Starbucks 10-K 2012
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2012
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to .
Commission File Number: 0-20322
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
2401 Utah Avenue South, Seattle, Washington 98134
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code, telephone number)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation of S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, based upon the closing sale price of the registrant’s common stock on March 30, 2012 as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market was $41 billion. As of November 9, 2012, there were 743.6 million shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for the registrant’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on March 20, 2013 have been incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They often include words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “seeks” or words of similar meaning, or future or conditional verbs, such as “will,” “should,” “could,” “may,” “aims,” “intends,” or “projects.” A forward-looking statement is neither a prediction nor a guarantee of future events or circumstances, and those future events or circumstances may not occur. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These forward-looking statements are all based on currently available operating, financial and competitive information and are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Our actual future results and trends may differ materially depending on a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties discussed under “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not rely on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. Any or all of the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and any other public statement made by us, including by our management, may turn out to be incorrect. We are including this cautionary note to make applicable and take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for forward-looking statements. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Starbucks is the premier roaster, marketer and retailer of specialty coffee in the world, operating in 60 countries. Formed in 1985, Starbucks Corporation’s common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “SBUX.” We purchase and roast high-quality coffees that we sell, along with handcrafted coffee, tea and other beverages and a variety of fresh food items, through company-operated stores. We also sell a variety of coffee and tea products and license our trademarks through other channels such as licensed stores, grocery and national foodservice accounts. In addition to our flagship Starbucks brand, our portfolio also includes Tazo® Tea, Seattle’s Best Coffee®, Starbucks VIA® Ready Brew, Starbucks Refreshers™ beverages, Evolution Fresh™, La Boulange bakery brand and the Verismo™ System by Starbucks.
Our objective is to maintain Starbucks standing as one of the most recognized and respected brands in the world. To achieve this goal, we are continuing the disciplined expansion of our global store base. In addition, by leveraging the experience gained through our traditional store model, we continue to offer consumers new coffee products in a variety of forms, across new categories, and through diverse channels. Starbucks Global Responsibility strategy and commitments related to coffee and the communities we do business in, as well as our focus on being an employer of choice, are also key complements to our business strategies.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (“10-K” or “Report”) for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2012 (“fiscal 2012”), Starbucks Corporation (together with its subsidiaries) is referred to as “Starbucks,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our.”
Segment Financial Information
Segment information is prepared on the same basis that our management reviews financial information for operational decision-making purposes. Beginning with the first quarter of fiscal 2012, we redefined our reportable operating segments to align with the three-region leadership and organizational structure of our retail business that took effect at the beginning of fiscal 2012.
The three-region structure includes: 1) Americas, inclusive of the US, Canada, and Latin America; 2) Europe, Middle East, and Africa, collectively referred to as the “EMEA” region; and 3) China / Asia Pacific (“CAP”). Our chief executive officer, who is our chief operating decision maker, manages these businesses, evaluates financial results, and makes key operating decisions based on the new organizational structure. Accordingly, beginning with the first quarter of fiscal 2012, we revised our reportable operating segments from 1) US, 2) International, and 3) Global Consumer Products Group to the following four reportable segments: 1) Americas, 2) EMEA, 3) CAP, and 4) Global Consumer Products Group. In the second quarter of fiscal 2012, we renamed our Global Consumer Products Group segment “Channel Development.” Segment revenues as a percentage of total net revenues for fiscal year 2012 were as follows: Americas (75%), EMEA (9%), CAP (5%), and Channel Development (10%).
Concurrent with the change in reportable operating segments, we revised our prior period financial information to reflect comparable financial information for the new segment structure. Historical financial information presented herein reflects this change.
The Americas, EMEA, and CAP segments include both company-operated and licensed stores. Our Americas segment is our most mature business and has achieved significant scale. Certain markets within EMEA and CAP operations are in the early stages of development and require a more extensive support organization, relative to the current levels of revenue and operating income, than the Americas operations. The Americas and EMEA segments also include foodservice accounts, primarily in Canada and the UK. Our Americas segment also includes the retail and wholesale activities of Bay Bread, LLC (doing business as La Boulange), which was acquired in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012.
Our Channel Development segment includes whole bean and ground coffees, premium Tazo® teas, Starbucks VIA® Ready Brew, Starbucks® coffee and Tazo® tea K-Cup® portion packs, a variety of ready-to-drink beverages, such as Starbucks Refreshers™ beverages, and other branded products sold worldwide through channels such as grocery stores, warehouse clubs, convenience stores, and US foodservice accounts.
Seattle’s Best Coffee is reported in “Other” along with Evolution Fresh, Digital Ventures and unallocated corporate expenses that pertain to corporate administrative functions that support our operating segments but are not specifically attributable to or managed by any segment and are not included in the reported financial results of the operating segments. The Other category comprised approximately 1% of total net revenues.
Financial information for Starbucks reportable operating segments and Other is included in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this 10-K.
We generate our revenues through company-operated stores, licensed stores, consumer packaged goods ("CPG") and foodservice operations.
Company-operated and Licensed Store Summary as of September 30, 2012
The mix of company-operated versus licensed stores in a given market will vary based on several factors, including the ability to access desirable local retail space, the complexity and expected ultimate size of the market for Starbucks, and the ability to leverage the support infrastructure in an existing geographic region.
Revenue from company-operated stores accounted for 79% of total net revenues during fiscal 2012. Our retail objective is to be the leading retailer and brand of coffee in each of our target markets by selling the finest quality coffee and related products, and by providing each customer a unique Starbucks Experience. The Starbucks Experience is built upon superior customer service as well as clean and well-maintained company-operated stores that reflect the personalities of the communities in which they operate, thereby building a high degree of customer loyalty.
Our strategy for expanding our global retail business is to increase our market share in a disciplined manner, by selectively opening additional stores in new and existing markets, as well as increasing sales in existing stores, to support our long-term strategic objective to maintain Starbucks standing as one of the most recognized and respected brands in the world. Store growth in specific existing markets will vary due to many factors, including the maturity of the market.
The following is a summary of total company-operated store data for the periods indicated:
Starbucks company-operated stores are typically located in high-traffic, high-visibility locations. Our ability to vary the size and format of our stores allows us to locate them in or near a variety of settings, including downtown and suburban retail centers, office buildings, university campuses, and in select rural and off-highway locations. To provide a greater degree of access and convenience for non-pedestrian customers, we continue to selectively expand development of drive-thru stores.
Starbucks stores offer a choice of regular and decaffeinated coffee beverages, a broad selection of Italian-style espresso beverages, cold blended beverages, iced shaken refreshment beverages, a selection of premium Tazo® teas, distinctively packaged roasted whole bean and ground coffees, a variety of Starbucks VIA® Ready Brew soluble coffees, Starbucks® coffee and Tazo® tea K-Cup® portion packs, Starbucks Refreshers™ beverages, juices and bottled water. Starbucks stores also offer an assortment of fresh food items, including selections
focusing on high-quality ingredients, nutritional value and great flavor. Food items include pastries, prepared breakfast and lunch sandwiches, oatmeal and salads. A focused selection of beverage-making equipment and accessories are also sold in our stores. Each Starbucks store varies its product mix depending upon the size of the store and its location. To complement the in-store experience, our US company-operated Starbucks stores also provide customers free access to wireless internet.
