This excerpt taken from the SOHU 10-Q filed May 2, 2005.
5. VARIABLE INTEREST ENTITIES AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
(a) Variable Interest Entities (VIEs)
The Company has adopted FASB Interpretation No. 46 Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities. FIN 46 requires a VIE to be consolidated by a company if that company is the primary beneficiary of that VIE.
To satisfy PRC laws and regulations, the Company conducts its Internet information, wireless, Internet access, e-commerce and certain other businesses in the PRC via its VIEs. These VIEs are directly or indirectly owned by Dr. Charles Zhang (Dr. Zhang), the Companys Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and a major Sohu shareholder, and certain employees of the Company. Capital for the VIEs is funded by the Company through loans provided to Dr. Zhang and the employees, and is initially recorded as loans to related parties. These loans are eliminated for accounting purposes with the capital of VIEs during consolidation.
Under contractual agreements with the Company, Dr. Zhang and other Sohu employees who are shareholders of the VIEs are required to transfer their ownership in these entities to the Company, if permitted by PRC laws and regulations, or, if not so permitted, to designees of the Company at any time to repay the loans outstanding. All voting rights of the VIEs are assigned to the Company, and the Company has the right to designate all directors and senior management personnel of the VIEs. Dr. Zhang and the other Sohu employees who are shareholders of the VIEs have pledged their shares in the VIEs as collateral for the loans. As of March 31, 2005, the amount of these loans amounted to $7.4 million.
The following is a summary of the VIEs of the Company:
Beijing Sohu Online Network Information Services, Ltd (or Beijing Sohu) was incorporated in the PRC in 2000 and engages in Internet information, wireless and e-commerce services in the PRC on behalf of the Company. The registered capital of Beijing Sohu is $242,000. Dr. Zhang and He Jinmei, an employee of the Company who left Sohu in February 2005, hold 80% and 20% interests in Beijing Sohu, respectively.
Beijing Century High Tech Investment Co., Ltd. (or High Century) was incorporated in the PRC in 2001 and engages in investment holding in the PRC on behalf of the Company. The registered capital of High Century is $4,595,000. Dr. Zhang and Li Wei, an employee of the Company, hold 80% and 20% interests in High Century, respectively.
Beijing Hengda Yitong Internet Technology Development Co., Ltd. (or Hengda) was incorporated in the PRC in 2002 and engages in Internet access and wireless services in the PRC on behalf of the Company. The registered capital of Hengda is $1,210,000. Originally High Century and Li Wei held 80% and 20% interests in Hengda, respectively. In November 2004, to further satisfy PRC regulations, High Century and Li Wei transferred their interests in Hengda to Wang Xin and Wang Jianjun, each of whom is an employee of the Company. As a result, Wang Xin and Wang Jianjun hold 80% and 20% interests in Hengda, respectively.
Beijing Sohu Internet Information Service Co. Ltd. (or Sohu Internet) was incorporated in the PRC in 2003 and engages in Internet information and wireless services in the PRC on behalf of the Company. The original registered capital was $605,000, and High Century and He Jinmei held 80% and 20% interests in Sohu Internet, respectively. Hengda made a $605,000 investment in Sohu Internet in December 2003, and, as a result, the registered capital is now $1,210,000, with Hengda, High Century and He Jinmei holding 50%, 40% and 10% interests, respectively.
Beijing Goodfeel Information Technology Co., Ltd. (or Goodfeel) was incorporated in the PRC in 2001 and engages in value added telecommunication services in the PRC. The registered capital of Goodfeel is $1,208,000. In May 2004, High Century and Sohu Internet acquired 73% and 27% interests in Goodfeel, respectively. In July 2004, High Century and Sohu Internet invested $613,000 and $473,000 in Goodfeel, respectively, so that High Century owned a 58.1% interest in Goodfeel with the remaining 41.9% interest owned by Sohu Internet. In October 2004, to further satisfy PRC regulations, High Century and Sohu Internet transferred their interests in Goodfeel to Deng Xiufeng and Zhou Jing, each of whom is an employee of the Company. As a result, Deng Xiufeng and Zhou Jing own 58.1% and 41.9% interests in Goodfeel, respectively.
In addition to the above VIEs, on March 2, 2005, Beijing Huohu Digital Technology Co., Ltd (or Huohu), was incorporated in the PRC. Huohu engages in software and technology development for gaming business. The registered capital of Huohu is $121,000. Beijing Sohu New Era Information Technology Co., Ltd. (or Sohu Era), one of the indirect China-based subsidiaries of the Company, and an employee of Huohu, hold 75% and 25% interest in Huohu, respectively. The Company provided the employee a non-interest bearing loan amounted to $30,250 to finance his capital contribution to Huohu. The loan can only be repaid through transfer of the employees shares in Huohu to Sohu Era, at anytime upon request of the Company or termination of the employment of the employee. Based on the arrangement between the Sohu Era and the employee, Sohu Era is the sole and primary beneficiary of Houhu. Accordingly, Huohu is 100% consolidated into the financial statements of the Company.
As of March 31, 2005, the aggregate accumulated losses of the above VIEs were approximately $595,000 and have been reflected in the consolidated financial statements.
(b) Related Party Transactions
The following table summarizes related party transactions during the three months ended March 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively (in thousands):