SUMR » Topics » Federal Income Tax Consequences

This excerpt taken from the SUMR 8-K filed Jun 10, 2008.

Federal Income Tax Consequences

 

The following discussion of the federal income tax consequences of participation in the plan is only a summary of the general rules applicable to the grant and exercise of stock options and other awards and does not give specific details or cover, among other things, state, local and foreign tax treatment of participation in the plan. The information contained in this section is based on present law and regulations, which are subject to being changed prospectively or retroactively.

 

Incentive stock options. Participants will recognize no taxable income upon the grant or exercise of an incentive stock option. The participant will realize no taxable income when the incentive stock option is exercised if the participant has been an employee of the Company or any of the Company’s subsidiaries at all times from the date of the grant until three months before the date of exercise, one year if the participant is disabled. The excess, if any, of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise of an incentive stock option over the exercise price will be treated as an item of adjustment for a participant’s taxable year in which the exercise occurs and may result in an alternative minimum tax liability for the participant. The Company will not qualify for any deduction in connection with the grant or exercise of incentive stock options. Upon a disposition of the shares after the later of two years from the date of grant or one year after the transfer of the shares to a participant, the participant will recognize the difference, if any, between the amount realized and the exercise price as long-term capital gain or long-term capital loss, as the case may be, if the shares are capital assets.

 

If common stock acquired upon the exercise of an incentive stock option is disposed of prior to the expiration of the holding periods described above: the participant will recognize ordinary compensation

 

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income in the taxable year of disposition in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the lesser of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise or the amount realized on the disposition of the shares, over the exercise price paid for the shares; and the Company will qualify for a deduction equal to any amount recognized, subject to the limitation that the compensation be reasonable.

 

In the case of a disposition of shares earlier than two years from the date of the grant or in the same taxable year as the exercise, where the amount realized on the disposition is less than the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise, there will be no adjustment since the amount treated as an item of adjustment, for alternative minimum tax purposes, is limited to the excess of the amount realized on the disposition over the exercise price, which is the same amount included in regular taxable income.

 

Non-incentive stock options.

 

With respect to non-incentive stock options:

 

·              upon grant of the stock option, the participant will recognize no income provided that the exercise price was not less than the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant;

 

·              upon exercise of the stock option, if the shares of common stock are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the participant will recognize ordinary compensation income in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise over the exercise price, and the Company will qualify for a deduction in the same amount, subject to the requirement that the compensation be reasonable; and

 

·              the Company will be required to comply with applicable federal income tax withholding requirements with respect to the amount of ordinary compensation income recognized by the participant.

 

On a disposition of the shares, the participant will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the sum of the exercise price and the ordinary compensation income recognized. The gain or loss will be treated as capital gain or loss if the shares are capital assets and as short-term or long-term capital gain or loss, depending upon the length of time that the participant held the shares.

 

If the shares acquired upon exercise of a non-incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the participant will recognize ordinary income at the time when the substantial risk of forfeiture is removed, unless the participant timely files under Section 83(b) of the Code to elect to be taxed on the receipt of shares, and the Company will qualify for a corresponding deduction at that time. The amount of ordinary income will be equal to the excess of the fair market value of the shares at the time the income is recognized over the amount, if any, paid for the shares.

 

Stock appreciation rights. Upon the grant of a stock appreciation right, the participant recognizes no taxable income and the Company receives no deduction. The participant recognizes ordinary income and the Company receives a deduction at the time of exercise equal to the cash and fair market value of common stock payable upon the exercise.

 

Restricted stock. A participant who receives restricted stock will recognize no income on the grant of the restricted stock and the Company will not qualify for any deduction. At the time the restricted stock is no longer subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, a participant will recognize ordinary compensation

 

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income in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the restricted stock at the time the restriction lapses over the consideration paid for the restricted stock. A participant’s shares are treated as being subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture so long as his or her sale of the shares at a profit could subject him or her to a suit under Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act. The holding period to determine whether the participant has long-term or short-term capital gain or loss begins when the restriction period expires, and the tax basis for the shares will generally be the fair market value of the shares on this date.