Retail sales mix by product type for company-operated stores:
The Starbucks stored value card program is designed to increase customer loyalty and the frequency of store visits by cardholders. Starbucks Cards are accepted at company-operated and most licensed stores in North America. The cards are also accepted at a number of international locations. Customers who register their cards in the US, Canada, and certain other countries are enrolled in the My Starbucks Rewards™ program and can receive various benefits depending on the number of Stars earned in a 12-month period.
Product sales to and royalty and license fee revenues from our licensed stores accounted for 9% of total revenues in fiscal 2012. In our licensed store operations, we leverage the expertise of our local partners and share our operating and store development experience. Licensees provide improved, and at times the only, access to desirable retail space. Most licensees are prominent retailers with in-depth market knowledge and access. As part of these arrangements, we receive royalties and license fees and sell coffee, tea and related products for resale in licensed locations. Employees working in licensed retail locations are required to follow our detailed store operating procedures and attend training classes similar to those given to employees in company-operated stores. For our Seattle’s Best Coffee brand, we use various forms of licensing, including traditional franchising.
Starbucks total licensed stores by country as of September 30, 2012 are as follows:
In the Americas, 351 and 296 licensed stores were opened during 2012 and 2011, respectively, and 81 and 564 licensed stores were closed during 2012 and 2011, respectively. The 564 licensed stores that were closed in the Americas during fiscal 2011 include 475 Seattle’s Best Coffee locations in Borders Bookstores. In EMEA, 139 and 111 licensed stores were opened during 2012 and 2011, respectively, and 38 and 32 licensed stores were closed during 2012 and 2011, respectively. In CAP, 354 and 264 licensed stores were opened during 2012 and 2011, respectively, and 60 and 71 licensed stores were closed during 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Consumer Packaged Goods
Consumer packaged goods includes both domestic and international sales of packaged coffee and tea as well as a variety of ready-to-drink beverages and single-serve coffee and tea products to grocery, warehouse club and specialty retail stores. It also includes revenues from product sales to and licensing revenues from manufacturers that produce and market Starbucks and Seattle’s Best Coffee branded products through licensing agreements. Revenues from sales of consumer packaged goods comprised 8% of total net revenues in fiscal 2012.
Revenues from foodservice accounts comprised 4% of total net revenues in fiscal 2012. We sell Starbucks® and Seattle’s Best Coffee® whole bean and ground coffees, a selection of premium Tazo® teas, Starbucks VIA® Ready Brew, and other coffee and tea related products to institutional foodservice companies that service business and industry, education, healthcare, office coffee distributors, hotels, restaurants, airlines and other retailers. We also sell our Seattle’s Best Coffee® through arrangements with national accounts. The majority of the sales in this channel come through national broadline distribution networks with SYSCO Corporation, US Foodservice™, and other distributors.
Starbucks is committed to selling only the finest whole bean coffees and coffee beverages. To ensure compliance with our rigorous coffee standards, we control coffee purchasing, roasting and packaging, and the global distribution of coffee used in our operations. We purchase green coffee beans from multiple coffee-producing regions around the world and custom roast them to our exacting standards, for our many blends and single origin coffees.
The price of coffee is subject to significant volatility. Although most coffee trades in the commodity market, high-altitude arabica coffee of the quality sought by Starbucks tends to trade on a negotiated basis at a premium
above the “C” coffee commodity price. Both the premium and the commodity price depend upon the supply and demand at the time of purchase. Supply and price can be affected by multiple factors in the producing countries, including weather, natural disasters, crop disease, general increase in farm inputs and costs of production, inventory levels and political and economic conditions. Price is also impacted by trading activities in the arabica coffee futures market, including hedge funds and commodity index funds. In addition, green coffee prices have been affected in the past, and may be affected in the future, by the actions of certain organizations and associations that have historically attempted to influence prices of green coffee through agreements establishing export quotas or by restricting coffee supplies.
We buy coffee using fixed-price and price-to-be-fixed purchase commitments, depending on market conditions, to secure an adequate supply of quality green coffee. Price-to-be-fixed contracts are purchase commitments whereby the quality, quantity, delivery period, and other negotiated terms are agreed upon, but the date, and therefore the price, at which the base “C” coffee commodity price component will be fixed has not yet been established. For these types of contracts, either Starbucks or the seller has the option to select a date on which to “fix” the base “C” coffee commodity price prior to the delivery date. Until prices are fixed, we estimate the total cost of these purchase commitments. Total green coffee purchase commitments as of September 30, 2012 were $854 million, comprised of $557 million under fixed-price contracts and an estimated $297 million under price-to-be-fixed contracts. As of September 30, 2012, approximately $125 million of our price-to-be-fixed contracts were effectively fixed through the use of futures contracts. All price-to-be-fixed contracts as of September 30, 2012 were at the Company’s option to fix the base “C” coffee commodity price component. Total purchase commitments, together with existing inventory, are expected to provide an adequate supply of green coffee through fiscal 2013.
We depend upon our relationships with coffee producers, outside trading companies and exporters for our supply of green coffee. We believe, based on relationships established with our suppliers, the risk of non-delivery on such purchase commitments is remote.
To help ensure sustainability and future supply of high-quality green coffees and to reinforce our leadership role in the coffee industry, Starbucks operates Farmer Support Centers in six countries. The Farmer Support Centers are staffed with agronomists and sustainability experts who work with coffee farming communities to promote best practices in coffee production designed to improve both coffee quality and yields.
In addition to coffee, we also purchase significant amounts of dairy products, particularly fluid milk, to support the needs of our company-operated stores. For our largest markets, the US, Canada and the UK, we purchase substantially all of our fluid milk requirements from eight dairy suppliers. We believe, based on relationships established with these suppliers, that the risk of non-delivery of sufficient fluid milk to support our stores is remote.
Products other than whole bean coffees and coffee beverages sold in Starbucks stores include Evolution Fresh™ juices and a number of ready-to-drink beverages that are purchased from several specialty suppliers, usually under long-term supply contracts. Food products, such as pastries, breakfast sandwiches and lunch items, are purchased from national, regional and local sources. We also purchase a broad range of paper and plastic products, such as cups and cutlery, from several companies to support the needs of our retail stores as well as our manufacturing and distribution operations. We believe, based on relationships established with these suppliers and manufacturers, that the risk of non-delivery of these items is remote.
Our primary competitors for coffee beverage sales are quick-service restaurants and specialty coffee shops. In almost all markets in which we do business, there are numerous competitors in the specialty coffee beverage business. We believe that our customers choose among specialty coffee retailers primarily on the basis of product quality, service and convenience, as well as price. We continue to experience direct competition from large competitors in the US quick-service restaurant sector and the US ready-to-drink coffee beverage market. We also continue to face competition from well-established companies in many international markets.
