Chameleon system, which works in combination with our liquid pigments, automatically weighs, blends and conveys colors into a ready-mix truck using a standard personal computer and custom-developed Windows-based software.
Paints, Coatings and Colorants. We also develop and manufacture colored pigments for the paints, coatings, plastics, paper and rubber end-use markets including the brands Ferroxide, Trans-oxide and Colourplex. We produce a wide variety of pigments for these markets that include synthetic iron oxides, corrosion inhibitor pigments, complex inorganic color pigments and process natural pigments such as burnt umbers and siennas. The largest application for these products is colorant used in architectural, industrial and special purpose paints and coatings. Color, ease of dispersion and chemical stability are the primary characteristics of our products, which can be used in a wide variety of both solvent and water-borne systems. We believe that a number of Color Pigments and Services products are considered industry standards in the markets in which we compete, such as our Mapico yellow pigment for architectural and industrial applications and our heat stable tans, which can tolerate applications requiring high temperature processing, such as plastic compounding and roofing granules.
Specialties. Our iron oxide pigments are also used in a wide variety of specialty applications such as toner for large printers and copiers, security inks used to print bank notes, catalysts for styrene production and cosmetics. Each of these markets requires specialized pigments with unique properties, which are often as important as the coloring characteristics. For example, printer toners require specific magnetic properties whereas pigments used in cosmetics require color and purity.
We believe that there are a significant number of producers of iron oxide pigments across the globe at both the pigment synthesis and finishing levels with whom we compete. We believe these producers include Lanxess Corporation, Elementis plc, Cathay Pigments, Interstar, Yipin Pigments as well as other producers in Japan and China. Competition in this growing segment is based on customer service, product attributes, such as product form and quality, and price. Product quality is critical in the higher end of the business on which Color Pigments and Services focuses as inconsistent product quality can have an adverse impact on the color consistency of the end-product.
Color Pigments and Services key customers include BASF Group, Oldcastle (CRH plc), Pavestone Company, The Sherwin-Williams Company, Degussa, Unilock Ltd. and Xerox Corporation, each of which has been our customer for at least ten years. Color Pigments and Services customer base is highly fragmented.
Timber Treatment Chemicals
Our Timber Treatment Chemicals business line is a manufacturer of wood protection products primarily in North America. Wood protection products enhance the performance of wood by increasing its longevity through protection from decay and fungal or insect attack. Our specialty timber chemicals also add water repellency, fire retardancy and other properties to wood products. Timber Treatment Chemicals products include wood protection products based on our alkaline copper quaternary, or ACQ technology, which was awarded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 2002, and chromated copper arsenate, or CCA. Other products include Clearwood, our wood protection product for wood windows and doors, as well as a range of specialty additives with fire retardant, water repellent or moldicide properties. Applications include wood protection products used for decking, fencing, playground equipment, garden furniture, house construction materials, utility poles, and other wood constructions.
Timber Treatment Chemicals also manufactures inorganic
chemicals such as nitrates and chlorides for various industrial applications,
including chemicals that are added to concrete as curing accelerants and
corrosion inhibitors, chemicals that are used for odor control in water
treatment, galvanizing fluxes, micronutrients, pesticides, and catalysts used
in the manufacture of textile resins. We believe that Timber Treatment
Chemicals is a leading provider in North America of new generation alternative
timber treatment chemicals, such as ACQ, which does not contain chrome, arsenic
or any other chemicals classified as hazardous by the EPA. We developed this
technology to produce ACQ pursuant to a license agreement with Domtar Inc. and
through the acquisition of the Kemwood business from Kemira OY. We have further
developed this technology and created our own proprietary line of ACQ products
under the brand names Preserve and Preserve Plus.
As a result, in February 2001, we signed a licensing agreement with Osmose,
In addition, Timber Treatment Chemicals provides a broad range of technical expertise and services to its customers. In particular, Timber Treatment Chemicals works closely with its customers to assist them in reducing the total cost of their manufacturing process, by supplying timber treatment chemicals as well as treatment equipment, along with technical support.
In January 2007, our Timber Treatment Chemicals business and Rohm and Haas Company completed the formation of Viance, LLC, a joint venture company that provides an extensive range of advanced wood treatment technologies and services to the global wood treatment industry. Viance is jointly-owned by us and Rohm and Haas and was formed, in part, through the contribution of our global wood protection chemicals business and the contribution by Rohm and Haas of its wood biocides business. We expect this joint venture to take advantage of consumer desire for organic wood protection products and the significant growth potential in the development and commercialization of the next generation of wood protection products. We expect this joint venture to begin commercialization of such products in late 2007. See Note 22, Subsequent Events, for further details.
Many of our Timber Treatment products are registered pesticides and subject to extensive regulation. In February 2002, the EPA announced a voluntary decision by CCA manufacturers, including our subsidiary, to amend their registrations for CCA to limit use of CCA-treated lumber in most residential settings. In the culmination of that process, in March 2003, the EPA amended the registrations for CCA prohibiting CCA treatment of wood, effective December 31, 2003, for use in most residential settings, including play structures, decks, picnic tables, landscaping timbers, residential fencing, patios, walkways and boardwalks. Similar initiatives were enacted in Canada by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, which imposed similar limitations on the use of CCA-treated wood. The EPA is currently conducting a risk assessment of CCA-treated wood and results are expected in 2007. The use of ACQ has increased following the industry-wide voluntary transition to non-arsenic chrome-based wood protection products discussed above.
Likewise, in Japan, the use of arsenic-based chemicals, such as those used in the manufacture of CCA wood protection products, is restricted through legislation limiting the levels of arsenic allowed in rainwater runoff from outdoor wood product storage areas. Due in part to the effect of this legislation, we have been able to attain a significant portion of the Japanese timber treatment chemicals market through our ACQ product line. Various types of restrictive legislation, which would further affect the ability to use arsenic-based chemicals are currently being proposed in various jurisdictions in other countries, e.g., Australia. In European Union markets, restrictions were enacted in mid-2004.
We develop and manufacture a broad range of wood protection products, fire retardant and specialty chemicals for use in residential and industrial wood applications. In addition, we provide treatment equipment, which facilitates the handling and treatment of wood and chemicals and we provide comprehensive technical support services to our customers. Timber Treatment Chemicals key brands include Preserve, Preserve Plus, Ultrawood, SupaTimber, D-Blaze and Clearwood.
We also develop and manufacture inorganic metallic chemicals for certain specialty markets. These include zinc chloride-based products, other chlorides, and a range of nitrates and other chemicals. Some of these products are manufactured using by-products from other large chemical companies.
We believe that Timber Treatment Chemicals was one of the leading manufacturers of wood protection products in North America in 2006, along with Arch Chemicals, Inc. and Osmose, Inc. BASF Group, Kurt Obermeier GmbH & Co. KG and Rutgers AG are other competitors, particularly in Europe. Competition for wood protection products is mainly based on price, customer support services, innovative technology and product range. In the inorganic chemicals market, we operate in niche areas, and therefore have few overall competitors. Competition in the inorganic chemicals market is mainly based on quality, customer support services and price.
Timber Treatment Chemicals sells its products primarily to wood processors who pressure-treat wood. Major customers include
Georgia Pacific, Aljoma Lumber, Inc., BB&S Treated Lumber of New England, Coos Bay Lumber Company, Culpeper, Inc., Koshii Preserving Co. Ltd., Jeld-Wen, Inc., and Sunbelt Forest Products Corporation. Customers of our inorganic chemicals product line include Degussa AG, Rohm and Haas Company, Nalco Company and W.R. Grace & Co. Most of these companies have been our customers for at least ten years.
Our Clay-based Additives business line is a developer and manufacturer of specialty rheology modifiers and additives. These products are used in a wide variety of applications to modify viscosity, thickness and flow characteristics, and keep solids in suspension. End products in which these additives are used include industrial and architectural coatings, oilfield drilling fluids, inks, paper-making, household care products and composites.
During the last several years, this business line has developed a number of new value-added products and applications. One of Clay-based Additives recently developed applications is the use of our Laponite ® synthetic clay as a retention aid in the paper-making process. In addition, we are currently developing new products, including anti-static coatings for paper and variants of Laponite ® to replace current types of thickeners in personal care products. Other products recently introduced by Clay-based Additives include Garamite ®, a cost-effective and easy-to-use thickener which provides low volatile organic content compared to traditional additives used in the manufacture of fiberglass composites; and Cloisite ®, used in the manufacture of nanocomposite plastics, which are specially engineered composite materials exhibiting superior mechanical, barrier and fire resistant properties compared to traditional plastics and which result in lighter plastic end products. In 2001, our Clay-based Additives business working with General Motors introduced the first commercial exterior automotive application of a new lightweight nanocomposite material based on Cloisite ® nanoclay on the step assist of the GMC Safari and Chevrolet AstroVan. We continue to develop additional applications for nanocomposite materials with our strategic partners.
In December 2005, we completed an acquisition of the rheological additives and carbonless developers businesses of Süd-Chemie AG, which included the Tixogel® organoclays, Optiflo ® associative thickeners and Optigel® activated clay product lines, as well as production facilities in Moosburg, Germany and Louisville, Kentucky. We also purchased Süd-Chemies Copisil ® clay product line, which is used in the manufacture of carbonless paper. This acquisition complements our existing businesses and allows us to better serve our customers with a broader product line, enhanced technical resources and increased production capability. See Note 5, Acquisitions, for further details.
Coatings and Inks. We offer a comprehensive line of additives which modify the viscosity, flow and suspension properties of coatings and inks, including Claytone® for the manufacture of industrial and special purpose coatings, such as bridge, marine and maintenance paints, and architectural coatings, and Laponite® for the manufacture of automotive coatings. Our Garamite ® additives are used in the manufacture of high solids, low volatile organic content epoxy coatings for industrial applications.
Paper-Making. We serve the paper industry with a product line that includes bentonite retention aids, which are used in the paper-making process to reduce fiber losses and aid in water drainage from the sheet, and an additive, which provides fade-resistant color for carbonless copy paper. We also produce a form of Laponite® which is used in the production of clear, flexible and moisture-resistant films and coatings with conductive, anti-static and anti-sticking properties, that are used in the manufacture of specialty photographic and anti-static papers, ink jet papers and anti-static packaging.
Consumer and Household Care Products. We develop and manufacture a wide range of natural clay-based rheology modifiers, including Gelwhite® and Bentolite®, for the consumer and household care markets. In addition, Laponite® also has functional properties that improve the performance of a wide range of consumer products, such as personal care products, creams, lotions, cosmetics and hard surface household cleaning products for the kitchen and bathroom.
Oilfield. We offer a line of Claytone® organoclays, which are a type of specially treated clays, for use in diesel and synthetic oilfield drilling fluids, which help to control viscosity and flow properties. These additives also help to suspend the cuttings in the fluid, so that they can be expelled from the well efficiently. We recently introduced a Garamite® additive for use in deep well drilling that requires higher performance.
Composites. We developed the Cloisite® range of clays for the manufacture of nanocomposite plastics and composites. While the majority of our customers purchase Cloisite® for developmental products and applications, we have entered into a joint development agreement in the United States with General Motors Corporation in connection with our efforts to develop nanoclays for automotive components, such as external trim and facia. In January 2004, General Motors adopted this technology for the body side molding on the 2004 Chevrolet Impala. Cloisite clays are also being evaluated in a wide range of rubber-based formulations for industrial applications and in other plastic and composite applications. In addition, our Garamite range of clays is used in the manufacture of fiberglass composites.
Clay-based Additives operates in specialty markets, and competes based on its research and development capabilities, its ability to produce innovative high-value product solutions and its sales and technical support. Our direct competitors in these markets include Elementis plc, and R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Inc. We also compete with manufacturers who produce non-clay-based alternatives to our end-users.