 

A participant may elect under Section 83(b) of the Code, within 30 days of the transfer of the restricted stock, to recognize ordinary compensation income on the date of transfer in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value on the date of transfer of the shares of restricted stock, as determined without regard to the restrictions, over the consideration paid for the restricted stock. If a participant makes an election and thereafter forfeits the shares, no ordinary loss deduction will be allowed. The forfeiture will be treated as a sale or exchange upon which there is realized loss equal to the excess, if any, of the consideration paid for the shares over the amount realized on such forfeiture. The loss will be a capital loss if the shares are capital assets. If a participant makes an election under Section 83(b), the holding period will commence on the day after the date of transfer and the tax basis will equal the fair market value of shares, as determined without regard to the restrictions, on the date of transfer.

 

On a disposition of the shares, a participant will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the tax basis for the shares.

 

Whether or not the participant makes an election under Section 83(b), the Company generally will qualify for a deduction, subject to the reasonableness of compensation limitation, equal to the amount that is taxable as ordinary income to the participant, in the taxable year in which the income is included in the participant’s gross income. The income recognized by the participant will be subject to applicable withholding tax requirements.

 

Dividends paid on restricted stock that is subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture generally will be treated as compensation that is taxable as ordinary compensation income to the participant and will be deductible by the Company, subject to the reasonableness limitation. If, however, the participant makes a Section 83(b) election, the dividends will be treated as dividends and taxable as ordinary income to the participant, but will not be deductible by the Company.

 

Deferred stock. A participant who receives an award of deferred stock will recognize no income on the grant of the award. However, he or she will recognize ordinary compensation income on the transfer of the deferred stock, or the later lapse of a substantial risk of forfeiture to which the deferred stock is subject, if the participant does not make a Section 83(b) election, in accordance with the same rules as discussed above under the caption “Restricted stock.”

 

Other stock-based awards. The federal income tax treatment of other stock-based awards will depend on the nature and restrictions applicable to the award.

 

Certain Awards Deferring or Accelerating the Receipt of Compensation. Section 409A of the Code, enacted as part of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, imposes certain new requirements applicable to “nonqualified deferred compensation plans.” If a nonqualified deferred compensation plan subject to Section 409A fails to meet, or is not operated in accordance with, these new requirements, then all compensation deferred under the plan may become immediately taxable. Stock appreciation rights and deferred stock awards that may be granted under the plan may constitute deferred compensation subject to the Section 409A requirements. It is the Company’s intention that any award agreement governing awards subject to Section 409A will comply with these new rules.

 

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This excerpt taken from the SUMR DEF 14A filed Apr 29, 2008.

Federal Income Tax Consequences

        The following discussion of the federal income tax consequences of participation in the plan is only a summary of the general rules applicable to the grant and exercise of stock options and other awards and does not give specific details or cover, among other things, state, local and foreign tax treatment of participation in the plan. The information contained in this section is based on present law and regulations, which are subject to being changed prospectively or retroactively.

        Incentive stock options.    Participants will recognize no taxable income upon the grant or exercise of an incentive stock option. The participant will realize no taxable income when the incentive stock option is exercised if the participant has been an employee of ours or any of our subsidiaries at all times from the date of the grant until three months before the date of exercise, one year if the participant is disabled. The excess, if any, of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise of an incentive stock option over the exercise price will be treated as an item of adjustment for a participant's taxable year in which the exercise occurs and may result in an alternative minimum tax liability for the participant. We will not qualify for any deduction in connection with the grant or exercise of incentive stock options. Upon a disposition of the shares after the later of two years from the date of grant or one year after the transfer of the shares to a participant, the participant will recognize the difference, if any, between the amount realized and the exercise price as long-term capital gain or long-term capital loss, as the case may be, if the shares are capital assets.

        If common stock acquired upon the exercise of an incentive stock option is disposed of prior to the expiration of the holding periods described above, the participant will recognize ordinary

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compensation income in the taxable year of disposition in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the lesser of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise or the amount realized on the disposition of the shares, over the exercise price paid for the shares, and we will qualify for a deduction equal to any amount recognized, subject to the limitation that the compensation be reasonable.

        In the case of a disposition of shares earlier than two years from the date of the grant or in the same taxable year as the exercise, where the amount realized on the disposition is less than the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise, there will be no adjustment since the amount treated as an item of adjustment, for alternative minimum tax purposes, is limited to the excess of the amount realized on the disposition over the exercise price, which is the same amount included in regular taxable income.