Our coffee and tea products sold through our Channel Development segment compete directly against specialty coffees and teas sold through supermarkets, club stores and specialty retailers and compete indirectly against all other coffees and teas on the market. Starbucks also faces competition from both restaurants and other specialty retailers for prime retail locations and qualified personnel to operate both new and existing stores.
Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights and Domain Names
Starbucks owns and has applied to register numerous trademarks and service marks in the US and in additional countries throughout the world. Some of our trademarks, including Starbucks, the Starbucks logo, Seattle’s Best Coffee, Frappuccino, Starbucks VIA and Tazo are of material importance. The duration of trademark registrations varies from country to country. However, trademarks are generally valid and may be renewed indefinitely as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained.
We own numerous copyrights for items such as product packaging, promotional materials, in-store graphics and training materials. We also hold patents on certain products, systems and designs. In addition, Starbucks has registered and maintains numerous Internet domain names, including “Starbucks.com”, “Starbucks.net”, and “Seattlesbest.com.”
Seasonality and Quarterly Results
Our business is subject to seasonal fluctuations, including fluctuations resulting from the holiday season. Cash flows from operations are considerably higher in the first fiscal quarter than the remainder of the year. This is largely driven by cash received as Starbucks Cards are purchased and loaded during the holiday season. Since revenues from Starbucks Cards are recognized upon redemption and not when purchased, seasonal fluctuations on the consolidated statements of earnings are much less pronounced. Quarterly results can also be affected by the timing of the opening of new stores and the closing of existing stores. For these reasons, results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved for the full fiscal year.
Starbucks employed approximately 160,000 people worldwide as of September 30, 2012. In the US, Starbucks employed approximately 120,000 people, with 113,000 in company-operated stores and the remainder in support facilities, store development, and roasting and warehousing operations. Approximately 40,000 employees were employed outside of the US, with 38,000 in company-operated stores and the remainder in regional support facilities and roasting and warehousing operations. The number of Starbucks employees represented by unions is not significant. We believe our current relations with our employees are good.
Executive officers of the registrant
Howard Schultz is the founder of Starbucks and serves as the chairman, president and chief executive officer. Mr. Schultz has served as chairman of the board since Starbucks inception in 1985 and he resumed his role as president and chief executive officer in January 2008. From June 2000 to February 2005, Mr. Schultz held the title of chief global strategist. From November 1985 to June 2000, he served as chief executive officer. From November 1985 to June 1994, Mr. Schultz also served as president.
Cliff Burrows joined Starbucks in April 2001 and has served as president, Starbucks Coffee Americas and US since October 2011. From March 2008 to October 2011, Mr. Burrows served as president, Starbucks Coffee US. He served as president, Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) from April 2006 to March 2008. He served as vice president and managing director, UK prior to April 2006. Prior to joining Starbucks, Mr. Burrows served in various management positions with Habitat Designs Limited, a furniture and housewares retailer.
John Culver joined Starbucks in August 2002 and has served as president, Starbucks Coffee China and Asia Pacific since October 2011. From December 2009 to October 2011, he served as president, Starbucks Coffee International. Mr. Culver served as executive vice president; president, Global Consumer Products, Foodservice and Seattle's Best Coffee from February 2009 to September 2009, and then as president, Global Consumer Products and Foodservice from October 2009 to November 2009. He previously served as senior vice president; president, Starbucks Coffee Asia Pacific from January 2007 to February 2009, and vice president; general manager, Foodservice from August 2002 to January 2007.
Jeff Hansberry joined Starbucks in June 2010 and has served as president, Channel Development and Emerging Brands since June 2012. From October 2011 to June 2012, he served as president, Channel Development and president, Seattle's Best Coffee. From June 2010 to October 2011, he served as president, Global Consumer Products and Foodservice. Prior to joining Starbucks, Mr. Hansberry served as vice president and general manager, Popular BU for E. & J. Gallo Winery, a family-owned winery, from November 2008 to May 2010. From September 2007 to November 2008, Mr. Hansberry served as vice president and general manager, Value BU, and from April 2005 to August 2007, he served as vice president and general manager Asia, for E. & J. Gallo Winery. Prior to E. & J. Gallo, Mr. Hansberry held various positions with Procter & Gamble.
Michelle Gass joined Starbucks in 1996 and has served as president, Starbucks Coffee EMEA since October 2011. From September 2009 to October 2011, she served as president, Seattle's Best Coffee. Ms. Gass served as senior vice president, Marketing and Category from July 2008 to November 2008, and then as executive vice president, Marketing and Category from December 2008 to September 2009. Ms. Gass previously served as senior vice president, Global Strategy, Office of the ceo from January 2008 to July 2008, senior vice president, Global Product and Brand from August 2007 to January 2008 and senior vice president, U.S. Category Management from May 2004 to August 2007. Ms. Gass served in a number of other positions with Starbucks prior to 2004.
Troy Alstead joined Starbucks in 1992 and has served as chief financial officer and chief administrative officer since November 2008. Mr. Alstead previously served as chief operating officer, Starbucks Greater China from April 2008 to October 2008, senior vice president, Global Finance and Business Operations from August 2007 to April 2008, and senior vice president, Corporate Finance from September 2004 to August 2007. Mr. Alstead served in a number of other senior positions with Starbucks prior to 2004.
Lucy Lee Helm joined Starbucks in September 1999 and has served as executive vice president, general counsel and secretary since May 2012. She served as senior vice president and deputy general counsel from October 2007 to April 2012 and served as interim general counsel and secretary from April 2012 to May 2012. Ms. Helm previously served as vice president, assistant general counsel from June 2002 to September 2007 and as director, corporate counsel from September 1999 to May 2002. During her tenure at Starbucks, Ms. Helm has led various teams of the Starbucks legal department, including the Litigation and Brand protection team, the Global Business (Commercial) team and the Litigation and Employment team. Prior to joining Starbucks, Ms. Helm was a principal at the Seattle law firm of Riddell Williams P.S. from 1990 to 1999, where she was a trial lawyer specializing in commercial, insurance coverage and environmental litigation.
There are no family relationships among any of our directors or executive officers.
We are committed to being a deeply responsible company in the communities where we do business around the world. Our focus is on ethically sourcing high-quality coffee, reducing our environmental impacts and contributing positively to communities. Starbucks Global Responsibility strategy and commitments are integral to our overall business strategy. As a result, we believe we deliver benefits to our stakeholders, including employees, business partners, customers, suppliers, shareholders, community members and others. For an overview of Starbucks Global Responsibility strategy and commitments, please visit www.starbucks.com.
Starbucks 10-K reports, along with all other reports and amendments filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), are publicly available free of charge on the Investor Relations section of our website at investor.starbucks.com or at www.sec.gov as soon as reasonably practicable after these materials are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our corporate governance policies, code of ethics and Board committee charters and policies are also posted on the Investor Relations section of Starbucks website at investor.starbucks.com. The information on our website is not part of this or any other report Starbucks files with, or furnishes to, the SEC.