We supply major coatings manufacturers such as International Paint Limited, BASF Group, E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, PPG Industries Inc., and The Sherwin-Williams Company; paper chemical and paper-making companies such as Mitsubishi Hi Tec Paper; ink-makers such as Sun Chemical Corporation; and oil drilling and services companies such as M-I SWACO L.L.C. Each of these companies has been our customer for at least ten years.
Water Treatment Chemicals
Our Water Treatment Chemicals business line is a producer of pool and spa specialty chemicals in the United States. This business line also develops and manufactures surface water chemicals. Our pool and spa specialty chemicals, which are primarily non-chlorine based, are all sold under premium brand names as well as private label brands mainly through distributors to pool and spa professionals and retailers that then sell to consumers. The surface water chemicals portion of this business serves the professional aquatic applicator, turf and ornamental, aquaculture, vegetation management, drinking water, industrial process water and agricultural irrigation industries. We also provide professional water management and treatment services for lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
Our pool and spa chemicals are primarily non-chlorine based specialty chemicals such as algaecides, clarifiers, fragrances and foam reducers. Our major pool and spa product lines include GLB Pool & Spa, which offers a comprehensive selection of pool and spa specialty chemicals and sanitizers under the GLB and Rendézvous brand names; Leisure Time, which offers a complete spa water care treatment line; and Robarb, which includes Super Blue, a leading water clarifier with over 30 years of history as a brand. In addition, our Applied Biochemists brand offers a full line of pool chemicals including specialty algaecides for service professionals and the Ultima brand offers several multi-function chemicals for consumers. We also manufacture private label brands for our customers.
Our surface water chemicals include copper-based algaecides and herbicides to control aquatic plant growth, dyes to control aquatic weed and algae growth, and a range of enzyme and microorganism blends for use in ponds, septic and waste water systems. Our surface water treatment product lines include Clearigate which is a patented, environmentally advanced herbicide developed to control nuisance aquatic vegetation especially for the agricultural irrigation market. Our Applied Biochemists brand of surface water treatment chemicals includes specialty algaecides and aquatic herbicides. Cutrine Plus and Cutrine Ultra are liquid algaecides, which can be used in a wide range of applications, and Aquashade is a line of aquatic dyes, which help to control aquatic plant growth in lakes and ponds. Several related formulations are repacked under our brand names to compliment the product line.
We believe that Water Treatment Chemicals is a leading pool and spa specialty chemicals producer in the United States. Other competitors include Arch Chemicals, Inc. and Biolab, Inc. In the surface water chemicals segment, competitors include Baker Hughes Incorporated and SePro Corporation. Some of our competitors are also customers in other product areas. Competition in these markets is mainly based on brand identity, technical competence, price and customer relationships. In addition, a number of the products in the water treatment chemicals market are subject to governmental environmental regulation, use permits and registration requirements, which can affect the ability of other manufacturers to offer competing products.
The majority of Water Treatment Chemicals sales are through distributors that then sell to mainly local or regional dealers. However, our surface water chemicals division often sells through distributors that sell directly to end users. We also sell directly to some of the larger pool and spa dealers. Pool and spa specialty chemicals customers include Keller Supply Company, Leslies Poolmart, Inc. and PoolCorp. Surface water customers include Cygnet Enterprises, Inc. and Helena Chemical Company. Each of these companies has been our customer for at least five years.
Titanium Dioxide Pigments (15% of 2006 net sales)
Our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment, which we acquired in the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition and which operates under the Sachtleben brand name, is a leading producer of high quality chemical products with a unique range of small inorganic particles that add significant value to customers products and reduce the cost of customers production processes. Titanium Dioxide Pigments comprises three business lines: (1) Titanium Dioxide; (2) Functional Additives; and (3) Water Chemistry. Our Titanium Dioxide
Pigments segment generated net sales of $441.1 million and $430.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Actual sales for the five months ended December 31, 2004 were $175.7 million and net sales were $422.0 million on a pro forma basis for the year ended December 31, 2004. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment.
Our Titanium Dioxide business line is a leading producer of specialty grade titanium dioxide (TiO2), serving a wide variety of customers in the synthetic fibers, plastics, paints, coatings, life sciences, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and paper industries. TiO2 is a fine white powder that derives its value from its unparalleled whitening strength and opacifying ability, which is commonly referred to as hiding power. Our Titanium Dioxide business lines principal products include TiO2 in anatase grade, TiO2 in rutile grade and titanium specialties. This business line also provides recycling services for sulfuric waste acid.
There are two ways of producing TiO2: the sulfate process and the chloride process. The chloride process permits production of only rutile TiO2 and is primarily suited for large volume production of standard TiO2 grades. The sulfate process is capable of producing both the rutile and anatase grade of TiO2. Approximately 58% of the globally installed TiO2 capacity uses the chloride process with the remaining using the sulfate process. Unlike rutile grades, anatase grades can only be made through the sulfate process. We employ the sulfate process for TiO2 production and thus, the output from approximately 58% of the globally installed TiO2 production capacity does not compete with our anatase products.
We believe that we have a competitive advantage in fiber anatase production and special sophisticated anatase applications based on our strong technological capabilities, long-term customer relationships and extensive test runs with regular monitoring of product and process parameters. Although it represents a negligible part of the fiber material cost, TiO2 application know-how and a longstanding application track record of homogeneous anatase crystals, both of which avoid production interruptions and excessive wear or breakdown of our customers equipment are critical to our customers. For over thirty years, we have worked closely with fiber producers on the optimization of their product and processes and as a result we have built up a significant wealth of customer-problem solution know-how. We intend to grow our Titanium Dioxide business line by focusing the rutile business on selected markets and applications and further developing our titanium specialties business. We expect this segment to benefit from sales of newly introduced nano-particle titanium dioxide pigments that are used to provide ultraviolet light protection for plastics and coatings.
TiO2 in Anatase Grade. We develop and manufacture high quality anatase TiO2 pigments. These pigments are sold primarily to the global synthetic fiber industry, as well as paper, food and pharmaceutical industries. We believe our anatase pigment, sold under the brand name Hombitan®, is a leading global selling TiO2 product for applications in the synthetic fiber industry.
TiO2 in Rutile Grade. We develop and manufacture rutile TiO2 pigments, which are mainly used in special applications such as selected coatings, paints, plastics and laminated paper production processes. In this product area, we are geographically focused on the European market. Rutile-based TiO2 pigments generally possess performance characteristics different from anatase-based pigments. Rutile-based pigments significantly improve the weatherability and durability of polymer products by providing protection against yellowing and preventing embrittlement of the material. Our rutile grades are state of the art products and are used in applications with high technical requirements.
Titanium Specialties. Our titanium specialties products primarily include nano-particles, which are exceptionally fine-particled, transparent and easy-to-use pigment formulations that are used across a large and diverse range of applications in small volumes. For example, the specialty grade TiO2 products are used as UV-absorbers in sun protection cosmetics. In addition, the new nano-particles form the basis for innovative wood-protection products and innovative color variations, by the paints and coatings industry. Other uses include catalysts, gas cleansing, photocatalysts and intermediates for special ceramics.
Recycling Services. We operate a waste acid recycling plant in Europe in our production facility in Duisburg, Germany. The sulfuric waste acid, which results from the production of TiO2, is recycled and used in the production process. This service is also offered to other TiO2 manufacturers in Europe, and we have a long-term contract with one of our competitors to provide this service.
Titanium Dioxides key competitors include: (1) Fuji Titanium Industry Co., Ltd. and Kronos Worldwide, Inc. for anatase-based TiO2;(2) DuPont Titanium Technologies, Millennium Chemicals, Inc., Tronox Corporation, Huntsman LLC, and Kemira oyj for rutilebased TiO2; (3) Kemira oyj, Tayca Corporation, Ishihara Corporation and Degussa for TiO2 specialties; and (4) captive capacity of manufacturers for recycling services. Competition in the markets in which Titanium Dioxide competes is generally based on technological capabilities, product quality, price in rutile grade and customer service.
Titanium Dioxides customers include leading manufacturers of paints, such as BASF Group and E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company; fibers, such as Nan Ya Plastics Corporation and Invista Inc.; plastic, such as Ampacet Corporation and Innovene; and paper, such as Munksjo AB and Papierfabrik August Koehler AG.
Our Functional Additives business line is a leading global manufacturer of barium-based and zinc-based inorganic fine white pigments and additives. The main function of these products is to improve brilliance of colors and shine of coatings, improve the mechanical strength of plastic parts and prevent degradation due to exposure to light. Our Functional Additives business line serves diverse end markets, including the plastics industry, the coatings industry and the pharmaceutical industry.
Barium-based Additives. We produce highly dispersed powders of barium sulfate and are the largest global producer of precipitated synthetic barium sulfates (Blanc Fixe). We provide a unique range of barium-based additives customized for applications in coatings, plastic, colorants, lubricants, PVC stabilizers and thermoplastics, fibers and paper to improve optical, chemical and mechanical properties. We also produce an X-ray-grade barium sulfate used as contrast agent in medical applications, such as X-rays for the stomach and intestine area. The barium-based products also include nano-particle barium sulfates, which are mainly used in coatings and plastics. Barium hydroxide grades are used as intermediates, including for the production of PVC stabilizers and as an additive in phenolic resin synthesis, including for the production of phenolic-resin-based plastics used for sanitary products and electrical insulations.
Zinc-based Additives. We believe we are also a leading producer of pure zinc sulfide pigments, mainly used in glass fiber reinforced plastic parts and coatings and a leading supplier of Lithopone, a white zinc sulfide pigment, which is used in plastics and coatings. Lithopone is manufactured by our Huali Sachtleben joint venture in Guangzhou, China.
Key competitors for barium-based additives include Solvay S.A., Gruppo Chimico Dalton S.p.A., Sakai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. and Chinese barium-producers. Key competitors for zinc-based additives include Chinese lithopone producers. Competition in the functional additives market is primarily based on application know-how, brand recognition, product quality and, to a certain extent, price.
Functional Additives customers include E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Ampacet Corporation, BASF Group, Akzo Nobel Coatings and A. Schulman Plastics.
We believe that our Water Chemistry business line is a leading manufacturer of polyaluminium chloride, or PAC, and polyaluminium nitrate-based flocculants in Europe. Flocculants are added to water to improve its purity before, during and after its use in industrial, commercial and municipal applications. PAC flocculants are widely used in public, industrial and swimming pool water treatment and as a process agent in the paper industry.
We believe we have achieved a strong market position in Europe due to our comprehensive customer service arrangements, well established brand names, competitive cost structure and innovative products. Customers in this market increasingly prefer full service offers, which include supply of water treatment chemicals together with services. Given this market trend, we believe that our ability to provide full services will help us maintain our market position. We also believe that demand for PAC flocculants will increase as a result of increased demand from the paper industry and moderate growth in public water treatment.
We believe that our Water Chemistry business line competes in a 190.0 million niche market for inorganic flocculants in Europe. The relevant market is characterized by production overcapacity and is geographically constrained to an approximately 300 mile radius around the production plant because the delivered product contains 80% to 90% water. Key competitors of this business line include Kemira Oyj, Feralco AB, TotalFina Elf and Israel Chemical Ltd.. Competition in the water chemistry market is primarily based on customer service, brand recognition and location.
Water Chemistrys customers include Sappi Limited, Akzo Nobel, Brenntag AG, LEIPA Georg Leinfelder GmbH, and Stora Ensooyj.
Advanced Ceramics (13% of 2006 net sales)
Our Advanced Ceramics segment was acquired in the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition and operates under the CeramTec brand name. We believe it is a leading global producer of high-performance advanced ceramics materials and products. Advanced Ceramics serves four principal end-markets: (1) medical; (2) electronics; (3) industrial; and (4) automotive, with strong market positions in various niche markets such as medical products, cutting tools and mechanical applications. Our Advanced Ceramics segment generated net sales of $389.6 million and $369.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2005, respectively. Actual net sales for the five month period ended December 31, 2004 were $146.3 million and net sales were $349.5 million on a pro forma basis for the year ended December 31, 2004. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Advanced Ceramics segment.