        Non-incentive stock options.    With respect to non-incentive stock options:

    upon grant of the stock option, the participant will recognize no income provided that the exercise price was not less than the fair market value of our common stock on the date of grant;

    upon exercise of the stock option, if the shares of common stock are not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the participant will recognize ordinary compensation income in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the shares on the date of exercise over the exercise price, and we will qualify for a deduction in the same amount, subject to the requirement that the compensation be reasonable; and

    we will be required to comply with applicable federal income tax withholding requirements with respect to the amount of ordinary compensation income recognized by the participant.

        On a disposition of the shares, the participant will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the sum of the exercise price and the ordinary compensation income recognized. The gain or loss will be treated as capital gain or loss if the shares are capital assets and as short-term or long-term capital gain or loss, depending upon the length of time that the participant held the shares.

        If the shares acquired upon exercise of a non-incentive stock option are subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, the participant will recognize ordinary income at the time when the substantial risk of forfeiture is removed, unless the participant timely files under Section 83(b) of the Code to elect to be taxed on the receipt of shares, and we will qualify for a corresponding deduction at that time. The amount of ordinary income will be equal to the excess of the fair market value of the shares at the time the income is recognized over the amount, if any, paid for the shares.

        Stock appreciation rights.    Upon the grant of a stock appreciation right, the participant recognizes no taxable income and we receives no deduction. The participant recognizes ordinary income and we receives a deduction at the time of exercise equal to the cash and fair market value of common stock payable upon the exercise.

        Restricted stock.    A participant who receives restricted stock will recognize no income on the grant of the restricted stock and we will not qualify for any deduction. At the time the restricted stock is no longer subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture, a participant will recognize ordinary compensation income in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the restricted stock at the time the restriction lapses over the consideration paid for the restricted stock. A participant's shares are treated as being subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture so long as his or her sale of the shares at a profit could subject him or her to a suit under Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act. The holding period to determine whether the participant has long-term or short-term capital gain or loss begins when the restriction period expires, and the tax basis for the shares will generally be the fair market value of the shares on this date.

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        A participant may elect under Section 83(b) of the Code, within 30 days of the transfer of the restricted stock, to recognize ordinary compensation income on the date of transfer in an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value on the date of transfer of the shares of restricted stock, as determined without regard to the restrictions, over the consideration paid for the restricted stock. If a participant makes an election and thereafter forfeits the shares, no ordinary loss deduction will be allowed. The forfeiture will be treated as a sale or exchange upon which there is realized loss equal to the excess, if any, of the consideration paid for the shares over the amount realized on such forfeiture. The loss will be a capital loss if the shares are capital assets. If a participant makes an election under Section 83(b), the holding period will commence on the day after the date of transfer and the tax basis will equal the fair market value of shares, as determined without regard to the restrictions, on the date of transfer.

        On a disposition of the shares, a participant will recognize gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and the tax basis for the shares.

        Whether or not the participant makes an election under Section 83(b), we generally will qualify for a deduction, subject to the reasonableness of compensation limitation, equal to the amount that is taxable as ordinary income to the participant, in the taxable year in which the income is included in the participant's gross income. The income recognized by the participant will be subject to applicable withholding tax requirements.

        Dividends paid on restricted stock that is subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture generally will be treated as compensation that is taxable as ordinary compensation income to the participant and will be deductible by us, subject to the reasonableness limitation. If, however, the participant makes a Section 83(b) election, the dividends will be treated as dividends and taxable as ordinary income to the participant, but will not be deductible by us.

        Deferred stock.    A participant who receives an award of deferred stock will recognize no income on the grant of the award. However, he or she will recognize ordinary compensation income on the transfer of the deferred stock, or the later lapse of a substantial risk of forfeiture to which the deferred stock is subject, if the participant does not make a Section 83(b) election, in accordance with the same rules as discussed above under the caption "Restricted stock."

        Other stock-based awards.    The federal income tax treatment of other stock-based awards will depend on the nature and restrictions applicable to the award.

        Certain Awards Deferring or Accelerating the Receipt of Compensation.    Section 409A of the Code, enacted as part of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, imposes certain new requirements applicable to "nonqualified deferred compensation plans." If a nonqualified deferred compensation plan subject to Section 409A fails to meet, or is not operated in accordance with, these new requirements, then all compensation deferred under the plan may become immediately taxable. Stock appreciation rights and deferred stock awards that may be granted under the plan may constitute deferred compensation subject to the Section 409A requirements. It is our intention that any award agreement governing awards subject to Section 409A will comply with these new rules.

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