You should carefully consider the risks described below. If any of the risks and uncertainties described in the cautionary factors described below actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations, and the trading price of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible to predict the impact of all these factors on our business, financial condition or results of operation.
Our operating results have been in the past and will continue to be subject to a number of factors, many of which are largely outside our control. Any one or more of the factors set forth below could adversely impact our business, financial condition and/or results of operations:
As a retailer that is dependent upon consumer discretionary spending, our results of operations are sensitive to changes in macro-economic conditions. Our customers may have less money for discretionary purchases as a result of job losses, foreclosures, bankruptcies, increased fuel and energy costs, higher interest rates, higher taxes, reduced access to credit and lower home prices. Any resulting decreases in customer traffic and/or average value per transaction will negatively impact our financial performance as reduced revenues result in sales de-leveraging which creates downward pressure on margins. There is also a risk that if negative economic conditions persist for a long period of time or worsen, consumers may make long-lasting changes to their discretionary purchasing behavior, including less frequent discretionary purchases on a more permanent basis.
There is no assurance that we will be able to implement important strategic initiatives in accordance with our expectations, which may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results. These strategic initiatives are designed to improve our results of operations and drive long-term shareholder value, and include:
The specialty coffee market is intensely competitive, including with respect to product quality, service, convenience, and price, and we face significant competition in each of our channels and markets. Accordingly, we do not have leadership positions in all channels and markets. In the US, the ongoing focus by large competitors in the quick-service restaurant sector on selling high-quality specialty coffee beverages could adversely affect our sales and results of operations. Similarly, continued competition from well-established competitors in our international markets could hinder growth and adversely affect our sales and results of operations in those markets. Increased competition in the US packaged coffee and tea and single-serve and ready-to-drink coffee beverage markets, including from new and large entrants to this market, could adversely affect the profitability of the Channel Development segment.
Our financial performance is highly dependent on our Americas operating segment, as it comprised approximately 75% of consolidated total net revenues in fiscal 2012. If revenue trends slow or decline, our business and financial results could be adversely affected, and because the Americas segment is relatively mature and produces the large majority of our operating cash flows, could result in reduced cash flows for funding the expansion of our international business and for returning cash to shareholders.
Our future growth increasingly depends on the growth and sustained profitability of our EMEA and CAP operating segments. Some or all of our international market business units (“MBUs”), which we generally define by the countries in which they operate, may not be successful in their operations or in achieving expected growth, which ultimately requires achieving consistent, stable net revenues and earnings. The performance of these international operations may be adversely affected by economic downturns in one or more of our large MBUs. In particular, our Japan, UK, and China MBUs account for a significant portion of the net revenue and earnings of our EMEA and CAP segments and a decline in the performance of any of these MBUs could have a material adverse impact on the results of our international operations.
Additionally, some factors that will be critical to the success of the EMEA and CAP segments are different than those affecting our US stores and licensees. Tastes naturally vary by region, and consumers in some MBUs may not embrace our products to the same extent as consumers in the US or other international markets. Occupancy costs and store operating expenses can be higher internationally than in the US due to higher rents for prime store locations or costs of compliance with country-specific regulatory requirements. Because many of our international operations are in an early phase of development, operating expenses as a percentage of related revenues are often higher compared to more developed operations, such as in the US. Additionally, our international joint venture partners or licensees may face capital constraints or other factors that may limit the speed at which they are able to expand and develop in a certain market.
Our international operations are also subject to additional inherent risks of conducting business abroad, such as:
Moreover, many of the foregoing risks are particularly acute in developing countries, which are important to our long-term growth prospects.
We purchase, roast, and sell high-quality whole bean arabica coffee beans and related coffee products. The price of coffee is subject to significant volatility and, although coffee prices have come down from their near-record highs of 2011, they are still above the historical average price of coffee and may again increase significantly due to factors described below. The high-quality arabica coffee of the quality we seek tends to trade on a negotiated basis at a premium above the “C” price. This premium depends upon the supply and demand at the time of purchase and the amount of the premium can vary significantly. Increases in the “C” coffee commodity price do increase the price of high-quality arabica coffee and also impact our ability to enter into fixed-price purchase commitments. We frequently enter into supply contracts whereby the quality, quantity, delivery period, and other negotiated terms are agreed upon, but the date, and therefore price, at which the base “C” coffee commodity price component will be fixed has not yet been established. These are known as price-to-be-fixed contracts. The supply and price of coffee we purchase can also be affected by multiple factors in the producing countries, including weather, natural disasters, crop disease, general increase in farm inputs and costs of production, inventory levels and political and economic conditions, as well as the actions of certain organizations and associations that have historically attempted to influence prices of green coffee through agreements establishing export quotas or by restricting coffee supplies. Speculative trading in coffee commodities can also influence coffee prices. Because of the significance of coffee beans to our operations, combined with our ability to only partially mitigate future price risk through purchasing practices and hedging activities, increases in the cost of high-quality arabica coffee beans could have an adverse impact on our profitability. In addition, if we are not able to purchase sufficient quantities of green coffee due to any of the above factors or to a worldwide or regional shortage, we may not be able to fulfill the demand for our coffee, which could have an adverse impact on our profitability.
In addition to coffee, we also purchase significant amounts of dairy products, particularly fluid milk, to support the needs of our company-operated retail stores. Although less material to our operations than coffee or dairy, other commodities including but not limited to those related to food inputs and energy, are important to our operations. Increases in the cost of dairy products and other commodities could have an adverse impact on our profitability.
We believe we have built an excellent reputation globally for the quality of our products, for delivery of a consistently positive consumer experience and for our corporate social responsibility programs. The Starbucks brand has been highly rated in several global brand value studies. To be successful in the future, particularly outside of US, where the Starbucks brand and our other brands are less well-known, we believe we must preserve, grow and leverage the value of our brands across all sales channels. Brand value is based in part on consumer perceptions on a variety of subjective qualities. Even isolated business incidents that erode consumer trust, such as contaminated food, recalls or privacy breaches, particularly if the incidents receive considerable publicity or result in litigation, can significantly reduce brand value and have a negative impact on our financial results. Consumer demand for our products and our brand equity could diminish significantly if we or our licensees fail to preserve the quality of our products, are perceived to act in an unethical or socially irresponsible manner or fail to deliver a consistently positive consumer experience in each of our markets. Additionally, inconsistent uses of our brand and other of our intellectual property assets, as well as failure to protect our intellectual property, including from unauthorized uses of our brand or other of our intellectual property assets, can erode consumer trust and our brand value and have a negative impact on our financial results.
Our business strategy, including our plans for new stores, foodservice, branded products and other initiatives, relies significantly on a variety of business partners, and licensee and partnership relationships, particularly in our international markets. Licensees are often authorized to use our logos and provide branded beverages, food and other products directly to customers. We provide training and support to, and monitor the operations of, certain of these business partners, but the product quality and service they deliver may be diminished by any number of factors beyond our control, including financial pressures. We believe customers expect the same quality of products and service from our licensees as they do from us and we strive to ensure customers have the same experience whether they visit a company-operated or licensed store. Any shortcoming of a Starbucks business partner, particularly an issue affecting the quality of the service experience, the safety of beverages or food or compliance with laws and regulations, may be attributed by customers to us, thus damaging our reputation and brand value and potentially affecting our results of operations.