The global ceramics market comprises products and components based on inorganic, non-metallic, microcrystalline materials that are manufactured at high temperatures. The global ceramics market can be divided into traditional ceramics, such as bricks, tiles and white ware, and high-performance ceramics, which are ceramic materials and products optimized for special purposes. High performance ceramics have superior physical, electrical, chemical or biological properties as compared to traditional ceramics and competing materials, like metals or plastics. Accordingly, they have increasingly replaced plastics and metals as key engineering materials. We compete in the high-performance ceramics segment of the market, offering a wide range of high-performance ceramics products from sealing discs for sanitary fittings to ceramic components for hip joint prostheses. These products serve the markets needs for materials that are light, strong, corrosion-resistant and capable of performing in high-temperature environments.
High-performance ceramics materials include ceramic powders, ceramic additives, structural ceramics and functional ceramics. Ceramic powders and ceramic additives are inputs to the manufacturing processes of structural and functional ceramics. Structural ceramics, also called engineering ceramics, take advantage of the mechanical properties such as hardness and wear-resistance to produce load-bearing or engineered components. Due to their resistance to corrosion and heat properties, structural ceramics are also used to perform under special chemical conditions or at high temperatures. We believe that we are one of the leading suppliers in the structural ceramics market. Functional ceramics, also referred to as electronic ceramics, focus on the unique electrical and magnetic properties of ceramics. Ceramic applications in electronic components, such as integrated circuit packages, capacitors and transformers, account for the majority of todays high-performance ceramic materials. We believe that increasing demand for electronic components will continue to offer significant growth opportunities for high-performance ceramics, such as piezo ceramics. As a leading supplier of electronic ceramics materials, we believe we are well positioned to take advantage of these growth opportunities.
We believe that we have achieved success in the Advanced Ceramics segment as a result of our focus on selected segments of the high-performance ceramics market and our close customer relationships. Almost all of Advanced Ceramics products are made to order, taking into account specific customer requirements. In many cases, our engineers work in close cooperation with our customers during the design and development phase of new products to ensure highest quality and customer satisfaction. Through its extensive experience, Advanced Ceramics has gained detailed expertise and know-how in the applications areas it is active in.
Medical. We currently serve the medical applications market with two product groups: ceramic components for hip joint prostheses, such as ball heads and inserts; and ceramic glove formers for high-quality latex gloves. The ceramic components for hip joint prostheses are mainly supplied to orthopedic implant manufacturers in the United States and Europe. Besides their high wear resistance and good friction behavior, high-performance ceramics are biologically inert, making them one of the few materials that are durable and stable enough to withstand the corrosive effects of bodily fluids. As a result, we expect high-performance ceramics will increasingly become more common for medical applications, such as for repair and replacement of hips, knees and other human body parts.
We believe that ceramic-on-ceramic hip implants benefit from additional substitution effects as young people and more active elderly people are better suited to use ceramic implants, given their numerous attractive properties. Currently, the penetration rate for ceramic-on-ceramic hip-implants in Europe is significantly higher than in North America because the first FDA approval for ceramic-on-ceramic hip joint prostheses systems was granted only in 2003. However, given the relative superior performance and positive early acceptance levels in the United States, we expect the market for ceramic-on-ceramic hip joint prostheses systems to grow significantly in future years. We believe we are well positioned to take advantage of the growing market as we are currently the only manufacturer of ceramic-on-ceramic hip implant components used in FDA-approved hip joint prostheses systems in the United States to date. Given the difficulties and time involved in obtaining an FDA approval, we believe that we will be the sole supplier in the intermediate term. We also enjoy strong relationships with the largest U.S. and European orthopedics implant manufacturers. We are also expanding our focus to possible new applications in knee joint and intervertebral disc replacements.
Electronics. We develop and manufacture substrates, electrical resistor cores and ceramic tapes as carriers for electronic circuits. Substrates are ceramic plates with electrical, thermal and mechanical properties that serve as carriers in electronic applications. These
highly specialized products are used in a wide range of industries, such as automotive, consumer electronics, aeronautics and telecommunications industries. The demand for these products is driven, in large part, by the activity levels of the semiconductor market. We believe that the recovery of the semiconductor market, as well as a positive substitution effect for ceramic applications, will increase the demand for our products.
Cutting Tools. We develop and manufacture products used in cutting tools, tools and tooling systems. Ceramic material properties such as high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance make ceramics an excellent high-speed cutting tool material. We believe we are a leading supplier of ceramic cutting tools, tools and tooling systems for high speed processing in the automotive, metalworking and mechanical engineering industries, with automotive OEMs and their suppliers being our main customers. The longer life and faster cutting speeds possible with ceramic tools allow customers to save costs by increasing their throughput and reducing the downtimes for replacing the cutting tools.
Mechanical Applications and Systems. We also develop and manufacture high performance ceramic components that are used in mechanical applications and systems. Key product groups in mechanical applications include cutting blades, drawing and forming tools, drawing cones and capstans, guide elements, precision parts, preforms and friction discs. We primarily supply the general industrial, machinery, metalworking, automotive and textile industries with a large number of products customized to the customer requirements. Mechanical systems include products used in the sanitary fittings and automotive supplier industries in areas where fluids are pumped, compressed or stirred such as bushings, face seal rings, pump components and valve shims and discs. In June 2006, we acquired a business focused on the production of ceramic discs and cartridges for faucets.
Our customers are currently located mainly in Germany and other parts of Europe. However, we plan to expand our geographic reach. For example, we opened a new plant in China and plan to grow over the next five years by further penetrating the rapidly growing Asian market.
Other products. We also produce various products in other smaller niche markets. Some of these products are used for applications in certain niche markets with limited growth potential, such as electrical/thermal and ceramic metal connections. Other products, such as piezo ceramic components, are used for applications in certain niche markets with growth potential the next few years, primarily in the automotive sector.
Advanced Ceramics key competitors are Kyocera Corporation, CoorsTek, Inc., Saint Gobain, The Morgan Crucible Company plc and NGK Ceramics Europe S.A. However, each of these competitors has either a different geographical focus or product strategy with respect to small niche applications. Competition in the high performance ceramics market is primarily based on product quality, product specifications and customer service.
Advanced Ceramics key customers include Robert Bosch GmbH, Stryker Corporation, EPCOS AG, Siemens AG, De Puy Orthodics, Vishay Europe GmbH, Ideal Standard and Zimmer.
Specialty Compounds (8% of 2006 net sales)
Our Specialty Compounds segment develops and manufactures thermoplastic materials possessing specialized characteristics, such as fire and smoke retardance, reduced weight or barrier properties, which are tailored to the specific needs of each intended end-product. These products are grouped into several key end-product areas: wire and cable, consumer performance products, medical applications and regulated packaging. Our Specialty Compounds segment had net sales of $251.0 million, $237.5 million and $200.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Specialty Compounds segment.
Our Specialty Compounds segment focuses on sales of high margin products and operates as a global specialty performance plastic compounding business. We developed and commercialized SmokeGuard, our specialty compound for use in high-end data and video communication wire and cable, which must meet stringent fire retardant and low smoke generation standards. We also developed a compound for beverage closure seals and caps. This compound prevents ozone from attacking the seal and does not affect the taste of water and carbonated beverages, therefore significantly increasing the shelf life of these beverages. We also focus on thermoplastic elastomer, or TPE, compounds in our consumer performance and automotive products areas. A recent success in the TPE area was the development and successful commercialization of a synthetic wine-cork material. In addition to our product offerings, we provide strong, comprehensive customer service and technical expertise by developing innovative products to satisfy our customers unique needs.
We have invested in next generation plastic compounding technologies, including the development of fluoropolymer materials and the improvement of our production of zero halogen materials. Specialty Compounds is also working closely with our Clay-based Additives business to create a patented composite material that exhibits superior flame retardancy for wire and cable jacketing and
Wire and Cable Compounds. We develop and manufacture low-smoke vinyl alloys, such as SmokeGuard, which are used in high-end data and video communication, fiber optic and fire alarm wire and cable; halogen-free plastics, such as Sentra, which are used in industrial, aerospace, shipboard or oil rig cables as well as in communication cables; and a variety of TPE compounds, such as Garaflex, which are used in flexible cords, tray cables, booster cables, welding cables and automotive wiring. We believe that there is significant growth potential for the wire and cable product line in Europe as a result of the evolution of a common market standard with higher specifications for wire and cable compounds. Unlike in North America, European wire and cable standards dictating certain safety specifications such as fire and smoke resistance have not yet been enacted. However, we anticipate that European legislation mandating specific guidelines for wire and cable will be implemented within the next several years, providing significant new market opportunities for the SmokeGuard and Sentra product lines. In October 2006, we acquired the Megolon division of Scapa Group, plc. Megolon is the tradename for a variety of halogen-free wire and cable products and is the leading brand name for such products in Europe.
Consumer Performance Products. We develop and manufacture custom-made plastic compounds for use in products such as moldings, sealing gaskets, tool handles, writing instruments and ladder feet as well as other TPE-based products. Our product line includes Garaflex, Garaflex V, Garaflex E, GE Series and GM Series. We have also developed a soft-touch compound, Evoprene, that is currently undergoing approval processes for a number of applications, including seals for consumer storage devices. We also develop and manufacture compounds for interior and exterior automotive applications such as airbag covers, steering wheel covers, gear shift knobs and boots, handle grips, body side molding and window gaskets. In addition, we develop and manufacture a broad range of compounds for unit soles, uppers, mid-soles, slippers and heels for the diverse requirements of the footwear market. The applications include industrial boots, deck shoes, casual dress shoes, snow boots, slippers and athletic wear.
Medical Applications Compounds. We develop and manufacture a series of high-quality polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, compounds which are used to manufacture products such as tubing, disposable masks, and extraction resistant compounds used to make products to handle blood and bodily fluids.
Regulated Packaging. Under the Alphaseal trademark, we develop and manufacture specialty closure materials for soft drinks, beer, bottled water, juice, and other beverage applications which have proven their performance, including purity in taste and odor, consistency in the force needed to remove the closures, reliable carbonation retention, and performance on a variety of molding machine types in various applications.
Specialty Compounds key competitors are Advanced Elastomers Systems, L.P., Colorite Plastics Co., DS Chemie GmbH, European Vinyls Corporation, Georgia Gulf Corporation, Norsk Hydro ASA, PolyOne Corporation, Teknor Apex Company and W.R. Grace & Co., most of which serve only a subset of Specialty Compounds markets. We believe that only Teknor Apex is active in all of Specialty Compounds markets. Competition in Specialty Compounds occurs primarily on the basis of quality, product innovation and the ability to meet demanding customer and regulatory specifications.
Specialty Compounds sells products to a wide range of customers. Its major customers include Alcoa Inc., Belden/CDT Inc., BerkTek Consolidated, Coleman Worldwide Corporation, CommScope/Systimax, Inc., Corning Incorporated and Judd Wire Inc. Each of these companies has been our customer for at least ten years.
Electronics (7% of 2006 net sales)
We supply our customers in the semiconductor and printed circuit board industries with chemicals used in the manufacture of semiconductors and printed circuit boards from our Electronic Chemicals business line, photo-imaging masks from our Photomasks business line, and silicon wafer refurbishment services from our Wafer Reclaim business line. Our Electronics segment generated net sales of $208.9 million, $181.8 million and $168.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively. See Note 4, Segment Information, for additional financial information regarding our Electronics segment.
Our Electronic Chemicals business line is a producer of high purity process chemicals, used in the manufacture of semiconductors, with market positions in Europe and Singapore, as well as chemicals used by printed circuit board manufacturers and photomask manufacturers, with market positions in the United States and Taiwan. In addition, we expanded our manufacturing capabilities for printed circuit board chemicals in China to enable us to supply this expanding market. We also offer related outsourcing services to manage the process chemical needs of semiconductor manufacturers. Electronic Chemicals key products include acids, bases,
solvents and mixtures used principally for cleaning and etching silicon wafers and printed circuit boards.