Our food and beverage products are sourced from a wide variety of domestic and international business partners in our supply chain operations, and in certain cases are produced or sourced by our licensees directly. We rely on these suppliers and vendors to provide high quality products and to comply with applicable laws. Our ability to find qualified suppliers and vendors who meet our standards and supply products in a timely and efficient manner is a significant challenge, especially with respect to goods sourced from outside the US. A vendor's or supplier's failure to meet our standards, provide products in a timely and efficient manner, and comply with applicable laws is beyond our control. These issues could negatively impact our business and profitability.
Failure to meet market expectations going forward, particularly with respect to operating margins, earnings per share, comparable store sales, operating cash flows, and net revenues, will likely result in a decline and/or increased volatility in the market price of our stock. In addition, price and volume fluctuations in the stock market as a whole may affect the market price of our stock in ways that may be unrelated to our financial performance.
Much of our future success depends on the continued availability and service of senior management personnel. The loss of any of our executive officers or other key senior management personnel could harm our business. We must continue to recruit, retain and motivate management and other employees sufficiently, both to maintain our current business and to execute our strategic initiatives, some of which involve ongoing expansion in business channels outside of our traditional company-operated store model. Our success also depends substantially on the contributions and abilities of our retail store employees whom we rely on to give customers a superior in-store experience. Accordingly, our performance depends on our ability to recruit and retain high quality employees to work in and manage our stores, both domestically and internationally. If we are unable to recruit, retain and motivate employees sufficiently to maintain our current business and support our projected growth, our business and financial performance may be adversely affected.
Some of our products contain caffeine, dairy products, sugar and other active compounds, the health effects of which are the subject of public scrutiny, including the suggestion that excessive consumption of caffeine, dairy products, sugar and other active compounds can lead to a variety of adverse health effects. Particularly in the US, there is increasing consumer awareness of health risks, including obesity, due in part to increased publicity and attention from health organizations, as well as increased consumer litigation based on alleged adverse health impacts of consumption of various food products. While we have a variety of beverage and food items, including items that are coffee-free and have reduced calories, an unfavorable report on the health effects of caffeine or other compounds present in our products, or negative publicity or litigation arising from certain health risks could significantly reduce the demand for our beverages and food products.
Similarly, instances or reports, whether true or not, of unclean water supply, food-borne illnesses, food tampering and food contamination, either during manufacturing, packaging or preparation, have in the past severely injured the reputations of companies in the food processing, grocery and quick-service restaurant sectors and could affect us as well. Any report linking us to the use of unclean water, food-borne illnesses, food tampering or food contamination could damage our brand value and severely hurt sales of our beverages and food products, and possibly lead to product liability claims, litigation (including class actions) or damages. Clean water is critical to the preparation of coffee and tea beverages and our ability to ensure a clean water supply to our stores can be limited, particularly in some international locations. If customers become ill from food-borne illnesses, tampering or contamination, we could also be forced to temporarily close some stores. In addition, instances of food-borne illnesses, food tampering or food contamination, even those occurring solely at the restaurants or stores of competitors, could, by resulting in negative publicity about the foodservice industry, adversely affect our sales on a regional or global basis. A decrease in customer traffic as a result of these health concerns or negative publicity, or as a result of a temporary closure of any of our stores, as well adverse results of claims or litigation, could materially harm our business and results of operations.
Effectively managing growth can be challenging, particularly as we continue to expand into new channels outside the retail store model, increase our focus on our Channel Development business, and expand into new markets internationally where we must balance the need for flexibility and a degree of autonomy for local management against the need for consistency with our goals, philosophy and standards. Growth can make it increasingly difficult to ensure a consistent supply of high-quality raw materials, to locate and hire sufficient numbers of key employees, to maintain an effective system of internal controls for a globally dispersed
enterprise and to train employees worldwide to deliver a consistently high quality product and customer experience.
We have recently completed several acquisitions and we continue to evaluate potential acquisitions, divestitures, or joint ventures with third parties. These transactions create risks such as:
In the event of any future acquisitions, we might need to issue additional equity securities, spend our cash, incur debt, or take on contingent liabilities, any of which could reduce our profitability and harm our business.
We rely heavily on information technology systems across our operations, including for administrative functions, point-of-sale processing and payment in our stores and online, management of our supply chain, Starbucks Cards, online business and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business and coordinate the production, distribution and sale of our products depends significantly on the reliability, integrity and capacity of these systems. We also rely on third party providers for some of these information technology systems and support. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems, or a breach in security of these systems could cause material negative impacts to our product sales, the efficiency of our operations and our financial results. Significant capital investments and other expenditures could be required to remedy the problem. Furthermore, security breaches of our employees' or customers' private data could result in a violation of applicable U.S. and international privacy and other laws, loss of revenues from the potential adverse impact to our reputation and our ability to retain or attract new customers, and could result in litigation, potential liability and the imposition of penalties.
Since 1988 we have offered comprehensive healthcare coverage to eligible full-time and part-time employees in the US. We currently have relatively low minimum work hour requirements for our US employees to be eligible for healthcare coverage under our healthcare plans but for various reasons many of our eligible employees choose not to participate in our plans. However, many of such eligible employees who currently choose not to participate in our healthcare plans may find it more advantageous to do so when recent changes to healthcare laws in the United States become effective in 2014. Such changes include potential fees to persons for not obtaining healthcare coverage and being ineligible for certain healthcare subsidies if an employee is eligible for healthcare coverage under an employer's plan. If a large portion of current eligible employees who
currently choose not to participate in our plans choose to enroll when or after the law becomes effective, it may significantly increase our healthcare coverage costs and negatively impact on our financial results.
Our policies and procedures are designed to comply with all applicable laws, accounting and reporting requirements, tax rules and other regulations and requirements, including those imposed by the SEC, NASDAQ, and foreign countries, as well as applicable trade, labor, healthcare, privacy, food, anti-bribery and corruption and merchandise laws. The complexity of the regulatory environment in which we operate and the related cost of compliance are both increasing due to additional or changing legal and regulatory requirements, our ongoing expansion into new markets and new channels, together with the fact that foreign laws occasionally conflict with domestic laws. In addition to potential damage to our reputation and brand, failure to comply with the various laws and regulations as well as changes in laws and regulations or the manner in which they are interpreted or applied, may result in civil and criminal liability, damages, fines and penalties, increased cost of regulatory compliance and restatements of our financial statements.
The significant properties used by Starbucks in connection with its roasting, distribution and corporate administrative operations, serving all segments, are as follows:
We own our roasting facilities and lease the majority of our warehousing and distribution locations. As of September 30, 2012, Starbucks had approximately 9,400 company-operated stores, almost all of which are leased. We also lease space in various locations worldwide for regional, district and other administrative offices, training facilities and storage.
In the first quarter of fiscal 2011, Starbucks notified Kraft Foods Global, Inc. (“Kraft”) that we were discontinuing our distribution arrangement with Kraft on March 1, 2011 due to material breaches by Kraft of its obligations under the Supply and License Agreement between the Company and Kraft, dated March 29, 2004 (the “Agreement”), which defined the main distribution arrangement between the parties. Through our arrangement with Kraft, Starbucks sold a selection of Starbucks and Seattle's Best Coffee branded packaged coffees in grocery and warehouse club stores throughout the US, and to grocery stores in Canada, the UK and
other European countries. Kraft managed the distribution, marketing, advertising and promotion of these products.
Kraft denies it has materially breached the Agreement. On November 29, 2010, Starbucks received a notice of arbitration from Kraft putting the commercial dispute between the parties into binding arbitration pursuant to the terms of the Agreement. In addition to denying it materially breached the Agreement, Kraft further alleges that if Starbucks wished to terminate the Agreement it must compensate Kraft as provided in the Agreement in an amount equal to the fair value of the Agreement, with an additional premium of up to 35% under certain circumstances.
On December 6, 2010, Kraft commenced a federal court action against Starbucks, entitled Kraft Foods Global, Inc. v. Starbucks Corporation, in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (the “District Court”) seeking injunctive relief to prevent Starbucks from terminating the distribution arrangement until the parties' dispute is resolved through the arbitration proceeding. On January 28, 2011, the District Court denied Kraft's request for injunctive relief. Kraft appealed the District Court's decision to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. On February 25, 2011, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court's decision. As a result, Starbucks is in full control of our packaged coffee business as of March 1, 2011.
While Starbucks believes we have valid claims of material breach by Kraft under the Agreement that allowed us to terminate the Agreement and certain other relationships with Kraft without compensation to Kraft, there exists the possibility of material adverse outcomes to Starbucks in the arbitration or to resolve the matter. Although Kraft disclosed to the press and in federal court filings a $750 million offer Starbucks made to Kraft in August 2010 to avoid litigation and ensure a smooth transition of the business, the figure is not a proper basis upon which to estimate a possible outcome of the arbitration but was based upon facts and circumstances at the time. Kraft rejected the offer immediately and did not provide a counter-offer, effectively ending the discussions between the parties with regard to any payment. Moreover, the offer was made prior to our investigation of Kraft's breaches and without consideration of Kraft's continuing failure to comply with material terms of the agreements.
On April 2, 2012, Starbucks and Kraft exchanged expert reports regarding alleged damages on their affirmative claims. Starbucks claimed damages of up to $62.9 million from the loss of sales resulting from Kraft's failure to use commercially reasonable efforts to market Starbucks® coffee, plus attorney fees. Kraft's expert opined that the fair market value of the Agreement was $1.9 billion. After applying a 35% premium and 9% interest, Kraft claimed damages of up to $2.9 billion, plus attorney fees. The arbitration hearing commenced on July 11, 2012 and was completed on August 3. Starbucks presented evidence of material breaches on Kraft's part and sought nominal damages from Kraft for those breaches. Kraft presented evidence denying it had breached the parties' Agreement and sought damages of $2.9 billion plus attorney fees. We expect a decision from the Arbitrator in the first half of fiscal 2013.
At this time, Starbucks believes an unfavorable outcome with respect to the arbitration is not probable, but as noted above is reasonably possible. As also noted above, Starbucks believes we have valid claims of material breach by Kraft under the Agreement that allowed us to terminate the Agreement without compensation to Kraft. In addition, Starbucks believes Kraft's damage estimates are highly inflated and based upon faulty analysis. As a result, we cannot reasonably estimate the possible loss. Accordingly, no loss contingency has been recorded for this matter.
Starbucks is party to various other legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business, including certain employment litigation cases that have been certified as class or collective actions, but, except as noted above, is not currently a party to any legal proceeding that management believes could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
MARKET INFORMATION AND DIVIDEND POLICY
Starbucks common stock is traded on NASDAQ, under the symbol “SBUX.”
The following table shows the quarterly high and low sale prices per share of Starbucks common stock as reported by NASDAQ for each quarter during the last two fiscal years and the quarterly cash dividend declared per share of our common stock during the periods indicated:
As of November 9, 2012, we had approximately 18,500 shareholders of record. This does not include persons whose stock is in nominee or “street name” accounts through brokers.
Future decisions to pay cash dividends continue to be at the discretion of the Board of Directors and will be dependent on our operating performance, financial condition, capital expenditure requirements, and other such factors that the Board of Directors considers relevant.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The following table provides information regarding repurchases of our common stock during the quarter ended September 30, 2012:
On November 14, 2012, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to an additional 25 million shares, in addition to the 12.1 million shares that remained available for repurchase at September 30, 2012 under previous authorizations. As with previous authorizations, shares may be repurchased in open market transactions, including pursuant to a trading plan adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The timing, manner, price and amount of repurchases will be determined in the Company's discretion and the share repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason.
Performance Comparison Graph
The following graph depicts the total return to shareholders from September 30, 2007 through September 30, 2012, relative to the performance of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, the NASDAQ Composite Index, and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Consumer Discretionary Sector, a peer group that includes Starbucks. All indices shown in the graph have been reset to a base of 100 as of September 30, 2007, and assume an investment of $100 on that date and the reinvestment of dividends paid since that date. The stock price performance shown in the graph is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.
The following selected financial data are derived from the consolidated financial statements. The data below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Risk Factors,” and the consolidated financial statements and notes.
Financial Information (in millions, except per share data):
Comparable Store Sales:
Store Count Data:
Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to September 30. The fiscal year ended on October 3, 2010 included 53 weeks with the 53rd week falling in the fourth fiscal quarter. The fiscal years ended on October 2, 2011 and September 30, 2012 both included 52 weeks. Comparable store sales percentages for fiscal 2010 are calculated excluding the 53rd week. All references to store counts, including data for new store openings, are reported net of related store closures, unless otherwise noted.
Starbucks results for fiscal 2012 reflect the strength of our global business model. We continue to execute on our new regional operating model which we implemented at the beginning of fiscal 2012. We now have four reportable operating segments: Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa ("EMEA"); China / Asia Pacific ("CAP") and Channel Development. Each segment is managed by an operating segment president.
Total net revenues increased 14% to $13.3 billion driven by global comparable store sales growth of 7% and a 50% increase in Channel Development revenue. This growth drove increased sales leverage and resulted in higher operating margin and net earnings compared to fiscal 2011. This helped mitigate the impact of higher commodity costs, mostly coffee, which negatively impacted operating income by approximately $214 million for the year, equivalent to approximately 160 basis points of impact on operating margin.
Our Americas business continued its strong momentum and contributed 75% of total net revenues in fiscal 2012. The revenue growth for the year was driven by an 8% increase in comparable store sales, comprised of a 6% increase in traffic and a 2% increase in average ticket. This sales growth, combined with a continued focus on operational efficiencies, drove increased sales leverage that offset the impact of higher commodity costs. Looking forward, we expect to continue driving sales growth and profitability through continued store efficiency efforts, new store development, and expanding our pipeline of new product offerings to increase revenues throughout all dayparts.