Electronic Chemicals bundles high-quality tailor-made formulations and patented products with technical service and strong systems capabilities. These characteristics also enable us to offer our customers a service we call total chemicals management, through which we are able to manage a customers supply of electronic process chemicals, including chemicals supplied by third parties, and related logistics.
Printed Circuit Board Chemicals. We develop and manufacture chemicals for the printed circuit board industry, such as oxide treatments, electroplating additives, etching technology, electroless copper processes, Co-Bra Bond, the newer oxide replacement technology and a proprietary direct metallization process known as Shadow.
High Purity Chemicals. We develop and manufacture a wide range of ultra-pure chemicals used in the manufacture of electronic and computer components such as semiconductors, silicon chips, wafers, and liquid crystal displays. These products include chemicals used to remove controlled portions of silicon and metal, cleaning solutions, photoresist strippers, which control the application of certain light-sensitive chemicals, edge bead removers, which aid in the uniform application of other chemicals, and solvents.
Photomask Chemicals. We also develop and manufacture a broad range of chemicals used in the manufacture of photomasks. Like the high purity chemicals, these products are subject to strict purity specifications, although these specifications are generally not as stringent as those for our high purity chemicals.
Electronic Chemicals Services. We provide a range of analytical, logistical and development support services to the semiconductor industry. These include total chemicals management, primarily offered in Singapore, under which we manage our clients entire electronic process chemicals operations including providing logistics services, development of application-specific chemicals, analysis and control of customers chemical distribution systems and quality audit and control of all inbound chemicals, including third party products.
Key competitors in printed circuit board chemicals are Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Cookson Group plc, MacDermid Incorporated, Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials (Shipley). Key competitors in high purity chemicals include Honeywell International, Inc., Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., BASF Group, Kanto Corporation, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation and Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. The key competitor in photomask chemicals is Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Competition in this market is based mainly on customer service, product quality and technological advancements.
We supply our electronic chemicals and related services to semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturers, including Compeq Manufacturing Co. and Motorola, Inc. Both of these companies have been our customers for at least ten years.
We manufacture photomasks both in Europe and North America under the Compugraphics brand name. Photomasks are a key enabling technology to the semiconductor and integrated circuit industries, and perform a function similar to that of a negative in conventional photography.
We believe that Photomasks has achieved its success through its technical abilities and product quality, as well as through customer service and its low cost base. We have achieved high standards of specification, quality, delivery and manufacturing efficiency through our use of statistical process control and other advanced manufacturing techniques. Our business strategy and technology are targeted on mainstream semiconductor manufacturing.
We manufacture photomasks, which are used as master images to transfer integrated circuit detail onto semiconductor wafers during the fabrication of integrated circuits and other types of electronic components, such as thin film magnetic recording heads and optoelectronic devices. All sizes of photomask (e.g., image of the wafer) and reticle (e.g., image of one or more die) are produced in the range from three inches to seven inches. We can produce both traditional chrome (binary) and embedded attenuated phase shift masks. In addition, we refurbish and replace pellicles on photomasks manufactured by us and other photomask manufacturers.
Photomasks competes primarily with Toppan Photomasks, Inc. and Photronics, Inc. Competition occurs primarily on the basis of technical specification, product quality, delivery performance, price and customer service and support.
Photomasks customer base includes many major semiconductor manufacturers such as Analog Devices, Philips Semiconductors and Freescale, Inc., most of which have been our customers for more than ten years.
Our Wafer Reclaim business line is a provider of semiconductor wafer refurbishment services with market positions in
Europe and during 2006, the United States. Silicon wafers that have been used to monitor or test semiconductor manufacturing processes are generally reclaimed and reused as test pieces. We estimate that three out of every ten wafers used in an established semiconductor manufacturing facility are test wafers.
We work with semiconductor manufacturers to refurbish used test wafers and return them to the manufacturer for reuse in test and process monitor applications.
In 2005, we announced a restructuring plan, which included closing our Riddings, U.K. and Providence, Rhode Island facilities. These two facilities were closed in the first quarter of 2006 and our customer base was successfully transferred to our Greasque, France and Prescott, Arizona facilities. In February 2007, we completed the sale of our United States Wafer Reclaim business.
Wafer Reclaim does not manufacture products, but rather is a service business that refurbishes used wafers for global semiconductor manufacturers and returns them for reuse in the testing process. We clean and inspect the wafers, restore surfaces, and remove film from the wafer surface in order to improve the performance of the wafer. We have the ability to reclaim 4 (100mm), 5 (125mm), 6 (150mm), and 8 (200mm) wafers.
Wafer Reclaims primary competitors include Hamada Heavy Industries Limited, Kobe Precision Inc., Mimasu Semiconductor Industry Co. Ltd., Rasa Industries Limited, and Pure Wafer PLC. We also compete to a degree with manufacturers of virgin test wafers. The primary bases of competition for this business line are quality of service and price.
Wafer Reclaims customers include most of the major semiconductor producers including Atmel Corporation, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., International Rectifier Corporation, Philips Semiconductors, and Tower Semiconductor Ltd. Each of these companies has been our customer for at least ten years.
We purchase raw materials and chemical intermediates from a large number of third parties. We have a broad raw material base, with the cost of no single raw material representing more than 3% of our cost of products sold in 2006. Raw materials constituted approximately 53% of our 2006 cost of products sold. The table below lists the ten most significant raw materials in 2006 and the principal products for which the materials were used.
Titanium-bearing slag, our largest raw material (in terms of dollars), is the most important raw material used in the production of specialty grade titanium dioxide in our Titanium Dioxide business line of our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment. We purchase Titanium-bearing slag primarily from two suppliers under long-term contracts.
As a result of the conversion from CCA to ACQ, in 2005 our principal raw materials for our Timber Treatment Chemical business in our Performance Additives segment shifted from chromic acid to quaternary amines, solvents and copper. In our Timber Treatment Chemical business, we predominately source quaternary amines under a contract that expires in late 2008, with automatic annual renewals subject to termination by either party. We source monoethanolamine used in our Timber Treatment Chemical business from two suppliers under contracts that expire in December 2008, subject to automatic annual renewals except where terminated by either party, and December 2010. Prices under our solvent and quaternary amine contracts are tied to the ethylene price index. We source copper, which is a commodity, from several sources. Prices for our copper purchases are tied to market conditions. However, we expect the commercialization of next generation wood protection products to reduce our exposure to copper prices.
In the Specialty Chemicals segment, zinc and zinc oxide are purchased from a few suppliers in Europe and the United States and we have not experienced any supply shortages. Prices for these purchases are tied to market conditions and have been at historical high levels in 2006. In the Titanium Dioxide segment, zinc is used to produce zinc-based pigments and is purchased from a number of suppliers under long-term contracts. In the Performance Additives segment, zinc oxide is used in the production of tan iron oxide and zinc phosphate. There are no long-term zinc purchase contracts.
Historically, we have received iron oxide from multiple sources and have not experienced any significant supply shortages. Iron oxide is primarily sourced from our plants in the United States, Italy and China, as well as from third parties in China.
In our Clay-based Additives business line of our Performance Additives segment, quaternary amine is sourced under a long-term contract, which expires in late 2008 and is subject to quarterly adjustment for the price of tallow, the base component of quaternary amine.
In our Specialty Compounds segment, we use AOM to promote fire retardancy in certain wire and cable products. AOM is supplied under a contract with a fixed price that expires in December 2007. Some of the plasticizers we use in our Specialty Compounds segment are generic and considered a commodity product, while others are specific and considered a specialty product. Our supply contracts for plasticizers do not specify a fixed price, and most of them contain market price and discount adjustments. PVC resin is a commodity product used in our Specialty Compounds segment and its pricing is directly related to the price of ethylene and chlorine, as well as PVC industry operating rates and energy prices.
In addition, Lithium brine is a primary raw material source for all lithium chemicals and is found in only a small number of locations, including most significantly for us, the Atacama Desert in Chile. We have a long-term contract with the Chilean government to mine lithium brine in the Atacama Desert in Chile, which we believe provides a secure long-term access to lithium. Tight supplies in the global market and unfavorable weather conditions at the lithium ponds in Chile in early 2006 led to shortages in lithium salts as a raw material and customer demand for lithium carbonate was not completely satisfied.
Major requirements for our key raw materials and energy are typically satisfied pursuant to contractual agreements and medium- or long-term relationships with suppliers. We are not generally dependent on any one supplier for a major part of our raw material requirements, but certain important raw materials are obtained from a few major suppliers. In general, where we have limited sources of raw materials, we have developed contingency plans to minimize the effect of any interruption or reduction in supply, such as sourcing from different facilities and multiple suppliers and utilizing alternative formulations.
Temporary shortages of raw materials may occasionally occur and cause temporary price increases. In recent years, these shortages have not resulted in unavailability of raw materials. However, the continuing availability and price of raw materials are affected by unscheduled plant interruptions occurring during periods of high demand, domestic and world market and political conditions, as well as the direct or indirect effect of governmental regulations. During periods of high demand, our raw materials are subject to significant price fluctuations, and, in the past, such fluctuations have had an adverse impact on the results of operations of our business. For example, the price of copper reached record highs in 2006. The impact of any future raw material shortages on our business as a whole or in specific geographic regions cannot be accurately predicted.
Our business is dependent to a large extent on our intellectual property rights, including patents and other intellectual property, trademarks and trade secrets. We believe that our intellectual property rights play an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets we serve. We rely on technological know-how and formulation and application expertise in many of our manufacturing processes in order to develop and maintain our market positions. Where appropriate, we protect our new technology, applications and manufacturing processes by seeking patent protection. We have more than 2,000 patents and patent applications in key strategic markets worldwide, reflecting our commitment to invest in technology and covering many aspects of our products and processes for making those products. We also own and register in multiple jurisdictions numerous trade names and marks applicable to our business and products, which we believe are important to our business. In addition, we have entered into agreements, pursuant to which we license intellectual property from third parties for use in our business and we license certain intellectual property to third parties. For example, we developed the technology to produce ACQ pursuant to an exclusive license
agreement with the right to sublicense from Domtar Inc. Under the term of the license, our Timber Treatment Chemicals business of our Performance Additives segment pays a royalty to Domtar based upon the percent of net sales less certain costs. The license agreement expires in May 2007 in connection with the expiration of the patent and may be terminated by either party upon a material breach of the other party and the failure to cure. We also develop intellectual property with third parties as discussed below in Research and Development.
Research and Development
We are committed to further investing in our asset base and research effort. Our research and development costs were approximately 1% of our net sales in 2006. We incur certain expenses related to modifications and improvements in current products. In addition, we believe we allocate our research and development resources selectively based on the need and requirements for each business line to develop innovative products. Research and development costs are charged to expense, as incurred. Such costs were $41.5 million, $43.5 million and $19.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005 and 2004, respectively. The 2004 amount includes only five months of costs of $8.9 million from the Dynamit Nobel businesses acquired on July 31, 2004.
The objective of our research and development effort is to develop innovative chemistries and technologies with applications relevant within targeted key markets. Research and development efforts are generally focused on both process development, which is the stage at which products move from development to manufacturing, and new product development. Each business line, however, also has selected long-term strategic projects with the aim to develop new competencies and technologies.
Each of our business lines manages its own research and development effort and has separate research and development facilities dedicated to its specific area. However, where technologically applicable, advances and findings are shared between business lines to foster greater cross-fertilization of ideas and applications.
In certain cases, we conduct research and development efforts with third parties, including universities, customers and other entities. We endeavor to obtain ownership of or license on terms favorable to us the intellectual property developed with a third party.
There is a seasonal effect on a portion of our sales due to the end-use of some of our products. In our Water Treatment Chemicals business line of our Performance Additives segment, it is industry standard practice to offer significantly extended payment terms to customers prepared to purchase their spring and early summer requirements in the fourth quarter of the previous year. Following this pattern, the fourth quarter customarily includes large sales and shipments although the associated cash payments are not received until the second quarter of the following year. In addition, our Color Pigments and Services and Timber Treatment Chemicals business lines of our Performance Additives segment show some seasonality related to the outdoor construction market. As such, the first quarter has historically been the quarter where we experience the lowest sales. Also, along with the accounts receivable build in the first quarter discussed above, during this quarter we typically build inventory for the pool and spa business, as well as our construction related businesses, in anticipation of increased sales during the spring and summer months. Thus, the first quarter is usually the quarter with the highest working capital requirements for us. Other than these seasonal trends in certain end-use markets, our overall results of operations tend to show few seasonal effects.
The following table presents net sales based on geographic area (attributed based on sellers location):
The significant increase in net sales in 2005 from 2004 is primarily due to the acquisitions made in 2004. See Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for further details.
The following table presents our long-lived assets located in the regions indicated:
Sales and Marketing
We sell our products and services globally. We sell our products and services primarily by using our direct sales forces, although we also sell through distributors in certain of our business lines, such the as Color Pigments and Services, Clay-based Additives and Water Treatment Chemicals of our Performance Additives segment and the Electronic Chemicals business line of our Electronics segment or by using third party sales representatives. Each of our direct sales forces is responsible for marketing only one of our business lines, and is administered pursuant to policies established by the management of that business line. Within each business line, these direct sales forces are organized based on geographic regions, end-use applications or sub-business divisions within the business line. As of February 28, 2007, our in-house sales forces consisted of approximately 1,650 personnel worldwide.
Our direct sales forces interact with our customers to provide both purchasing advice and technical assistance. In general, our sales forces arrange and coordinate contact between our customers and our research and development or technical personnel to provide quality control and new product solutions. In certain of our businesses, such as the Surface Treatment and Fine Chemicals business lines of our Specialty Chemicals segment, most sales managers have a chemical engineering background with advanced degrees and significant technical experience in applying our products, and they play a critical role in developing client relationships and acquiring new clients. Our close interaction with our customers and tailored solutions have allowed us to develop and maintain strong customer relationships as well as focus our sales efforts on those customers who we believe will provide us with higher profit margins in recognition of our superior products, service and technical support.
Sales in each of our business lines are generally made on a purchase order basis. However, longer-term arrangements have been established with certain key customers.
Our marketing strategy is generally aimed at working directly with customers to gauge the success of our products, evaluate the need for improvements in product and process technology, and identify opportunities to develop new product solutions for our customers and their end-use markets. We also use media activities and lectures and participate in tradeshows as part of our sales and marketing effort.
Our Advanced Ceramics segment and to a lesser extent, our Specialty Chemicals segment, are also subject to regulation by the FDA with respect to certain products we produce, including pharmaceutical intermediates and ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components used in hip joint prostheses systems. Foreign, state, local and other authorities also may regulate us and our products. Regulatory agencies have established requirements that apply to the design, manufacture and marketing of pharmaceutical and medical device products. We sell our pharmaceutical intermediates and ceramic-on-ceramic components to other companies that also may be regulated by such authorities.
Premarket Approval. While we are not required to seek FDA approvals for our pharmaceutical intermediates, the customers to whom we supply such products may be subject to FDA approval requirements prior to testing a new drug on humans as well as marketing a new drug for commercial use in the United States. Our customers with FDA approval for the finished drug may also be required to obtain FDA approval of design, manufacturing or labeling changes to the pharmaceutical intermediates used in their finished products.
Medical devices also are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA prior to commercial distribution in the United States, including premarket approval, or PMA, which is required for devices deemed to pose the greatest risk and certain other devices. Our Advanced Ceramics segment currently supplies ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components to manufacturers for incorporation into their total hip prostheses systems, which are subject to the FDAs PMA requirements. In addition, our Advanced Ceramics business or our customers who have obtained PMA approval may be required to obtain FDA approval for changes to the design, manufacturing or labeling of our ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components. Also, any other medical devices which our Advanced Ceramics segment seeks to produce in the future, such as knee replacement products, would likely require FDA approval.
Compliance Requirements. Once on the market, drug manufacturers and medical device manufacturers are subject to numerous postmarket regulations.
Finished device manufacturers such as our customers who manufacture hip prostheses systems are subject to the FDAs Quality
System Regulation, or QSR, which requires quality assurance practices and procedures that address, among other things: management responsibility, audits and training; design controls; purchasing controls; identification and traceability of components; production and process controls; acceptance activities; handling of nonconforming product; the initiation of corrective and preventive actions; labeling and packaging controls; handling, storage and distribution of products; and complaint handling and record keeping. The FDA does not directly require component suppliers of finished medical devices to comply with the QSR. However, because our ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components are critical elements of hip joint prostheses systems, our customers may require us to comply with some or all of the QSR. Moreover, the FDA may in the future take the position that the types of components that we supply meet the definition of a finished device and are thus subject to the QSR. Our current contracts with our customers of ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components require us to comply or assist our customers in complying with various FDA regulatory requirements.
The FDAs inspectional authority extends to component suppliers. Pursuant to this authority, the FDA has the ability to conduct inspections at our facilities at which we manufacture our ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components.
If we or our customers violate FDA or other governmental regulatory requirements during either the pre- or post-marketing stages, there may be various adverse consequences. For example, in the United States, the FDA has the authority to impose: fines, injunctions, and civil penalties; recall or seizure of products; operating or import restrictions, partial suspension or total shutdown of production; the FDAs delay in granting approval or refusal to grant approval of new products; or withdrawal of the submission or the approved product from the market.
Safety, Health and Environmental Matters
See Note 21, Commitments and Contingencies, for a discussion of our safety, health and environmental matters.
As of February 28, 2007, we had approximately 9,525 employees, with 66% located in Europe, 21% in the United States and the remaining 13% located in the rest of the world. Of our employees, approximately 3,000, or 31%, are subject to either collective bargaining agreements or other similar arrangements.
We observe local customs, legislation and practice in labor relations and, where applicable, in negotiating collective bargaining agreements. Management believes that its relations with employees and their representatives are good. We have not suffered any material work stoppages or strikes in our worldwide operations in the last five years.
Rockwood Holdings, Inc. files annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). You may read and copy any documents we file at the SECs public reference room at Room 1580, 100 F Street, N.E., Washington D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for information on the public reference room. The SEC maintains a website that contains annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information that issuers file electronically with the SEC. The SECs website is www.sec.gov.
The Companys website is www.rocksp.com. We have made available, free of charge through our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, and will make available our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act) as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.
You should carefully consider these risk factors in evaluating our business. In addition to the following risks, there may also be risks that we do not yet know of or that we currently think are immaterial that may also affect our business. If any of the following risks occur, our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition could be adversely affected.
Substantial LeverageOur available cash and access to additional capital may be limited by our substantial leverage.
We are highly leveraged and have significant debt service obligations. As of December 31, 2006, we had $2,838.7 million of indebtedness outstanding and total stockholders equity of $1,120.5 million. This high level of indebtedness could have important negative consequences to us and you, including:
· we may have difficulty obtaining financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes;
· we will need to use a substantial portion of our available cash flow to pay interest and principal on our debt, which will
reduce the amount of money available to finance our operations and other business activities;
· some of our debt, including borrowings under the senior secured credit facilities, have variable rates of interest, which will expose us to the risk of increased interest rates;
· our debt level increases our vulnerability to general economic downturns and adverse industry conditions;
· our debt level could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and in our industry in general;
· our substantial amount of debt and the amount we need to pay to service our debt obligations could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
· our failure to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants in our debt instruments which, among other things, require us to maintain specified financial ratios and limit our ability to incur debt and sell assets, could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could cause our lenders to terminate commitments under our debt agreements, declare all amounts, including accrued interest, due and payable, and enforce their rights in respect of collateral.
Our cash interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2006 was $193.2 million. At December 31, 2006, we had $1,771.4 million of variable rate debt. After including the notional amounts of variable to fixed interest rate swaps, the variable amount was $411.2 million. A 1% increase in the average interest rate would increase future interest expense by approximately $4.1 million per year. As of December 31, 2006, our debt service for 2007, which represents expected principal payments of our long-term debt and estimated scheduled cash interest payments, was expected to be $322.2 million. See Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsLiquidity and Capital ResourcesLiquidityContractual Obligations for years beyond 2007.
Additional Borrowings AvailableDespite our substantial leverage, we and our subsidiaries will be able to incur more indebtedness. This could further exacerbate the risks described above, including our ability to service our indebtedness.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. Although our indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary, Rockwood Specialties Group, Inc.s (Group or Groups) senior secured credit facilities and the indentures governing the 2011 Notes and the 2014 Notes contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, such restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and under certain circumstances indebtedness incurred in compliance with such restrictions could be substantial. As of December 31, 2006, the revolving credit facility under the senior secured credit facilities provided for additional borrowings of up to $186.5 million, after giving effect to $26.5 million of letters of credit issued on our behalf and outstanding borrowings of $37.0 million under the revolving credit facility. In addition, the term loans and the availability under the revolving credit facility under the senior secured credit facilities may be increased by up to $250.0 million in aggregate, subject to certain exemptions and provided that Group procures lender commitments for such increase. To the extent new debt is added to our debt levels, the substantial leverage risks described above would increase.
Restrictive Covenants in Our Debt InstrumentsOur debt instruments contain a number of restrictive covenants which may limit our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or engage in other business activities that may be in our interest.
Groups senior secured credit agreement and indentures governing the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes impose, and the terms of any future indebtedness may impose, operating and other restrictions on us. Such restrictions will affect, and in many respects limit or prohibit, among other things, our ability to take certain actions. See Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsLiquidity and Capital Resources section for further details. In addition, Groups senior secured credit facilities also require us to achieve certain financial and operating results and maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to comply with these ratios may be affected by events beyond our control. The restrictions and financial covenants contained in Groups senior secured credit agreement and indentures governing the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes could adversely affect our ability to finance our operations, acquisitions, investments or strategic plans or other capital needs or to engage in other business activities that would be in our interest.
A breach of any of these covenants or our inability to comply with the required financial ratios could result in a default under the senior secured credit facilities and/or the indentures. If an event of default occurs under the senior secured credit facilities, which includes an event of default under the indentures governing the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes, the lenders could elect to:
· declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest, to be immediately due and payable;
· require us to apply all of our available cash to repay the borrowings; or
· prevent us from making debt service payments on the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes;
any of which would result in an event of default under the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes. The lenders will also have the right in these circumstances to terminate any commitments they have to provide further financing. If we were unable to repay or otherwise refinance these borrowings when due, our lenders could sell the collateral securing the senior secured credit facilities, which constitutes substantially all of our and our subsidiaries assets.
Risks Associated with AcquisitionsWe may not be able to successfully integrate acquisitions we may make in the future.
The process of combining or acquiring businesses with Rockwood involves risks. We may face difficulty completing the integration of the new operations, technologies, products and services of acquisitions or combinations, and may incur unanticipated expenses related to those integrations. The difficulties of combining operations may be magnified by integrating personnel with differing business backgrounds and corporate cultures. Failure to successfully manage and integrate acquisitions with our existing operations could lead to the potential loss of customers of the acquired business, the potential loss of employees who may be vital to the new operations, the potential loss of business opportunities or other adverse consequences that could affect our financial condition and results of operations. Even if integration occurs successfully, failure of any future acquisition or combination to achieve levels of anticipated sales growth, profitability or productivity comparable with those achieved by our existing operations, or otherwise not perform as expected, may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Net LossWe have experienced losses in the past and may experience losses in the future and cannot be certain that our net operating loss carryforwards will continue to be available to offset our tax liability.