EMEA segment results reflect both the investments we have begun making as part of our transformation plan for the region, as well as the macro-economic headwinds we, and others, face there. This resulted in flat comparable store sales and operating income of $10 million for fiscal 2012, a decrease of $30 million compared to fiscal 2011. We started the year by putting in place a new leadership team that is focused on increasing the Starbucks brand presence, health and relevancy across the region, improving the profitability of the existing store base through a focus on revenue growth and operating costs, and identifying opportunities for new store growth through licensing arrangements. We expect the investments we are making as part of this transformation effort will result in improved operating performance as we progress on our plan towards mid-teens operating margin; however, this turnaround will take time to gain traction.
CAP segment revenues increased 31%, driven by new store growth and comparable store sales of 15%. This segment continues to grow rapidly and is becoming a more meaningful contributor to overall company profitability. We expect continued growth will be from a mix of new store openings and comparable store sales growth. China continues to be a significant growth opportunity for us as we remain on track to reach our goal of 1,500 stores in 2015. In addition, other key markets such as Japan, Korea, Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia all continue to be profitable and provide a solid foundation for continued growth in the region.
Our Channel Development segment represents another important, profitable growth opportunity for us. Channel Development results were a solid contributor to overall revenue growth with a 50% increase in revenues primarily due to sales of Starbucks and Tazo branded K-Cup® portion packs which launched at the start of fiscal 2012 and our transition to a direct distribution model for packaged coffee, which occurred during the second quarter of fiscal 2011. High commodity costs continued to be a significant drag on operating margin; however, despite these higher costs, operating income increased $61 million to $349 million for fiscal 2012. We expect continued innovation and new product offerings such as the Verismo™ system by Starbucks and Starbucks Refreshers™ beverages will drive further growth and profitability within this segment over time.
Fiscal 2013 — The View Ahead
For fiscal year 2013, we expect moderate revenue growth driven by mid single-digit increased comparable store sales, new store openings and strong growth in the Channel Development business. Licensed stores will comprise between one-half and two-thirds of new store openings.
We expect continued robust consolidated operating margin and EPS improvement compared to fiscal 2012, reflecting the strength of our global business and the pipeline of profitable growth initiatives.
We expect increased capital expenditures in fiscal 2013 compared to fiscal 2012, reflecting additional investments in store renovations, new store growth and manufacturing capacity.
Operating Segment Overview
Starbucks has four reportable operating segments: Americas, Europe, Middle East, and Africa ("EMEA"), China and Asia Pacific ("CAP") and Channel Development. Seattle’s Best Coffee is reported in “Other,” along with Evolution Fresh, Digital Ventures and unallocated corporate expenses that pertain to corporate administrative functions that support our operating segments but are not specifically attributable to or managed by any segment and are not included in the reported financial results of the operating segments.
The Americas, EMEA and CAP segments include company-operated stores and licensed stores. Licensed stores generally have a higher operating margin than company-operated stores. Under the licensed model, Starbucks receives a reduced share of the total store revenues, but this is more than offset by the reduction in its share of costs as these are primarily incurred by the licensee. The EMEA and CAP segments have a higher relative share of licensed stores versus company-operated stores compared to the Americas segment; however, the Americas segment has been operating significantly longer than the other segments and has developed deeper awareness of, and attachment to, the Starbucks brand and stores among its customer base. As a result, the more mature Americas segment has significantly more stores and higher total revenues than the other segments. Average sales per store are also higher in the Americas due to various factors including length of time in market and local income levels.
Starbucks store base in EMEA and CAP continues to expand and we continue to focus on achieving sustainable growth from established international markets while at the same time investing in emerging markets, such as China. Occupancy costs and store operating expenses can be higher in certain international markets than in the Americas segment due to higher rents for prime store locations or costs of compliance with country-specific regulatory requirements. Because many of our international operations are in an early phase of development, operating expenses as a percentage of related revenues are often higher compared to the Americas segment. International markets in the early stages of development require a more extensive support organization, relative to the current levels of revenue and operating income, than the Americas.
The Channel Development segment includes packaged coffee and tea, a variety of ready-to-drink beverages, single-serve coffee and tea products and other branded product operations worldwide, as well as the US foodservice business. In prior years through the first several months of fiscal 2011, we sold a selection of Starbucks and Seattle’s Best Coffee branded packaged coffees and Tazo® teas in grocery and warehouse club stores throughout the US and to grocery stores in Canada, the UK and other European countries through a distribution arrangement with Kraft Foods Global, Inc. Kraft managed the distribution, marketing, advertising and promotion of these products as a part of that arrangement. During fiscal 2011, we successfully transitioned these businesses including the marketing, advertising, and promotion of these products, from our previous distribution arrangement with Kraft and began selling these products directly to the grocery and warehouse club stores. Our Channel Development segment also includes ready-to-drink beverages, which are primarily manufactured and distributed through The North American Coffee Partnership, a joint venture with the Pepsi-Cola Company. The proportionate share of the results of the joint venture is included, on a net basis, in income from equity investees on the consolidated statements of earnings. The US foodservice business sells coffee and other related products to institutional foodservice companies with the majority of its sales through national broad-line distribution networks. The Channel Development segment reflects a modest cost structure and a resulting higher operating margin, compared to the other reporting segments, which consist primarily of retail stores.
See Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in this 10-K.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS — FISCAL 2012 COMPARED TO FISCAL 2011
Consolidated results of operations (in millions):
Consolidated net revenues were $13.3 billion for fiscal 2012, an increase of 13.7%, or $1.6 billion over fiscal 2011, primarily due to increased revenues from company-operated stores (contributing $902 million), driven by an increase in comparable store sales (approximately 7%, or $680 million). Also contributing to the increase were
incremental revenues from net new company-operated store openings over the past 12 months (approximately $184 million).
Licensed store revenues contributed $203 million to the increase in total net revenues in fiscal 2012, primarily due to higher product sales to and royalty revenues from our licensees, resulting from improved comparable store sales and the opening of 665 net new licensed stores over the past 12 months.
CPG, foodservice and other revenues increased $494 million, primarily due to sales of Starbucks and Tazo branded K-Cup® portion packs launched in the CPG channel on November 1, 2011 (approximately $232 million). The benefit of recognizing full revenue from packaged coffee and tea under the direct distribution model (approximately $78 million) and an increase in foodservice revenues (approximately $50 million) also contributed.
Cost of sales including occupancy costs as a percentage of total net revenues increased 170 basis points, driven by increased commodity costs (approximately 160 basis points), primarily due to higher coffee costs.
Store operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 120 basis points, due to increased Channel Development and licensed store revenues. Store operating expenses as a percent of company-operated store revenues decreased 10 basis points due to increased sales leverage.
Other operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 20 basis points. As a percentage of net revenues excluding company-operated store revenues, other operating expenses decreased 350 basis points. This decrease was primarily driven by increased sales leverage (approximately 150 basis points), the absence of charges in fiscal 2012 related to the Seattle’s Best Coffee store closures in Borders bookstores (approximately 80 basis points) and a shift in the timing of marketing spend (approximately 60 basis points).