We have incurred net losses in the past (e.g., a net loss of $216.1 million was incurred in 2004) and we may incur net losses in the future. We may not generate cash flow sufficient to meet debt service obligations and other capital requirements, such as working capital and maintenance capital expenditures.
As of December 31, 2006, we had deferred tax assets of $164.4 million related to worldwide net operating loss carryforwards. Additionally at December 31, 2006 we had a total valuation allowance of $100.1 million. If our operating performance deteriorates in the future in certain tax jurisdictions, we may be unable to realize these net operating loss carryforwards and we may be required to record an additional valuation allowance.
Currency FluctuationsBecause a significant portion of our operations is conducted in foreign currencies, fluctuations in currency exchange rates may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations and may affect the comparability of our results between financial periods.
Our operations are conducted by subsidiaries in many countries. The results of their operations and financial condition are reported in the local currency and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable exchange rates for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. The exchange rates between some of these currencies and the dollar in recent years have fluctuated significantly and may continue to do so in the future. As a result of the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition, a significantly larger portion of our net sales and cost of products sold is now denominated in euros. Approximately 48% of our 2006 net sales were derived from subsidiaries whose local currency is the euro. This increases the impact of the fluctuation of the euro against the U.S. dollar.
Furthermore, because a portion of our debt is denominated in euros,
which as of December 31, 2006 equaled an aggregate of
We may not be able to effectively manage our currency translation and/or transaction risks and volatility in currency exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on the carrying value of our debt and results of operations.
Regulation of Our Raw Materials, Products and FacilitiesOur business could be adversely affected by regulation to which our raw materials, products and facilities are subject.
Some of the raw materials we handle, and our products and facilities, are subject to government regulation. These regulations affect the manufacturing processes, uses and applications of our products.
In addition, some of our subsidiaries products contain raw materials, such as arsenic pentoxide, carbon disulfide, lithium carbonate, tetrahydrofuran, copper, chromic acid, silica, zinc chromate and lead, that are deemed hazardous materials in certain situations. The use of these materials is regulated and some of these regulations require product registrations, which also are subject to renewal and potential revocation. These regulations may affect our ability to market certain chemicals we produce.
There is also a risk that other key raw materials or one or more of our products may be found to have, or be recharacterized as having, a toxicological or health-related impact on the environment or on our customers or employees. If such a discovery or recharacterization occurs, the relevant materials, chemicals or products, including products of our customers incorporating our materials or chemicals, may be recalled or banned or we may incur increased costs in order to comply with new regulatory requirements. Change in regulations, or their interpretation, may also affect the marketability of certain of our products.
Manufacturing HazardsHazards associated with chemical manufacturing could adversely affect our results of operations.
Due to the nature of our business, we are exposed to the hazards associated with chemical manufacturing and the related storage and transportation of raw materials, products and wastes in our manufacturing facilities or our distribution centers, such as fires, explosions and accidents. These hazards could lead to an interruption or suspension of operations and have an adverse effect on the productivity and profitability of a particular manufacturing facility or on our company as a whole. Other hazards include piping and storage tank leaks and ruptures, mechanical failure, employee exposure to hazardous substances, chemical spills and other discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases and inclement weather and natural disasters.
These hazards may cause personal injury and loss of life, damage to property and contamination of the environment, which could lead to government fines or work stoppage injunctions and lawsuits by injured persons. For example, our subsidiaries were named as defendants in a wrongful death suit filed by the family of an employee who was fatally injured in an accident in our Clay-based Additives facility in Gonzales, Texas. While we are unable to predict the outcome of this case and other such cases, if determined adversely to us, we may not have adequate insurance to cover such claims and, if not, we may not have sufficient cash flow to pay for such claims. Such outcomes could adversely affect our customer goodwill, cash flow and results of operations.
Raw MaterialsFluctuations in costs of our raw materials or, our access to supplies of our raw materials could adversely affect our results of operations.
Although no single raw material represented more than 3% of our cost of products sold in 2006, raw material costs generally account for a high percentage of our total costs of products sold. In 2006, raw materials constituted approximately 53% of our cost of products sold. We generally purchase raw materials based on supply agreements linked to market prices and therefore our results of operations are subject to short-term fluctuations in raw materials prices. These fluctuations limit our ability to accurately forecast future raw material costs and hence our profitability.
Many of the raw materials we use are commodities, and the price of each can fluctuate widely for a variety of reasons, including changes in availability, major capacity additions or reductions or significant facility operating problems. Historically, there have been some price increases we have not been able to pass through to our customers. This trend may continue in the future.
In addition, titanium-bearing slag used in our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment is our largest raw material (in terms of dollars) and is sourced primarily from two suppliers. If one of our suppliers is unable to meet its obligations under our present supply agreement or we are unable to enter into new supply arrangements on competitive terms when our existing short-term supply arrangements expire, we may be forced to pay higher prices to obtain these necessary raw materials. Furthermore, certain of our raw materials, such as cesium and lithium salts, are sourced from countries where political, economic and social conditions may be subject to instability. In addition, one of our raw materials, lithium brine, requires a period of gestation before it can be used to produce lithium compounds. In the event there is an increase in market demand for lithium products, or unfavorable weather conditions at the lithium ponds, as we experienced in early 2006, we may not be able to respond to such market demand on a timely basis. Any interruption of supply or any price increase of raw materials could result in our inability to meet demand for our products, loss of customer goodwill and higher costs of producing our products.
Energy CostsFluctuations in energy costs could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Energy purchases in 2006 constituted approximately 5% of Rockwoods cost of products sold. Fluctuations in the price of energy limit
our ability to accurately forecast future energy costs and consequently our profitability. For example, natural gas prices were volatile and continued to increase in North America in 2006, due in part to global political conditions and weather conditions. In contrast, natural gas prices in Europe, where our Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment is located, have historically been relatively stable. Rising energy costs may also increase our raw material costs. If energy prices fluctuate significantly, our business, in particular, our Titanium Dioxide segment, or results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, rising energy costs also negatively impact our customers and the demand for our products. These risks will be heightened if our customers or production facilities are in locations experiencing severe energy shortages.
Environmental, Health and Safety RegulationCompliance with extensive environmental, health and safety laws could require material expenditures or changes in our operations.
Our operations are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety laws and regulations at national, international and local levels in numerous jurisdictions. In addition, our production facilities and a number of our distribution centers require operating permits that are subject to renewal and, in some circumstances, revocation. The nature of the chemicals industry exposes us to risks of liability under these laws and regulations due to the production, storage, transportation, disposal and sale of chemicals and materials that can cause contamination or personal injury if released into the environment. In 2006, our capital expenditures for safety, health and environmental matters (SHE) were approximately $35.3 million. For 2007, we estimate capital expenditures for compliance with SHE laws to be at similar levels. We may be materially impacted in the future by the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, or REACH, program proposed by the EU, which requires compliance beginning in June 2007.
Compliance with environmental laws generally increases the costs of registration/approval requirements, the costs of transportation and storage of raw materials and finished products, as well as the costs of the storage and disposal of wastes, and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. We may incur substantial costs, including fines, damages, criminal or civil sanctions and remediation costs, or experience interruptions in our operations, for violations arising under these laws or permit requirements. Furthermore, environmental laws are subject to change and have tended to become stricter over time. Such changes in environmental laws or their interpretation, or the enactment of new environmental laws, could result in materially increased capital expenditures and compliance costs.
In addition, the discovery of contamination arising from historical industrial operations at some of our former and present properties has exposed us, and in the future may continue to expose us, to cleanup obligations and other damages. For example, soil and groundwater contamination is known to exist at several of our facilities. At December 31, 2006, we had approximately $37.0 million in reserves for estimated environmental liabilities.
Under the sale and purchase agreement regarding the Dynamit Nobel acquisition, GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft (formerly known as mg technologies ag) is required to indemnify us for certain environmental matters, subject to certain limitations. See Note 21, Commitments and ContingenciesIndemnity Matters section for further details. However, GEA Group may not adhere to its indemnity obligations to us and the indemnity may not adequately cover any related environmental matters, and we may have to institute proceedings to pursue recovery for such matters. Such legal proceedings may be costly and may require a substantial amount of management attention.
Environmental IndemnitiesWe may be subject to environmental indemnity claims relating to properties we have divested.
The discovery of contamination arising from properties that we have divested may expose us to indemnity obligations under the sale agreements with the buyers of such properties or cleanup obligations and other damages under applicable environmental laws. For example, we have obligations to indemnify the buyers of the former explosives business and automotive ignition systems business of Dynamit Nobel for certain environmental matters. Under such sale agreements, these indemnities are not limited as to amount. In addition, we agreed to indemnify the buyers of our Groupe Novasep subsidiary for three years for certain known and unknown environmental actions which may arise in the future. Furthermore, we have an obligation to indemnify the buyers of a portion of our former manufacturing sites at Troisdorf, Germany, for which we have a total reserve of approximately $13.7 million as of December 31, 2006. We may not have adequate insurance coverage or cash flows to make such indemnity payments. Such payments may be costly and may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Product LiabilityDue to the nature of our business and products, we may be liable for damages arising out of product liability claims.
The sale of our products involves the risk of product liability claims. For example, some of the chemicals or substances that are used in our businesses, such as arsenic pentoxide, have been alleged to represent potentially significant health and safety concerns. Class action suits had been filed in Louisiana, Florida and Arkansas, for example, naming one of our subsidiaries and a number of competitors of our Timber Treatment Chemicals business line in our Performance Additives segment, as well as treaters and retailers, as defendants. In addition, our subsidiary has been named as a defendant in personal injury suits in several jurisdictions with retailers and treaters named as other defendants. Furthermore, there are other similar suits, including putative class actions, pending against retailers, treaters and other formulators to which we may be eventually named as a defendant. These suits allege, among other things,
product liability claims in connection with the use of timber products treated with CCA, which utilizes arsenic pentoxide as a raw material. In addition, a subsidiary in our Advanced Ceramics segment has been named as a defendant in several product liability lawsuits in Europe relating to broken artificial hip joints, which allege negligent manufacturing by our subsidiary of ceramic components used in the production of artificial hip joints. Likewise, our subsidiary in our Specialty Compounds segment has been named in lawsuits relating to compounds we supplied our customers to produce medical products and packaging materials. The suits allege, among other things, contract and tort causes of action. Further, a subsidiary in our Specialty Chemicals segment has been named as a defendant in several lawsuits in the United States regarding exposure to solvents and other chemicals contained in some of our products. We are unable to estimate our exposure, if any, to these lawsuits at this time.
We may be subject to future claims with regard to these suits or others like them and we may not be able to avoid significant product liability exposure. A successful product liability claim or series of claims against us for which we are not otherwise indemnified or insured could materially increase our operating costs or prevent such operating subsidiary from satisfying its financial obligations. For example, for policies renewed on or after November 2002, our insurers excluded CCA from our insurance coverage under our general liability policies. We may not have sufficient cash flow from operations or assets to pay a judgment resulting from a product liability claim, if any, for which there is no or inadequate insurance coverage. Any such judgment could materially increase our operating costs or prevent such operating subsidiary from satisfying its financial obligations.
Product LiabilityDue to the nature of our business and products, we may be liable for damages arising out of certain indemnity claims.
We may be subject to indemnity claims for product liability lawsuits relating to products we have sold. For example, our Timber Treatment Chemicals business has entered into indemnity agreements with various customers who purchased CCA-based wood protection products. Pursuant to those agreements, one of our subsidiaries agreed to defend and hold harmless those customers for certain causes of action, based on domestic mammalian, and in some cases, human toxicity, caused by our CCA-based wood protection products, subject to certain conditions. Our Timber Treatment Chemicals business, and several of our customers were named as defendants in several suits, including putative class actions, relating to CCA-based wood protection products. Our Timber Treatment Chemicals business has received and may in the future receive claims for indemnity from customers in connection with litigation relating to CCA-based wood protection products and may be required to pay indemnity claims under such agreements to one or more of its customers. If our Timber Treatment Chemicals business is required to pay one or more indemnity claims, insurance or indemnity arrangements from Degussa (the successor to Laporte, from which the specialty chemicals business lines that formed Rockwood in the KKR Acquisition were acquired) may not cover such claims and, if not, our subsidiary may not have sufficient free cash flow to pay such claims. We are unable to estimate our exposure, if any, to these claims and lawsuits at this time.
In addition, our Specialty Chemicals segments subsidiary that formerly manufactured insulating glass sealants has been named as a defendant in several product liability lawsuits relating to alleged negligent manufacturing of these sealants. Pursuant to the sale and purchase agreement with respect to the divested business, one of our Specialty Chemicals subsidiaries may be required to pay indemnity claims for a limited number of years. If this subsidiary is required to pay indemnity claims, our insurance may not cover such claims and, if not, our subsidiary may not have sufficient cash flow to pay these claims. One or more of these claims could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.
CyclicalityDownturns in cyclical industries and general economic conditions could adversely affect our profitability.
Our products are used in certain industries that are cyclical in nature, such as the automotive, data and communications and electronics industries. In addition, sales to the construction market are driven by trends in commercial and residential construction, housing starts and trends in residential repair and remodeling. Downturns in one or more of these industries could severely reduce demand for our products. For example, the telecommunications market has experienced a similar downturn, which affected the results of operations of our Specialty Compounds segment in prior years, and in recent years the semiconductor market experienced a severe downturn, which affected the results of operations of our Electronics segment in prior years.
In addition, downturns in general economic conditions, whether in a particular region or globally, could reduce demand for our products. An economic downturn in one or more of the markets or geographic regions in which we sell our products may result in a decline in our net sales.
FDA RegulationSome of our manufacturing processes and facilities, pharmaceutical customers and medical device customers are subject to regulation by the FDA or similar foreign agencies. These requirements could adversely affect our results of operations.
Regulatory requirements of the FDA are complex. Any failure to comply with them could subject us and/or our customers to fines, injunctions, civil penalties, lawsuits, recall or seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial of government approvals, withdrawal of marketing approvals and criminal prosecution. Any of these actions could adversely impact our net sales, undermine goodwill established with our customers, damage commercial prospects for our products and materially adversely affect our results of operations.
The manufacture and supply of ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components for hip joint prostheses systems by our Advanced Ceramics segment may also be subject to the FDAs Quality System Regulation, which imposes current Good Manufacturing Practice requirements on the manufacture of medical devices. In addition, certain lithium compounds manufactured by our Fine Chemicals business line of our Specialty Chemicals segment are subject to FDA regulation.
Medical device customers of our Advanced Ceramics segment to whom we supply our ceramic-on-ceramic ball head and liner components are subject to FDA regulation, including premarket approval of their products and post market compliance requirements. The FDA may take three years or longer to grant premarket approval, if at all. Once approved, our customers total hip prostheses systems may be withdrawn from the market either voluntarily by our customers or as a result of the FDAs or a foreign equivalents withdrawal of marketing approval or removal of such products for a number of reasons including safety, current Good Manufacturing Practice or Quality System Regulation problems with our products or our customers final products. These factors could significantly limit our net sales generated by our Advanced Ceramics segment and may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
CompetitionOur industry is highly competitive. The end-use markets in which we compete are also highly competitive. This competition may adversely affect our results of operations.
We face significant competition from major international producers as well as smaller regional competitors. Our most significant competitors include major chemicals and materials manufacturers and diversified companies, a number of which have revenues and capital resources exceeding ours. In addition, there is increasing competition from market participants in China.
Within the end-use markets in which we compete, competition between products is intense. Substitute products also exist for many of our products. Therefore, we face substantial risk that certain events, such as new product development by our competitors, changing customer needs, production advances for competing products, price changes in raw materials, our failure to secure patents or the expiration of patents, could result in declining demand for our products as our customers switch to substitute products or undertake manufacturing of such products on their own. If we are unable to develop and produce or market our products to effectively compete against our competitors, our results of operations may materially suffer.
We believe that our customers are increasingly looking for strong, long-term relationships with a few key suppliers that help them improve product performance, reduce costs, or support new product development. To satisfy these growing customer requirements, our competitors have been consolidating within product lines through mergers and acquisitions. We may also need to invest and spend more on research and development and marketing costs to strengthen existing customer relationships, as well as attract new customers. As a result, our substantial debt level could limit our flexibility to react to these industry trends and our ability to remain competitive.
Product InnovationIf we are not able to continue our technological innovation and successful commercial introduction of new products, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Our industries and the end-use markets into which we sell our products experience periodic technological change and product improvement. Manufacturers periodically introduce new generations of products or require new technological capacity to develop customized products. Our future growth will depend on our ability to gauge the direction of the commercial and technological progress in all key end-use markets and upon our ability to fund and successfully develop, manufacture and market products in such changing end-use markets. We will have to continue to identify, develop and market innovative products on a timely basis to replace or enhance existing products in order to maintain our profit margins and our competitive position. We may not be successful in developing new products and/or technology, either alone or with third parties, or licensing intellectual property rights from third parties on a commercially competitive basis. Our new products may not be accepted by our customers. If we fail to keep pace with the evolving technological innovations in our end-use markets on a competitive basis, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Dependence on Intellectual PropertyIf our intellectual property were copied by competitors, or if they were to develop similar intellectual property independently, our results of operations could be negatively affected.
Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to protect and preserve our intellectual property rights, which rights we own or use pursuant to licenses granted to us by third parties. The confidentiality and patent assignment agreements we enter into with most of our key employees and third parties to protect the confidentiality, ownership and use of intellectual property may be breached, may not be enforceable, or may provide for joint ownership or ownership by a third party. In addition, we may not have adequate remedies for a breach by the other party, which could adversely affect our intellectual property rights.
The use of our intellectual property rights or intellectual property similar to ours by others or our failure to protect such rights could reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage we have developed, adversely affecting our net sales. If we must sue to protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights, any suits or proceedings could result in significant costs and diversion of company resources and management attention, and we may not prevail in such action. In addition, when our patents expire, competitors or new market entrants may manufacture products substantially similar to our products previously protected by a patent. For example, our
patent in ACQ technology expires in May 2007 and as a result, there may be new entrants into this market.
We conduct research and development activities with third parties and license certain intellectual property rights from third parties and we plan to continue to do so in the future. For example, in our Timber Treatment Chemicals business, we developed the technology to produce ACQ pursuant to a license agreement with Domtar Inc. and through the acquisition of the Kemwood business from Kemira Oyj. We endeavor to license or otherwise obtain intellectual property rights on terms favorable to us. However, we may not be able to license or otherwise obtain intellectual property rights on such terms or at all. Our inability to license or otherwise obtain such intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our ability to create a competitive advantage and create innovative solutions for our customers, which will adversely affect our net sales and our relationships with our customers.
The steps we take to protect our intellectual property may not provide us with any competitive advantage and may be challenged by third parties. We have been and currently are subject to oppositions of our patents and trademarks by third parties before regulatory bodies in certain jurisdictions. Our failure to defend these patents or registered trademarks may limit our ability to protect the intellectual property rights that these applications were intended to cover. In addition, a failure to obtain and defend our trademark registrations may impede our marketing and branding efforts and competitive position. A failure to protect our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and our net sales.
Risk of Intellectual Property LitigationOur products or processes may infringe the intellectual property rights of others, which may cause us to pay unexpected litigation costs or damages or prevent us from selling our products.
Although it is our intention to avoid infringing or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of others, our processes and products may infringe or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others. We may be subject to legal proceedings and claims, including claims of alleged infringement by us or our licensees of the patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights of third parties. Intellectual property litigation is expensive and time-consuming, regardless of the merits of any claim, and could divert our managements attention from operating our businesses.
If we were to discover or be notified that our processes or products potentially infringe or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others, we may need to obtain licenses from these parties or substantially re-engineer our products and processes in order to avoid infringement. We might not be able to obtain the necessary licenses on acceptable terms, or at all, or be able to re-engineer our products successfully. Moreover, if we are sued for infringement and lose the suit, we could be required to pay substantial damages and/or be enjoined from using or selling the infringing products or technology. Any of the foregoing could cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling our products.
International OperationsAs a global business, we are exposed to local business risks in different countries which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations and the value of our common stock.
We have significant operations in many countries, including manufacturing facilities, research and development facilities, sales personnel and customer support operations. Currently, we operate, or others operate on our behalf, facilities in countries such as Brazil, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey. Of our total net sales in 2006 of $2,975.2 million, approximately 66% were generated by shipments to countries outside North America. Our operations are affected directly and indirectly by global regulatory, economic and political conditions, including:
· new and different legal and regulatory requirements in local jurisdictions;
· managing and obtaining support and distribution for local operations;
· increased costs of, and availability of, transportation or shipping;
· credit risk and financial conditions of local customers and distributors;
· potential difficulties in protecting intellectual property;
· risk of nationalization of private enterprises by foreign governments;
· potential imposition of restrictions on investments;
· potentially adverse tax consequences, including imposition or increase of withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;
· capital controls; and
· local political, economic and social conditions, including the possibility of hyperinflationary conditions and political instability in certain countries.
In addition, our facilities may be targets of terrorist activities that could result in full or partial disruption of the activities of such facilities.
We may not succeed in developing and implementing policies and strategies to counter the foregoing factors effectively in each location where we do business. Our failure to do so could limit our ability to sell products, compete or receive payments for products sold in such locations.
Furthermore, our subsidiaries are subject to the export controls and economic embargo rules and regulations of the United States, violations of which may carry substantial penalties. These regulations limit the ability of our subsidiaries to market, sell, distribute or otherwise transfer their products or technology to prohibited countries or persons. Failure to comply with these regulations could subject our subsidiaries to fines, enforcement actions and/or have an adverse affect on our reputation and the value of our common stock.
Retention of Key PersonnelIf we lose certain key personnel or are unable to hire additional qualified personnel, we may not be able to execute our business strategy.
Our success depends, in part, upon the continued services of our highly skilled personnel involved in management, research, production, sales and distribution, and, in particular, upon the efforts and abilities of our executive officers and key employees. Although we believe that we are adequately staffed in key positions and that we will be successful in retaining key personnel, we may not be able to retain such personnel on acceptable terms or at all. Furthermore, if we lose the service of any executive officers or key employees, we may not be able to execute our business strategy. We do not have key-person life insurance covering any of our employees.
Relations with EmployeesWe are subject to stringent labor and employment laws in certain jurisdictions in which we operate, and our relationship with our employees could deteriorate, which could adversely impact our operations.
A majority of our full-time employees are employed outside the United States, particularly in Germany where many of our businesses are located. In certain jurisdictions where we operate, particularly in Germany, labor and employment laws are relatively stringent and, in many cases, grant significant job protection to certain employees, including rights on termination of employment. In addition, in certain countries where we operate, including Germany, our employees are members of unions or are represented by a works council as required by law. We are often required to consult and seek the consent or advice of these unions and/or respective works councils. These regulations and laws coupled with the requirement to consult with the relevant unions or works councils could significantly limit our flexibility in managing costs and responding to market changes.
Furthermore, with respect to our employees that are subject to collective bargaining arrangements or similar arrangements (approximately 31% of our full-time employees as of December 31, 2006), we may not be able to negotiate labor agreements on satisfactory terms and actions by our employees may disrupt our business. If these workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage or other slowdown, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and/or higher ongoing labor costs. In addition, if our other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and/or higher ongoing labor costs.
Tax LiabilitiesIf mg technologies ag (now known as GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft) or Degussa UK Holdings, Ltd. fail to satisfy their contractual obligations, we may be subject to increased tax exposure resulting from pre-acquisition periods.
Under the terms of certain purchase agreements, third party sellers have agreed to substantially indemnify us for tax liabilities pertaining to the pre-acquisition periods. To the extent such companies fail to indemnify or satisfy their obligations, or if any amount is not covered by the terms of the indemnity, we would be required to record an adjustment to goodwill to satisfy any such liabilities and could be negatively impacted in future periods through increased tax expense.