Income from equity investees increased $37.0 million, primarily due to an increase in income from our North American Coffee Partnership (approximately $13 million), Japan (approximately $11 million) and Shanghai (approximately $10 million) joint venture operations.
The combination of these changes, along with increased sales leverage on depreciation and amortization (approximately 40 basis points) and general and administrative expenses (approximately 40 basis points), resulted in an increase in operating margin of 20 basis points over fiscal 2011.
Other Income and Expenses
Net interest income and other decreased $21 million over the prior year, primarily due to the absence of the gain recognized in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011 resulting from the acquisition of the remaining interest in our previous joint venture operations in Switzerland and Austria (approximately $55 million), partially offset by the recognition of additional income associated with unredeemed gifts cards in the second quarter of fiscal 2012 (approximately $29 million), following a court ruling related to state unclaimed property laws.
Income taxes for the fiscal year ended 2012 resulted in an effective tax rate of 32.8% compared to 31.1% for fiscal year 2011. The rate increased in fiscal year 2012 primarily due to tax benefits recognized in fiscal 2011 from the Switzerland and Austria transaction and the release of foreign valuation allowances. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2013 is expected to be approximately 33%.
Segment information is prepared on the same basis that our management reviews financial information for operational decision-making purposes. The following tables summarize the results of operations by segment (in millions):
Americas total net revenues for fiscal 2012 increased 10%, or $871 million, primarily due to increased revenues from company-operated stores (contributing $712 million), driven by an increase in comparable store sales (approximately 8%, or $626 million). Also contributing to the increase were incremental revenues from net new company-operated store openings over the past 12 months (approximately $100 million).
Licensed store revenues also contributed to the increase in total net revenues with an increase of $149 million in fiscal 2012 over the prior year period, primarily due to higher product sales to and royalty revenues from our licensees, resulting from improved comparable store sales and the opening of 270 net new licensed stores over the past 12 months.
Cost of sales including occupancy costs as a percentage of total net revenues increased 30 basis points, primarily driven by higher commodity costs (approximately 110 basis points), mainly coffee, partially offset by increased sales leverage on occupancy costs (approximately 70 basis points).
Store operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 60 basis points. Increased licensed store revenues contributed approximately 30 basis points of the decrease. Store operating expenses as a percentage of company-operated store revenues decreased 30 basis points, primarily due to increased sales leverage (approximately 70 basis points), partially offset by higher debit card transaction fees (approximately 20 basis points).
Other operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues was flat over prior year. As a percentage of net revenues excluding company-operated store revenues, other operating expenses decreased 100 basis points, primarily driven by increased sales leverage.
The combination of these changes, along with increased sales leverage on depreciation and amortization expense (approximately 40 basis points), resulted in an increase in operating margin of 60 basis points over fiscal 2011.
EMEA total net revenues for fiscal 2012 increased 9%, or $95 million, primarily driven by increased revenues from company-operated stores (contributing $63 million), due to the acquisition of the remaining interest in our previous joint venture operations in Switzerland and Austria in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2011 (approximately $80 million), partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency fluctuations (approximately $33 million).
An increase in licensed store revenues of $27 million also contributed to the increase in total net revenues, primarily due to higher product sales to and royalty revenues from our licensees, resulting from the opening of 101 net new licensed stores over the past 12 months.
Cost of sales including occupancy costs as a percentage of total net revenues increased 160 basis points, primarily driven by higher costs related to the transition to a consolidated food and dairy distribution model in the UK that began in the first quarter of fiscal 2012 (approximately 180 basis points). These costs are expected to decline over time as the full benefits of the transition are realized. Also contributing to the decrease were costs related to store portfolio optimization initiatives occurring in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 (approximately 60 basis points), partially offset by increased sales leverage on occupancy costs.
Store operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues increased 120 basis points. Store operating expenses as a percentage of company-operated store revenues increased 220 basis points, primarily driven by asset impairments related to underperforming stores (approximately 140 basis points). Also contributing to the decrease were costs related to store portfolio optimization initiatives occurring in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012 (approximately 40 basis points).
Other operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 60 basis points. Excluding the impact of company-operated store revenues, other operating expenses decreased 640 basis points, primarily driven by operational efficiencies.
Income from equity investees declined to $0.3 million in fiscal 2012, due to the acquisition of the remaining interest in our previous joint venture operations in Switzerland and Austria.
The above changes contributed to a decrease in operating margin of 290 basis points over the prior year.
China / Asia Pacific
China / Asia Pacific total net revenues for fiscal 2012 increased 31%, or $169 million, primarily driven by increased revenues from company-operated stores (contributing $128 million). The increase in company-operated store revenues was primarily due to the opening of 154 net new stores over the past 12 months (approximately $71 million) and an increase in comparable store sales (approximately 15%, or $53 million).
Also contributing to the increase in revenues was an increase in licensed store revenues of $41 million, due to increased royalty revenues from and product sales to licensees, primarily driven by 294 net new licensed store openings over the past 12 months.
Cost of sales including occupancy costs as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 80 basis points primarily driven by the accelerated growth of company-operated stores, which contribute a higher gross margin, in China (approximately 140 basis points), partially offset by increased commodity costs (approximately 120 basis points), mainly higher coffee costs.
Store operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues increased 140 basis points. Store operating expenses as a percentage of company-operated store revenues increased 130 basis points, primarily driven by increased costs associated with the expansion efforts of company-operated stores in mainland China.
Income from equity investees increased $30 million, primarily driven by an increase in income from our Japan (approximately $11 million) and Shanghai (approximately $10 million) joint venture operations.
The combination of these changes, along with increased sales leverage on depreciation and amortization (approximately 10 basis points) and general and administrative expenses (approximately 70 basis points), resulted in an increase in operating margin of 10 basis points over fiscal 2011.
Channel Development total net revenues for fiscal 2012 increased 50%, or $432 million, primarily due to sales of Starbucks and Tazo branded K-Cup® portion packs (approximately $232 million). The benefit of recognizing full revenue from packaged coffee and tea sales under the direct distribution model through the second quarter of fiscal 2012 (approximately $70 million) and increased foodservice revenues (approximately $33 million) also contributed.
Cost of sales as a percentage of total net revenues increased 730 basis points, primarily due to increased commodity costs (approximately 570 basis points), mainly coffee, and a shift in our product mix driven by the introduction of Starbucks and Tazo branded K-Cup® portion packs (approximately 140 basis points).
Other operating expenses as a percentage of total net revenues decreased 280 basis points, primarily due to increased sales leverage.
Income from equity investees increased $10 million over the prior year period, driven by increased income from our North American Coffee Partnership joint venture. Income from equity investees declined as a percentage of total net revenues (approximately 220 basis points) primarily due to the growth in segment revenues.
The combination of these changes resulted in a decrease in operating margin of 640 basis points over fiscal 2011.