Anticipated Capital ExpendituresOur required capital expenditures may exceed our estimates.
Our capital expenditures, excluding capital leases, for the year ended December 31, 2006 were $171.9 million, which consisted of expenditures to maintain and improve existing equipment and substantial investments in new equipment. For 2007, we expect capital expenditures to be comparable to 2006. Future capital expenditures may be significantly higher, depending on the investment requirements of each of our business lines, and may also vary substantially if we are required to undertake actions to compete with new technologies in our industry. We may not have the capital necessary to undertake these capital investments. If we are unable to do so, we may not be able to effectively compete in some of our markets.
ControlA conflict may arise between our interests and those of KKR.
Affiliates of KKR own approximately 50.9% of our common stock on an undiluted basis. In addition, representatives of KKR occupy three of the nine seats on our board of directors, with one of the nine currently vacant. As a result, affiliates of KKR have substantial influence over our decisions to enter into any corporate transaction and have the ability to prevent any transaction that requires the approval of the stockholders regardless of whether or not other stockholders believe that any such transactions are in their own best interests. For example, affiliates of KKR could cause us to sell revenue-generating assets, which could impair our long-term ability to declare dividends or grow our business. Additionally, KKR is in the business of making investments in companies and may from time to time acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. They may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. So long as affiliates of KKR continue to hold a majority of our outstanding common stock, they will have the ability to control the vote in any election of directors even though KKR does not currently occupy a majority of the seats on our board of directors.
We are a controlled company within the meaning of the New York Stock Exchange rules and, as a result, qualify for, and rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
Affiliates of KKR continue to control a majority of our outstanding common stock. As a result, we are a controlled company within the meaning of the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance standards. Under the New York Stock Exchange rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, group or another company is a controlled company and may elect not to comply with certain New York Stock Exchange corporate governance requirements, including:
· the requirement that a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors;
· the requirement that we have a nominating/corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors;
· the requirement that we have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and
· the requirement for an annual performance evaluation of the nominating/corporate governance and compensation committees.
We utilize these exemptions, and as a result, we do not have a majority of independent directors and our nominating/corporate governance and compensation committees do not consist entirely of independent directors. Accordingly, you do not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance requirements.
Limited Relevance of Financial InformationOur historical and pro forma financial information may not be representative of our results as a combined company.
The pro forma financial information presented in 2004 is based on certain assumptions regarding the integration of Dynamit Nobel that we believe are reasonable. Our assumptions may prove to be inaccurate over time. Accordingly, the historical and pro forma financial information included herein may not reflect what our results of operations and financial condition would have been had we been a combined entity during the periods presented, or what our results of operations and financial condition will be in the future.
We are an international business, serving customers worldwide. To service our customers efficiently, we maintain 88 manufacturing facilities in 25 countries around the world with a strategy of global, regional and local manufacturing to optimize our service offering and minimize production cost to our customers. We believe these facilities are suitable and adequate for their intended use. The table below presents summary information with respect to these manufacturing facilities:
(1) This facility is shared by both business divisions of the Specialty Chemicals segment.
(2) This facility is shared by all three business divisions of the Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment.
(3) We expect to close this facility by the end of 2007.
We are involved in legal proceedings from time to time in the ordinary course of our business, including with respect to product liability, intellectual property and environmental matters. In addition, we may be required to make indemnity payments in connection with certain product liability and environmental claims. See Item 1, Business, and Item 1A, Risk Factors, Environmental IndemnitiesWe may be subject to environmental indemnity claims relating to properties we have divested; Product Liability Due to the nature of our business and products, we may be liable for damages arising out of product liability claims; and Product LiabilityDue to the nature of our business and products, we may be liable for damages arising out of certain indemnity claims. However, we do not believe that there is any other individual, governmental, legal proceeding or arbitration that is likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
During the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2006, no matters were submitted to a vote of security holders.
Market Information; Holders; and Dividends
The Companys common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol ROC. As of March 9, 2007, there were approximately 108 holders of record of the Companys common stock.
The following table summarizes the Companys quarterly common stock information:
The Companys common stock began trading on August 17, 2005.
Rockwood Holdings, Inc.s operations are conducted through its subsidiaries and its ability to make payments on any obligations it may have is dependent on the earnings and the distribution of funds from its subsidiaries. As a result, we are dependent upon cash dividends and distributions and other transfers from our subsidiaries to make dividend payments on our common stock. The amounts available to us to pay cash dividends are restricted by our subsidiaries debt agreements. Under Groups senior secured credit facilities and indentures governing the 2011 Notes and 2014 Notes, Group is generally restricted from making dividends or other distributions to us. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, cash requirements, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. See further discussion in liquidity section of Item 7, Managements Discussion and
Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
There were no repurchases of any of the Companys common stock by or on behalf of the Company during the fourth quarter of 2006 and no sales of unregistered equity securities by the Company during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2006.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the performance through December 31, 2006 of a hypothetical $100 investment made on August 17, 2005 in (a) our common stock, (b) the S&P 500 Index ® and (c) the S&P Supercomposite Specialty Chemicals Index.
The following selected consolidated financial data of the Companys five most recent years ended December 31, 2006 should be read in conjunction with Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. The Statement of Operations data set forth below with respect to the three years in the period ended December 31, 2006 and the Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2006 and 2005, are derived from the Companys audited financial statements included elsewhere in this document. The Statement of Operations data for the years ended December 31, 2003 and 2002 and the Balance Sheet data as of December 31, 2004, 2003 and 2002 are derived from audited consolidated financial statements not included herein.
(1) We recorded impairment charges of $2.2 million related to the write-down of property, plant and equipment in 2006 within our Specialty Chemicals segment and $0.4 million related to the write-down of property, plant and equipment in 2005 within our Performance Additives segment. As part of our impairment testing in 2004, 2003 and 2002, we determined that there were goodwill impairments of $4.0 million, $19.3 million and $50.0 million, respectively, in our Electronics segment. We also determined that there was a property, plant and equipment impairment of $7.0 million and $15.7 million in 2004 and 2003, respectively, in our Electronics segment. See Note 17, Impairment Charges, for further details.
(2) Restructuring charges include certain expenses incurred in connection with severance charges and asset write-offs related to consolidations and cessations of certain of our operations. See Note 18, Restructuring Liability, for further details.
(3) In connection with the IPO, we recorded an expense of $10.0 million in the third quarter of 2005 to terminate the management services agreement with affiliates of KKR and DLJ Merchant Banking Partners III, L.P. (DLJMB).
(4) We recorded net gains of $0.2 million and $4.4 million (including a gain of $1.7 million related to the sale and leaseback of a facility in the Specialty Chemicals segment) for the years ended December 31, 2006 and 2005, respectively, related to asset sales.
(5) For the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 and 2002, interest expense, net included gains (losses) of $7.2 million, $22.4 million, $6.0 million, $(6.0) million and $(11.6) million, respectively, representing the movement in the mark-to-market valuation of our interest rate and cross-currency swaps for the periods. Included in these gains (losses) within interest expense, net for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, 2004 and 2003 are mark-to-market (losses) gains of $(2.2) million, $3.6 million, $0.8 million and $(10.5) million, respectively, related to cross-currency swaps. In addition, for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003 and 2002, interest expense, net includes $9.7 million, $10.7 million, $7.4 million, $6.1 million and $8.0 million, respectively, of amortization expense related to deferred financing costs.
(6) In the third quarter of 2005, the Company paid a redemption premium of $13.2 million to redeem long-term debt and wrote off $13.4 million of deferred financing costs associated with the debt repaid in connection with the IPO.
(7) In December 2005, we expensed $1.0 million in connection with the third amendment under the senior secured credit facilities. In 2004, we wrote off $27.1 million of deferred financing costs in connection with debt repayment and refinancing. In July 2003, we wrote off $36.9 million of deferred debt issuance costs relating to our previous long-term debt that was repaid as part of the July 2003 debt refinancing. In addition, we expensed $1.4 million in December 2003 of investment banking and professional fees in connection with the refinancing of borrowings under the then new senior credit facilities.
(8) Foreign exchange gain (loss) represents the translation impact on our euro-denominated debt resulting from the (weakening) strengthening of the euro against the U.S. dollar during the applicable periods. In 2004, this amount also included a $10.9 million mark-to-market realized loss on foreign currency derivative agreements that we entered into in connection with the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition.
(9) The Company recorded $1.8 million of income in 2006 primarily related to the correction of an error related to a previously
unrecorded asset in the Titanium Dioxide Pigments segment. The effect of this adjustment to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2005 is not material. In 2005, we recorded $2.6 million of income primarily related to the reversal of a bad debt reserve of $2.9 million related to a note receivable from the buyer in connection with the sale of a business by Dynamit Nobel prior to the Dynamit Nobel Acquisition for which the cash was collected from the buyer in 2005. In 2004, the loss of $2.8 million primarily relates to a stamp duty tax paid on certain assets transferred in the United Kingdom in connection with the KKR Acquisition.
(10) As noted above, we completed the sale of our Groupe Novasep subsidiary on January 9, 2007 and have accounted for the results of the former Groupe Novasep reportable segment as a discontinued operation in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations (see Note 2, Discontinued Operations, for further details). An impairment charge of $44.7 million was recorded in 2005 primarily related to the write-down of property, plant and equipment in conjunction with the downsizing of the Rohner facility within our former Groupe Novasep segment. In addition, in March 2006, we sold Rohner AG and recorded a pre-tax loss of $11.5 million.
(11) Represents the net income (loss) applicable to common shareholders after reducing net income (loss) by the amount of accumulated and unpaid dividends and the accretion to the redemption value of the redeemable convertible preferred stock for the respective period. See Note 14, Earnings Per Share.
(12) Net earnings (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) applicable to common shareholders by the weighted average shares outstanding.
(13) EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) plus interest expense, net, income tax provision (benefit) and depreciation and amortization. EBITDA is not a recognized term under U.S. GAAP and does not purport to be an alternative to net income (loss) as an indicator of operating performance or to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity. Additionally, EBITDA is not intended to be a measure of free cash flow for managements discretionary use, as it does not consider certain cash requirements such as interest payments, tax payments and debt service requirements.
The amounts shown for EBITDA differ from the amounts calculated under the definition of consolidated EBITDA used in our debt agreements. The definition of EBITDA used in our debt agreements permits further adjustments for certain cash and non-cash charges and gains; the indentures governing the 2011 Notes and the 2014 Notes exclude certain adjustments permitted under the senior secured credit agreement. Consolidated EBITDA as adjusted is used in our debt agreements to determine compliance with financial covenants and our ability to engage in certain activities, such as incurring additional debt and making certain payments. In addition to covenant compliance, our management also uses consolidated EBITDA as adjusted to assess our operating performance and to calculate performance-based cash bonuses and determine whether certain performance-based stock options vest, as both such bonuses and options are tied to EBITDA as adjusted targets. For discussion of the adjustments, uses and the limitations on the use of Adjusted EBITDA, see Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsFactors Which Affect Our Results of OperationsSpecial Note Regarding Non-GAAP Financial Measures.
The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income (loss) to EBITDA for the periods indicated:
(14) EBITDA, as defined above, contains the following non-cash charges and gains for which we believe adjustment is permitted under our senior secured credit agreement, each of which is described under Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsFactors Which Affect Our Results of OperationsSpecial Charges and Credits:
(a) Represents pre-tax charges related to the write-off of deferred debt issuance costs associated with debt repaid with IPO proceeds of $13.4 million. This amount is reported in loss on early extinguishment of debt in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(15) In addition to non-cash charges and gains, our EBITDA contains the following other special charges and gains for which we believe adjustment is permitted under our senior secured credit agreement, each of which is described under Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsFactors Which Affect Our Results of OperationsSpecial Charges and Credits: