Symantec 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Commission File Number 000-17781
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Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
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Aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing sale price of Symantec common stock on October 3, 2008 as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market: $14,129,454,929.
Number of shares outstanding of the registrants common stock as of May 1, 2009: 817,831,058
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with our Annual Meeting of Stockholders for 2009 are incorporated by reference into Part III herein.
For the Fiscal Year Ended April 3, 2009
Symantec, we, us, and our refer to Symantec Corporation and all of its subsidiaries. Symantec, the Symantec Logo, Norton, and Veritas are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec in the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
The discussion below contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to safe harbors under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). Forward-looking statements include references to our ability to utilize our deferred tax assets, as well as statements including words such as expects, plans, anticipates, believes, estimates, predicts, projects, and similar expressions. In addition, statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, anticipated growth and trends in our businesses and in our industries, the anticipated impacts of acquisitions, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions, based on our current expectations about future events and may not prove to be accurate. We do not undertake any obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events occurring or circumstances arising after the date of this report. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, and our actual results, performance, or achievements could differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements on the basis of several factors, including those that we discuss under Item 1A, Risk Factors. We encourage you to read that section carefully.
Symantec is a global leader of security, storage and systems management solutions to help businesses and consumers secure and manage their information. We conduct our business in three geographic regions: Americas, which includes United States, Canada, and Latin America; EMEA, which includes Europe, the Middle East and Africa; and Asia Pacific Japan (APJ).
Our delivery network includes direct, inside, and channel sales resources that support our ecosystem of more than 40,000 partners worldwide, as well as various relationships with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), Internet service providers (ISPs), and retail and online stores. We provide customers worldwide with software and services that protect, manage and control information risks related to security, backup and recovery, storage, compliance, and systems management.
Founded in 1982, Symantec has operations in more than 40 countries and our principal executive offices are located at 20330 Stevens Creek Blvd., Cupertino, California 95014. Our telephone number at that location is (408) 517-8000. Our home page on the Internet is www.symantec.com. Other than the information expressly set forth in this annual report, the information contained, or referred to, on our website is not part of this annual report.
Symantecs strategy is to provide software and services to secure and manage the connected, information-driven world of our customers against more risks at more points, more completely and efficiently than any other company. We help individuals, small businesses, and global organizations ensure that their information, technology infrastructures and related processes are protected, managed easily and controlled automatically, independent of devices, platforms or locations.
We operate primarily in three diversified markets within the software sector: security, storage and systems management. The security market includes mission-critical products that protect consumers and enterprises from threats to electronic information, endpoint devices, and computer networks. Over the past year, we have seen a continued rise in the volume of security threats. Whereas attackers used to mass-distribute a threat to thousands or millions of targeted machines, todays attackers often send individually crafted attacks to each victim. Attackers are also targeting users with social-engineering attacks, such as phishing websites that steal financial information, passwords and other personal data. The Internet has become the primary conduit for attack activity with hackers funneling threats through legitimate websites, placing a much larger percentage of the population at risk than in the past. Security continues to be a top priority for enterprises as information security is increasingly linked to regulatory compliance.
The storage software market includes products that manage, archive, backup, and recover business-critical data. Key drivers of demand in this market include the increasing volume of information that organizations of all sizes must manage, which is doubling every two years, the need for data to be protected and accessible at all times, and the need for a growing number of critical applications to be continuously available. Other factors driving demand in this market include the increasing pressure on companies to lower storage and server management costs while simultaneously increasing the utilization, availability levels, and performance of their existing information technology (IT) infrastructure.
The systems management market includes products that control the IT environment by streamlining efforts associated with deploying, managing, patching and remediating enterprise client and server assets. The drivers for demand in this market include customers desire to automate management tasks, to ensure business productivity and to reduce IT costs and complexity.
We believe that the security, storage and systems management software markets are converging as customers increasingly require our help in mitigating their risk profiles and managing their storage solutions in order to secure and manage their most valuable asset their information. As the tools and processes from these formerly discrete
domains become more integrated, we have taken a more proactive and policy-driven approach to protecting and managing information throughout its lifetime.
During fiscal 2009, we took the following actions to support our business:
Our operating segments are significant strategic business units that offer different products and services, distinguished by customer needs. During fiscal 2009, we had five operating segments: Consumer, Security and Compliance, Storage and Server Management, Services, and Other.
Our Consumer segment provides suites and services that include Internet security, PC tuneup, and backup for individual users and home offices. Our Nortontm brand of consumer security software products provides protection for Windows®, Macintosh®, Windows-Mobile®, and Symbiantm platforms.
New customer acquisition is driven by increased threats, the need for identity protection, the growth of online transactions and the rapid increase of consumer data, such as photos, music libraries and video. Our award-winning Norton 2009 releases set a new standard for speed and performance. We continue to acquire customers through a diversified channel strategy that places our products where customers want to buy, including most of the top OEMs and through our number one position in retail. With the acquisition of PC Tools, Symantec reaches more segments, such as emerging markets, price sensitive consumers and new e-commerce channels.
Norton retains and leverages its strong existing customer base through auto-renewal subscriptions, migrating customers from point products to multi-product suites such as Norton Internet Security and Norton 360 and selling them additional products or services such as NortonLive services or the new Norton Online Backup. Through Norton 360, various partnerships and online channels, we are the market leader for online backup. Symantec hosts over 30 petabytes of consumers data and we have more than 7 million customers.
Symantec continued improving its consumer customer experience, satisfaction and loyalty during fiscal 2009. Our primary consumer products are: Norton 360tm, Norton Internet Securitytm, and Norton AntiVirus.
Our Security and Compliance segment helps our customers standardize, automate and reduce the costs of day-to-day security activities in order to secure and manage their information.
Our primary solutions in this segment address the following areas:
Enterprise security customer demand is driven by the quickly evolving threat environment, compliance regulations, and the need to keep confidential information from exposure outside the organization. Our solutions are built on market-leading policy management, data loss prevention, endpoint security, antispam, and content filtering technologies, allowing IT professionals to proactively mitigate information security risks and policy violations. We also help customers define, control, and govern their IT policies from a central location. This enables customers to protect critical assets and reduce business risk. Products include Symantec Endpoint Protection, Symantec Data Loss Prevention, Control Compliance Suite and Symantec Brightmail Gateway.
Our Endpoint Management business consisting of our systems management products is driven by the need for automated asset management, patch management and remediation. Our solutions offer better visibility into IT assets, simplified day-to-day manageability and improved end-user productivity, helping customers realize cost savings and value from their existing IT investments. Another key demand driver is endpoint virtualization, which frees up critical information from the myriad of operating system functions and devices so it can be secured and managed. Our products include the Altiris Client Management Suite, Altiris Server Management Suite, Altiris Total Management Suite, and Symantec Endpoint Virtualization Suite.
Growth in our archiving business is driven by increased e-discovery requirements and the growth of unstructured data such as email and instant messaging (IM). Symantec Enterprise Vaulttm optimizes storage by reducing expensive long-term storage of this data in an easy to access format.
Our Storage and Server Management segment focuses on providing enterprise customers with storage management, high availability, and backup and recovery solutions across heterogeneous storage and server platforms. These solutions enable companies to standardize on a single layer of infrastructure software that works on every major distributed operating system and supports every major storage device, database, and application.
Our primary storage and server management solutions address the following areas:
Our Storage Management and High Availability business is driven by our customers need to reduce overall storage costs through improved utilization of existing systems and virtualization. The business is also driven by customer migration to x86 based servers, which provides a reliance on management and availability tools to manage complexity and provide business continuity. Our products help customers simplify their data centers by
standardizing storage management across their environment for more efficient use of their existing storage investment. They also enable enterprises to manage large storage environments and ensure the availability of critical applications. Products include Veritas Storage Foundationtm, Veritas CommandCentral Storage, and Veritastm Cluster Server.
Growth in the backup and recovery business is driven by migration from tape to disk-based backup, support for virtualization, de-duplication, and continuous data protection. The transition of NetBackup to a platform-based architecture enables our customers to take advantage of these drivers. Products include Veritas NetBackuptm, Veritas NetBackup PureDisktm, Symantec Backup Exectm, and Symantec Backup Exec System Recovery.
Symantec Global Services help customers address information security, availability, storage, and compliance challenges at the endpoint and in complex, multi-vendor data center environments. Our Services segment delivers Consulting, Education and Business Critical Services that help our customers maximize the value of their investment in our products and solutions. Managed Services and SaaS offerings provide customers the additional choice of on-demand services to meet their IT requirements.
Symantec Consulting provides advisory, product enablement and residency services to enable customers to assess, design, transform and operate their infrastructure, leveraging Symantec products and solutions. Education Services provides a full range of programs, including technical training and security awareness training, to help customers optimize their Symantec solutions. Business Critical Services, our highest level of support, provides personalized, proactive support from technical experts for enterprises that require secure, uninterrupted access to their data and applications.
Symantec Managed Services and SaaS offerings enable customers to place resource-intensive IT operations under the management of experienced Symantec specialists in order to optimize existing resources and focus on strategic IT projects. This helps customers by reducing IT complexity, managing IT risk, and lowering the cost of operations. Recently acquired SaaS offerings from MessageLabs, combined with our Symantec Protection Network backup and recovery offerings provide our customers the flexibility to manage their business using online services or hybrid onsite and in-the-cloud solutions. These services include Symantec Managed Security Services, Symantec Managed Backup and MessageLabs Email Security Solutions.
For information regarding our revenue by segment, revenue by geographical area, and long-lived assets by geographical area, see Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report. For information regarding the amount and percentage of our revenue contributed in each of our segments and our financial information, including information about geographic areas in which we operate, see Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report. For information regarding risks associated with our international operations, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.
We sell our consumer products and services to individuals and home offices globally through a multi-tiered network of distribution partners and through e-commerce channels. Our products are available to customers through distributors, retailers, direct marketers, Internet-based resellers, OEMs, system builders, and ISPs.
Sales in the Consumer business through our electronic distribution channel, which includes sales derived from OEMs, subscriptions, upgrades, online sales, and renewals, grew by $143 million in fiscal 2009 over fiscal 2008. During fiscal 2009, approximately 79 percent of revenue in the Consumer segment came from our electronic channels.
We sell and market our products and related services to enterprise customers through our direct sales force of more than 3,500 and through a variety of indirect sales channels, which include value-added resellers, large account resellers, distributors, and system integrators. We also sell our products through authorized distributors in more than 40 countries and OEM partners who incorporate our technologies into their products, bundle our products with their offerings, or serve as authorized resellers of our products. Our sales efforts are primarily targeted to senior executives and IT department personnel responsible for managing a companys IT initiatives.
During fiscal 2009, we added a SaaS delivery model offering a pay-as-you-go model that meets the needs of enterprise and small and medium business with evolving storage and security requirements.
Our marketing expenditure relates primarily to advertising and promotion, which includes demand generation and brand recognition of our consumer and enterprise products. Our advertising and promotion efforts include, but are not limited to, electronic and print advertising, trade shows, collateral production, and all forms of direct marketing. We also invest in cooperative marketing campaigns with distributors, resellers, retailers, OEMs, and industry partners.
We invest in various retention marketing and customer loyalty programs to help drive renewals and encourage customer advocacy and referrals. We also provide focused vertical marketing programs in targeted industries and countries.
We typically offer two types of rebate programs within most countries: volume incentive rebates to channel partners and promotional rebates to distributors and end-users. Distributors and resellers earn volume incentive rebates primarily based upon product sales to end-users. We also offer rebates to individual users who purchase products through various resale channels. We regularly offer upgrade rebates to consumers purchasing a new version of a product. Both volume incentive rebates and end-user rebates are accrued as an offset to revenue.
Symantec has centralized support facilities throughout the world that provide rapid, around-the-clock response, and are staffed by technical product experts knowledgeable in the operating environments in which our products are deployed. Our technical support experts assist customers with product implementation and usage, issue resolution and countermeasures, and threat detection.
Symantec provides customers various levels of enterprise support offerings. Our enterprise security support program offers annual maintenance support contracts, including content, upgrades, and technical support. Our standard technical support includes: unlimited hotline service delivered by telephone, fax, email, and over the Internet; immediate patches for severe problems; periodic software updates; and access to our technical knowledge base and frequently asked questions.
Our Consumer product support program provides self-help online services, phone, chat, email support and fee-based premium support and diagnostic services to consumers worldwide. Customers that subscribe to LiveUpdate receive automatic downloads of the latest virus definitions, application bug fixes, and patches for most of our consumer products.
In fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007, one reseller, Digital River accounted for 10%, 11% and 12%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Digital River represented the only customer that accounted for 10 percent or more of
revenues in fiscal 2009. In fiscal 2008 and 2007, one distributor, Ingram Micro accounted for 10% and 11%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Our distributor arrangements with Ingram Micro consist of several non-exclusive, independently negotiated agreements with its subsidiaries, each of which cover different countries or regions. Each of these agreements is separately negotiated and is independent of any other contract (such as a master distribution agreement), and these agreements are not based on the same form of contract. None of these contracts were individually responsible for over 10 percent of our total net revenues in fiscal 2008 and 2007.
Research and development expenses, exclusive of in-process research and development associated with acquisitions, were $880 million, $894 million and $867 million in fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively, representing approximately 14%, 15% and 17% of revenue in the respective periods. We believe that technical leadership is essential to our success and we expect to continue to commit substantial resources to research and development.
Symantec embraces a global R&D strategy to drive organic innovation across the company. Engineers throughout the company pursue advanced projects and work with our engineering centers, research labs, global services teams, and new business incubator to translate R&D into next-generation security, storage and systems management technologies. Symantec focuses on short, medium, and long-term applied research, develops new products in emerging areas, participates in government-funded research projects, and partners with universities to conduct research to support Symantecs vision. Symantec holds more than 600 global patents.
Our Security Response experts, located at research centers throughout the world, are focused on collecting and analyzing the latest malware threats, ranging from network security threats and vulnerabilities to viruses and worms. All this data is collected through the Symantec Global Intelligence Network, which provides insight into emerging trends in attacks, malicious code activity, phishing, spam, and other threats. This hands-on expertise is further leveraged in developing new technologies and approaches to protecting customers information and systems.
Our strategic technology acquisitions are designed to enhance the features and functionality of our existing products, and extend our product leadership, as well as to expand into emerging businesses such as SaaS and endpoint virtualization. We consider time to market, synergies with existing products, and potential market share gains when evaluating acquisitions of technologies, product lines, or companies. We may acquire and/or dispose of other technologies, products and companies in the future.
During fiscal 2009, we completed the following acquisitions:
For further discussion of our acquisitions, see Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report.
Our markets are consolidating, highly competitive, and subject to rapid changes in technology. We are focused on integrating next generation technology capabilities into our solution set in order to differentiate ourselves from the competition. We believe that the principal competitive factors necessary to be successful in our industry also include, time to market, price, reputation, financial stability, breadth of product offerings, customer support, brand recognition, and effective sales and marketing efforts.
In addition to the competition we face from direct competitors, we face indirect or potential competition from retail, application providers, operating system providers, network equipment manufacturers, and other OEMs, who may provide various solutions and functions in their current and future products. We also compete for access to retail distribution channels and for the attention of customers at the retail level and in corporate accounts. In addition, we compete with other software companies, operating system providers, network equipment manufacturers and other OEMs to acquire technologies, products, or companies and to publish software developed by third parties. We also compete with other software companies in our effort to place our products on the computer equipment sold to consumers by OEMs.
The competitive environments in which each segment operates are described below.
Some of the channels in which our consumer products are offered are highly competitive. Our competitors are intensely focused on customer acquisition, which has led such competitors to offer their technology for free, engage in aggressive marketing, or enter into competitive partnerships. Our primary competitors in the Consumer segment are Kaspersky Lab, McAfee, Inc. (McAfee), Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft), and Trend Micro Inc. (Trend Micro). There are also several smaller regional security companies that we compete against primarily in the EMEA and APJ regions. For our consumer backup offerings, our primary competitors are Mozy, Inc. (Mozy), acquired by EMC Corporation, and Carbonite, Inc.
In the security and management markets, we compete against many companies that offer competing products to our technology solutions. Our primary competitors in the security and management market are LANDesk Software, Inc., McAfee, Microsoft, and Trend Micro. There are also several smaller regional security companies that we compete against primarily in the EMEA and APJ regions.
The markets for storage and backup are intensely competitive. Our primary competitors are CA, Inc., CommVault Systems, Inc., EMC Corporation (EMC), Hewlett-Packard Company (HP), IBM Corp. (IBM), Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, Inc., and VMware, Inc.
We believe that the principal competitive factors for our services segment include technical capability, customer responsiveness, and our ability to hire and retain talented and experienced services personnel. Our primary competitors in the services segment are EMC, HP, IBM, and regional specialized consulting firms. In the managed security services business, our primary competitors are IBM, SecureWorks, Inc., and VeriSign, Inc.
In the SaaS business, which includes the MessageLabs offerings, our primary competitors are Postini, acquired by Google, Inc., and Mozy.
We regard some of the features of our internal operations, software, and documentation as proprietary and rely on copyright, patent, trademark and trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures, contractual arrangements, and other measures to protect our proprietary information. Our intellectual property is an important and valuable asset that enables us to gain recognition for our products, services, and technology and enhance our competitive position.
As part of our confidentiality procedures, we generally enter into non-disclosure agreements with our employees, distributors, and corporate partners, and we enter into license agreements with respect to our software, documentation, and other proprietary information. These license agreements are generally non-transferable and have a perpetual term. We also educate our employees on trade secret protection and employ measures to protect our facilities, equipment, and networks.
Symantec and the Symantec logo are trademarks or registered trademarks in the U.S. and other countries. In addition to Symantec and the Symantec logo, we have used, registered, and/or applied to register other specific trademarks and service marks to help distinguish our products, technologies, and services from those of our competitors in the U.S. and foreign countries and jurisdictions. We enforce our trademark, service mark, and trade name rights in the U.S. and abroad. The duration of our trademark registrations varies from country to country, and in the U.S. we generally are able to maintain our trademark rights and renew any trademark registrations for as long as the trademarks are in use.
We have a number of U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, including patents and rights to patent applications acquired through strategic transactions, which relate to various aspects of our products and technology. The duration of our patents is determined by the laws of the country of issuance and for the U.S. is typically 17 years from the date of issuance of the patent or 20 years from the date of filing of the patent application resulting in the patent, which we believe is adequate relative to the expected lives of our products.
Our products are protected under U.S. and international copyright laws and laws related to the protection of intellectual property and proprietary information. We take measures to label such products with the appropriate proprietary rights notices, and we actively enforce such rights in the U.S. and abroad. However, these measures may not provide sufficient protection, and our intellectual property rights may be challenged. In addition, we license some intellectual property from third parties for use in our products, and generally must rely on the third party to protect the licensed intellectual property rights. While we believe that our ability to maintain and protect our intellectual property rights is important to our success, we also believe that our business as a whole is not materially dependent on any particular patent, trademark, license, or other intellectual property right.
As is typical for many large software companies, our business is seasonal. Software license and maintenance orders are generally higher in our third and fourth fiscal quarters and lower in our first and second fiscal quarters. A significant decline in license and maintenance orders is typical in the first quarter of our fiscal year as compared to license and maintenance orders in the fourth quarter of the prior fiscal year. In addition, we generally receive a higher volume of software license and maintenance orders in the last month of a quarter, with orders concentrated in the later part of that month. We believe that this seasonality primarily reflects customer spending patterns and budget cycles, as well as the impact of compensation incentive plans for our sales personnel. Revenue generally reflects similar seasonal patterns but to a lesser extent than orders because revenue is not recognized until an order is shipped or services are performed and other revenue recognition criteria are met, and because a significant portion of our in-period revenue is provided by the ratable recognition of our deferred revenue balance.
As of April 3, 2009, we employed more than 17,400 people worldwide, approximately 48 percent of whom reside in the U.S. Approximately 6,300 employees work in sales and marketing; 5,600 in research and development; 4,000 in support and services; and 1,500 in management, manufacturing, and administration.
Our Internet address is www.symantec.com. We make available free of charge on our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other than the information expressly set forth in this annual report, the information contained, or referred to, on our website is not part of this annual report.
The public may also read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SECs Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Room 1580, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as us, that file electronically with the SEC.
A description of the risk factors associated with our business is set forth below. The list is not exhaustive and you should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties before investing in our common stock.
The recent global economic crisis has caused a tightening in the credit markets, increases in the rates of default and bankruptcy, and extreme volatility in credit, equity and fixed income markets. These macroeconomic developments could negatively affect our business, operating results or financial condition under a number of different scenarios. For example, current or potential customers may delay or forgo decisions to license new products or additional instances of existing products, upgrade their existing hardware or operating environments (which upgrades are often a catalyst for new purchases of our software), or purchase services. Customers may also have difficulties in obtaining the requisite third-party financing to complete the purchase of our products and services. The current economic environment could also subject us to increased credit risk should customers be unable to pay us, or delay paying us, for previously purchased products and services. Accordingly, reserves for doubtful accounts and write-offs of accounts receivable may increase. In addition, weakness in the market for end users of our products could harm the cash flow of our distributors and resellers who could then delay paying their obligations to us or experience other financial difficulties. This would further increase our credit risk exposure and, potentially, cause delays in our recognition of revenue on sales to these customers.
In addition, financial institution difficulties and/or failures may make it more difficult either to utilize our existing debt capacity or otherwise obtain financing for our operations, investing activities (including potential acquisitions) or financing activities. Specific economic trends, such as declines in the demand for PCs, servers, and other computing devices, or softness in corporate information technology spending, could have an even more direct, and harmful, impact on our business. Finally, our cash and our investment portfolio, which includes short-term debt securities, is subject to general credit, liquidity, counterparty, market and interest rate risks that may be exacerbated by the recent global financial crisis. Our investment in our joint venture with Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. could also become impaired. If the banking system or the fixed income, credit or equity markets continue to deteriorate or remain volatile, our cash and our investment portfolio may be impacted and the values and liquidity of our investments could be harmed.
Fluctuations in demand for our products and services are driven by many factors, and a decrease in demand for our products could adversely affect our financial results.
We are subject to fluctuations in demand for our products and services due to a variety of factors, including general economic conditions, competition, product obsolescence, technological change, shifts in buying patterns, financial difficulties and budget constraints of our actual and potential customers, levels of broadband usage, awareness of security threats to IT systems, and other factors. While such factors may, in some periods, increase product sales, fluctuations in demand can also negatively impact our product sales. If demand for our products declines because of general economic conditions or for other reasons, our revenues and gross margin could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to develop new and enhanced products and services that achieve widespread market acceptance, or if we are unable to continually improve the performance, features, and reliability of our existing products and services or adapt our business model to keep pace with industry trends, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
Our future success depends on our ability to respond to the rapidly changing needs of our customers by developing or introducing new products, product upgrades, and services on a timely basis. We have in the past incurred, and will continue to incur, significant research and development expenses as we strive to remain competitive. New product development and introduction involves a significant commitment of time and resources and is subject to a number of risks and challenges including:
In addition, if we cannot adapt our business models to keep pace with industry trends, our revenue could be negatively impacted. In connection with our enterprise software offerings, we license our applications on a variety of bases, such as per server, per processor, or based on performance criteria such as per amount of data processed or stored. If enterprises continue to migrate towards solutions, such as virtualization, which allow enterprises to run multiple applications and operating systems on a single server and thereby reduce the number of servers they are required to own and operate, we may experience lower license revenues unless we are able to successfully change our enterprise licensing model or sell additional software to take into account the impact of these new solutions.
If we are not successful in managing these risks and challenges, or if our new products, product upgrades, and services are not technologically competitive or do not achieve market acceptance, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
We operate in a highly competitive environment, and our competitors may gain market share in the markets for our products that could adversely affect our business and cause our revenues to decline.
We operate in intensely competitive markets that experience rapid technological developments, changes in industry standards, changes in customer requirements, and frequent new product introductions and improvements. If we are unable to anticipate or react to these competitive challenges or if existing or new competitors gain market share in any of our markets, our competitive position could weaken and we could experience a drop in revenue that could adversely affect our business and operating results. To compete successfully, we must maintain a successful research and development effort to develop new products and services and enhance existing products and services, effectively adapt to changes in the technology or product rights held by our competitors, appropriately respond to competitive strategies, and effectively adapt to technological changes and changes in the ways that our information is accessed, used, and stored within our enterprise and consumer markets. If we are unsuccessful in responding to our competitors or to changing technological and customer demands, we could experience a negative effect on our competitive position and our financial results.
Our traditional competitors include independent software vendors that offer software products that directly compete with our product offerings. In addition to competing with these vendors directly for sales to end-users of our products, we compete with them for the opportunity to have our products bundled with the product offerings of our strategic partners such as computer hardware OEMs and ISPs. Our competitors could gain market share from us if any of these strategic partners replace our products with the products of our competitors or if they more actively promote our competitors products than our products. In addition, software vendors who have bundled our products with theirs may choose to bundle their software with their own or other vendors software or may limit our access to standard product interfaces and inhibit our ability to develop products for their platform.
We face growing competition from network equipment and computer hardware manufacturers and large operating system providers. These firms are increasingly developing and incorporating into their products data protection and storage and server management software that competes at some levels with our product offerings. Our competitive position could be adversely affected to the extent that our customers perceive the functionality incorporated into these products as replacing the need for our products.
Another growing industry trend is the SaaS business model, whereby software vendors develop and host their applications for use by customers over the Internet. This allows enterprises to obtain the benefits of commercially licensed, internally operated software without the associated complexity or high initial set-up and operational costs. Advances in the SaaS business model could enable the growth of our competitors and could affect the success of our traditional software licensing models. We have released our own SaaS offerings and we recently acquired Message Labs, a provider of SaaS offerings, and we continue to incorporate these offerings into our licensing model. However, it is uncertain whether our SaaS strategy will prove successful or whether we will be able to successfully incorporate our SaaS offerings into our current licensing models. Our inability to successfully develop and market SaaS product offerings could cause us to lose business to competitors.
Many of our competitors have greater financial, technical, sales, marketing, or other resources than we do and consequently may have the ability to influence customers to purchase their products instead of ours. We also face competition from many smaller companies that specialize in particular segments of the markets in which we compete.
If we fail to manage our sales and distribution channels effectively or if our partners choose not to market and sell our products to their customers, our operating results could be adversely affected.
We sell our products to customers around the world through multi-tiered sales and distribution networks. Sales through these different channels involve distinct risks, including the following:
Direct Sales. A significant portion of our revenues from enterprise products is derived from sales by our direct sales force to end-users. Special risks associated with this sales channel include:
Indirect Sales Channels. A significant portion of our revenues is derived from sales through indirect channels, including distributors that sell our products to end-users and other resellers. This channel involves a number of risks, including:
OEM Sales Channels. A significant portion of our revenues is derived from sales through our OEM partners that incorporate our products into, or bundle our products with, their products. Our reliance on this sales channel involves many risks, including:
As noted above, the amount of our sales through our OEM channels is significantly affected by our partners sales of new products into which our products are bundled. The adverse developments in global economic conditions are, among other things, adversely affecting personal computer sales, and if this trend continues our Consumer segment could continue to be adversely affected.
If we fail to manage our sales and distribution channels successfully, these channels may conflict with one another or otherwise fail to perform as we anticipate, which could reduce our sales and increase our expenses as well as weaken our competitive position. Some of our distribution partners have experienced financial difficulties in the past, and if our partners suffer financial difficulties in the future because of general economic conditions or for other reasons, these partners may delay paying their obligations to us and we may have reduced sales or increased bad debt expense that could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, reliance on multiple channels subjects us to events that could cause unpredictability in demand, which could increase the risk that we may be unable to plan effectively for the future, and could result in adverse operating results in future periods.
We have grown, and may continue to grow, through acquisitions that give rise to risks and challenges that could adversely affect our future financial results.
We have in the past acquired, and we expect to acquire in the future, other businesses, business units, and technologies. Acquisitions can involve a number of special risks and challenges, including:
Integrating acquired businesses has been and will continue to be a complex, time consuming, and expensive process, and can impact the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
If integration of our acquired businesses is not successful, we may not realize the potential benefits of an acquisition or suffer other adverse effects that we currently do not foresee. To integrate acquired businesses, we must implement our technology systems in the acquired operations and integrate and manage the personnel of the acquired operations. We also must effectively integrate the different cultures of acquired business organizations into our own in a way that aligns various interests, and may need to enter new markets in which we have no or limited experience and where competitors in such markets have stronger market positions.
Any of the foregoing, and other factors, could harm our ability to achieve anticipated levels of profitability from acquired businesses or to realize other anticipated benefits of acquisitions. In addition, because acquisitions of high technology companies are inherently risky, no assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful and will not adversely affect our business, operating results, or financial condition.
We have not historically maintained substantial levels of indebtedness, and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if we do not effectively manage our liabilities.
In June 2006, we sold $2.1 billion in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior notes. As a result of the sale of the notes, we have a substantially greater amount of long-term debt than we have maintained in the past. In addition, we have entered into a credit facility with a borrowing capacity of $1 billion. As of April 3, 2009, we had no borrowings under our credit facility. From time to time in the future, we may also incur indebtedness in addition to the amount available under our credit facility. Our maintenance of substantial levels of debt could adversely affect our flexibility to take advantage of certain corporate opportunities and could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Of our outstanding convertible notes, $1.1 billion matures and is repayable in June 2011 and the balance is due in June 2013. We may be required to use all or a substantial portion of our cash balance to repay these notes on maturity unless we can obtain new financing.
Our international operations involve risks that could increase our expenses, adversely affect our operating results, and require increased time and attention of our management.
We derive a substantial portion of our revenues from customers located outside of the U.S. and we have significant operations outside of the U.S., including engineering, sales, customer support, and production. We plan to expand our international operations, but such expansion is contingent upon the financial performance of our existing international operations as well as our identification of growth opportunities. Our international operations are subject to risks in addition to those faced by our domestic operations, including:
A significant portion of our transactions outside of the U.S. are denominated in foreign currencies. Accordingly, our revenues and expenses will continue to be subject to fluctuations in foreign currency rates. We expect to be affected by fluctuations in foreign currency rates in the future, especially if international sales continue to grow as a percentage of our total sales or our operations outside the United States continue to increase.
The level of corporate tax from sales to our non-U.S. customers is less than the level of tax from sales to our U.S. customers. This benefit is contingent upon existing tax regulations in the U.S. and in the countries in which our international operations are located. Future changes in domestic or international tax regulations could adversely affect our ability to continue to realize these tax benefits.
Our products are complex and operate in a wide variety of computer configurations, which could result in errors or product failures.
Because we offer very complex products, undetected errors, failures, or bugs may occur, especially when products are first introduced or when new versions are released. Our products are often installed and used in large-scale computing environments with different operating systems, system management software, and equipment and
networking configurations, which may cause errors or failures in our products or may expose undetected errors, failures, or bugs in our products. Our customers computing environments are often characterized by a wide variety of standard and non-standard configurations that make pre-release testing for programming or compatibility errors very difficult and time-consuming. In addition, despite testing by us and others, errors, failures, or bugs may not be found in new products or releases until after commencement of commercial shipments. In the past, we have discovered software errors, failures, and bugs in certain of our product offerings after their introduction and, in some cases, may have experienced delayed or lost revenues as a result of these errors.
Errors, failures, or bugs in products released by us could result in negative publicity, damage to our brand, product returns, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products, loss of competitive position, or claims by customers or others. Many of our end-user customers use our products in applications that are critical to their businesses and may have a greater sensitivity to defects in our products than to defects in other, less critical, software products. In addition, if an actual or perceived breach of information integrity or availability occurs in one of our end-user customers systems, regardless of whether the breach is attributable to our products, the market perception of the effectiveness of our products could be harmed. Alleviating any of these problems could require significant expenditures of our capital and other resources and could cause interruptions, delays, or cessation of our product licensing, which could cause us to lose existing or potential customers and could adversely affect our operating results.
If we are unable to attract and retain qualified employees, lose key personnel, fail to integrate replacement personnel successfully, or fail to manage our employee base effectively, we may be unable to develop new and enhanced products and services, effectively manage or expand our business, or increase our revenues.
Our future success depends upon our ability to recruit and retain our key management, technical, sales, marketing, finance, and other critical personnel. Our officers and other key personnel are employees-at-will, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to retain them. Competition for people with the specific skills that we require is significant. In order to attract and retain personnel in a competitive marketplace, we believe that we must provide a competitive compensation package, including cash and equity-based compensation. The volatility in our stock price may from time to time adversely affect our ability to recruit or retain employees. In addition, we may be unable to obtain required stockholder approvals of future increases in the number of shares available for issuance under our equity compensation plans, and accounting rules require us to treat the issuance of employee stock options and other forms of equity-based compensation as compensation expense. As a result, we may decide to issue fewer equity-based incentives and may be impaired in our efforts to attract and retain necessary personnel. If we are unable to hire and retain qualified employees, or conversely, if we fail to manage employee performance or reduce staffing levels when required by market conditions, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
From time to time, key personnel leave our company. While we strive to reduce the negative impact of such changes, the loss of any key employee could result in significant disruptions to our operations, including adversely affecting the timeliness of product releases, the successful implementation and completion of company initiatives, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting, and the results of our operations. In addition, hiring, training, and successfully integrating replacement sales and other personnel could be time consuming, may cause additional disruptions to our operations, and may be unsuccessful, which could negatively impact future revenues.
We are regularly a party to class action lawsuits, which often require significant management time and attention and result in significant legal expenses, and which could, if not determined favorably, negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We have been named as a party to class action lawsuits, and we may be named in additional litigation. The expense of defending such litigation may be costly and divert managements attention from the day-to-day operations of our business, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, an unfavorable outcome in such litigation could negatively impact our business, results of operations, and cash flows.
Third parties claiming that we infringe their proprietary rights could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and prevent us from selling our products.
From time to time, we receive claims that we have infringed the intellectual property rights of others, including claims regarding patents, copyrights, and trademarks. In addition, former employers of our former, current, or future employees may assert claims that such employees have improperly disclosed to us the confidential or proprietary information of these former employers. Any such claim, with or without merit, could result in costly litigation and distract management from day-to-day operations. If we are not successful in defending such claims, we could be required to stop selling, delay shipments of, or redesign our products, pay monetary amounts as damages, enter into royalty or licensing arrangements, or satisfy indemnification obligations that we have with some of our customers. We cannot assure you that any royalty or licensing arrangements that we may seek in such circumstances will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
In addition, we license and use software from third parties in our business. These third party software licenses may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms or at all, and may expose us to additional liability. This liability, or our inability to use any of this third party software, could result in shipment delays or other disruptions in our business that could materially and adversely affect our operating results.
If we do not protect our proprietary information and prevent third parties from making unauthorized use of our products and technology, our financial results could be harmed.
Most of our software and underlying technology is proprietary. We seek to protect our proprietary rights through a combination of confidentiality agreements and procedures and through copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret laws. However, all of these measures afford only limited protection and may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented by third parties. Third parties may copy all or portions of our products or otherwise obtain, use, distribute, and sell our proprietary information without authorization. Third parties may also develop similar or superior technology independently by designing around our patents. Our shrink-wrap license agreements are not signed by licensees and therefore may be unenforceable under the laws of some jurisdictions. Furthermore, the laws of some foreign countries do not offer the same level of protection of our proprietary rights as the laws of the U.S., and we may be subject to unauthorized use of our products in those countries. The unauthorized copying or use of our products or proprietary information could result in reduced sales of our products. Any legal action to protect proprietary information that we may bring or be engaged in with a strategic partner or vendor could adversely affect our ability to access software, operating system, and hardware platforms of such partner or vendor, or cause such partner or vendor to choose not to offer our products to their customers. In addition, any legal action to protect proprietary information that we may bring or be engaged in, alone or through our alliances with the Business Software Alliance (BSA), or the Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA), could be costly, may distract management from day-to-day operations, and may lead to additional claims against us, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Some of our products contain open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Certain of our products are distributed with software licensed by its authors or other third parties under so-called open source licenses, which may include, by way of example, the GNU General Public License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), the Mozilla Public License, the BSD License, and the Apache License. Some of these licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the open source software, and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties certain rights of further use. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on origin of the software. We have established processes to help alleviate these risks, including a review process for screening requests from our development organizations for the use of open source, but we cannot be sure that all
open source is submitted for approval prior to use in our products. In addition, many of the risks associated with usage of open source cannot be eliminated, and could, if not properly addressed, negatively affect our business.
Our software products and website may be subject to intentional disruption that could adversely impact our reputation and future sales.
Although we believe we have sufficient controls in place to prevent intentional disruptions, we expect to be an ongoing target of attacks specifically designed to impede the performance of our products. Similarly, experienced computer programmers may attempt to penetrate our network security or the security of our website and misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions of our services. Because the techniques used by such computer programmers to access or sabotage networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. Our activities could be adversely affected and our reputation, brand and future sales harmed if these intentionally disruptive efforts are successful.
Increased customer demands on our technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our financial results.
We offer technical support services with many of our products. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by competitors or successfully integrate support for our customers. Further customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenues, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results.
We have outsourced a substantial portion of our worldwide consumer support functions to third party service providers. If these companies experience financial difficulties, do not maintain sufficiently skilled workers and resources to satisfy our contracts, or otherwise fail to perform at a sufficient level under these contracts, the level of support services to our customers may be significantly disrupted, which could materially harm our relationships with these customers.
Our financial results have been in the past, and may continue to be in the future, materially affected by non-cash and other accounting charges, including:
For example, during fiscal 2009, we recorded a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $7.4 billion, resulting in a significant net loss for the year. Goodwill is evaluated annually for impairment in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more frequently if events and circumstances warrant as we determined they did in the third quarter of fiscal 2009, and our evaluation depends to a large degree on estimates and assumptions made by our management. Our assessment of any impairment of goodwill is based on a comparison of the fair value of each of our reporting units to the carrying value of that reporting unit. Our determination of fair value relies on managements assumptions of our future revenues, operating costs, and other relevant factors. If managements estimates of future operating results change, or if there are changes to other key assumptions such as the discount rate applied to future operating results, the estimate of the fair value of our reporting units could change significantly, which could result in a goodwill impairment charge. In addition, we evaluate our other long-lived assets, including intangible assets whenever events or circumstances occur which indicate that the value of these assets might be impaired. If we determine that impairment has occurred, we could incur an impairment charge against the value of these assets.
The foregoing types of accounting charges may also be incurred in connection with or as a result of other business acquisitions. The price of our common stock could decline to the extent that our financial results are materially affected by the foregoing accounting charges.
Our effective tax rate may increase, which could increase our income tax expense and reduce our net (loss) income.
Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
The price of our common stock could decline if our financial results are materially affected by an adverse change in our effective tax rate.
We report our results of operations based on our determinations of the amount of taxes owed in the various tax jurisdictions in which we operate. From time to time, we receive notices that a tax authority in a particular jurisdiction in which we are subject to taxes has determined that we owe a greater amount of tax than we have reported to such authority. We are regularly engaged in discussions and sometimes disputes with these tax authorities. We are engaged in disputes of this nature at this time. If the ultimate determination of our taxes owed in any of these jurisdictions is for an amount in excess of the tax provision we have recorded or reserved for, our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Fluctuations in our quarterly financial results have affected the price of our common stock in the past and could affect our stock price in the future.
Our quarterly financial results have fluctuated in the past and are likely to vary significantly in the future due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and which could adversely affect our operations and operating results. If our quarterly financial results or our predictions of future financial results fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts and investors, our stock price could be negatively affected. Any volatility in our quarterly financial results may make it more difficult for us to raise capital in the future or pursue acquisitions that involve issuances of our stock. Our operating results for prior periods may not be effective predictors of our future performance.
Factors associated with our industry, the operation of our business, and the markets for our products may cause our quarterly financial results to fluctuate, including:
Any of the foregoing factors could cause the trading price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly.
The market price of our common stock has experienced significant fluctuations in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future, and as a result you could lose the value of your investment. The market price of our common stock may be affected by a number of factors, including:
The stock market in general, and the market prices of stocks of technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price volatility that has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, the market price of our common stock for reasons unrelated to our business or operating results.
There are currently no unresolved issues with respect to any Commission staffs written comments that were received at least 180 days before the end of our fiscal year to which this report relates and that relate to our periodic or current reports under the Exchange Act.
Our properties consist primarily of owned and leased office facilities for sales, research and development, administrative, customer service, and technical support personnel. Our corporate headquarters is located in Cupertino, California in a 438,000 square foot facility that we own of which 409,000 square feet is classified as Assets Held for Sale. We occupy an additional 782,000 square feet in the San Francisco Bay Area, of which 592,000 square feet is owned and 190,000 square feet is leased. Our leased facilities are occupied under leases that expire at various times through 2029. The following table presents the approximate square footage of our facilities as of April 3, 2009:
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate for our current needs and that the productive capacity of our facilities is substantially utilized.
Information with respect to this Item may be found under the heading Litigation Contingencies in Note 10 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report which information is incorporated into this Item 3 by reference.
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009.
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol SYMC. The high and low sales prices set forth below are as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.
As of April 3, 2009, there were 3,140 stockholders of record of Symantec common stock. Symantec has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its capital stock. We currently intend to retain future earnings for use in our business, and, therefore, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future.
Stock repurchases during the three months ended April 3, 2009 were as follows:
We have operated stock repurchase programs in the past. Our most recent program was authorized by our Board of Directors on June 14, 2007 to repurchase up to $2 billion of our common stock. This program does not have an expiration date and as of April 3, 2009, $300 million remained authorized for future repurchases. For information with regard to our stock repurchase programs, see Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report.
These performance graphs shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Symantec under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on Symantec common stock from March 31, 2004 to March 31, 2009 with the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Composite Index and the S&P Information Technology Index over the same period (assuming the investment of $100 in Symantec common stock and in each of the other indices on March 31, 2004, and reinvestment of all dividends, although no dividends other than stock dividends have been declared on Symantec common stock). The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast the possible future performance of Symantec common stock.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Symantec Corporation, The S & P 500 Index
And The S & P Information Technology Index
*$100 invested on 3/31/04 in stock or index. Fiscal year ending March 31.
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on Symantec common stock from June 23, 1989 (the date of Symantecs initial public offering) to March 31, 2009 with the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Composite Index and the S&P Information Technology Index over the same period (assuming the investment of $100 in Symantec common stock and in each of the other indices on June 30, 1989, and reinvestment of all dividends, although no dividends other than stock dividends have been declared on Symantec common stock). Symantec has provided this additional data to provide the perspective of a longer time period which is consistent with Symantecs history as a public company. The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and are not intended to forecast the possible future performance of Symantec common stock.
COMPARISON OF 20 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Symantec Corporation, The S & P 500 Index
And The S & P Information Technology Index
*$100 invested on 6/23/89 in stock or 5/31/89 in index. Fiscal year ending March 31.
The following selected consolidated financial data is derived from the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report. This data is qualified in its entirety by and should be read in conjunction with the more detailed Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this annual report and with Item 7, Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. Historical results may not be indicative of future results.
During the past five fiscal years, we have made the following acquisitions:
Each of these acquisitions was accounted for as a business purchase and, accordingly, the operating results of these businesses have been included in the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report since their respective dates of acquisition.
Symantec is a global leader in providing security, storage and systems management solutions to help businesses and consumers secure and manage their information. We provide customers worldwide with software and services that protect, manage and control information risks related to security, data protection, storage, compliance, and systems management. We help our customers manage cost, complexity and compliance by protecting their IT infrastructure as they seek to maximize value from their IT investments.
We have a 52/53-week fiscal year ending on the Friday closest to March 31. Unless otherwise stated, references to fiscal years in this report relate to fiscal year and periods ended April 3, 2009, March 28, 2008 and March 30, 2007. Fiscal 2008 and 2007 each consisted of 52 weeks while fiscal 2009 consisted of 53 weeks. Our 2010 fiscal year will consist of 52 weeks and will end on April 2, 2010.
Our operating segments are significant strategic business units that offer different products and services, distinguished by customer needs. Since the March 2008 quarter, we have operated in five operating segments: Consumer, Security and Compliance, Storage and Server Management, Services, and Other. During the June 2008 quarter, we changed our reporting segments to better align our operating structure, resulting in the Altiris services that were formerly included in the Security and Compliance segment being moved to the Services segment. We revised the segment information for the prior year to conform to the new presentation.
For further descriptions of our operating segments, see Note 12 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report. Our reportable segments are the same as our operating segments.
Revenue for fiscal 2009 was $6.1 billion, or 5% higher than revenue for fiscal 2008. For fiscal 2009, we realized revenue growth in the Americas and Asia Pacific Japan as compared to fiscal 2008 and experienced revenue growth in all of our segments. Revenue growth in our EMEA geography was relatively flat from fiscal 2008 to fiscal 2009. Foreign currency fluctuations had relatively little overall impact on our international revenue growth for fiscal 2009 compared to fiscal 2008. In fiscal 2008, foreign currency fluctuations positively impacted our revenue growth internationally compared to fiscal 2007. We are unable to predict the extent to which revenues in future periods will be impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If international sales become a greater portion of our total sales in the future, changes in foreign exchange rates may have a greater impact on our revenues and operating results.
In fiscal 2009 the global economic slowdown increased competitive pricing pressures and led to longer lead times in the sales of some of our products and may have otherwise adversely affected purchase decisions in our
markets. If the challenging economic conditions affecting global markets continue or deteriorate further, we may experience slower or negative revenue growth and our business and operating results might suffer. For example, our revenue declined slightly in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009 relative to the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008, although this was due in part to year over year changes in foreign exchange rates. In light of these economic conditions, we will continue to align our cost structure with our revenue expectations.
Employee-related costs have been the primary driver of our operating expenses, and we expect this trend to continue. Employee-related costs include items such as wages, commissions, bonuses, vacation, benefits, and stock-based compensation. We had 17,426, 17,648, and 17,131 employees as of the end of fiscal 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The decrease during fiscal 2009 was primarily attributable to the impact of our cost and expense discipline, partially offset by employees added through acquisitions.
During fiscal 2009, based on a combination of factors, including the current economic environment and a sustained decline in our market capitalization, we concluded that there were sufficient indicators to require us to perform an interim goodwill impairment analysis. As a result of this interim analysis, we recorded a $7.4 billion non-cash goodwill impairment during fiscal 2009. Primarily as a result of this charge, our net loss was $6.7 billion for fiscal 2009 as compared to our net income of $464 million and $404 million for fiscal 2008 and 2007, respectively.
On November 14, 2008, we acquired MessageLabs Group Limited (MessageLabs), a nonpublic United Kingdom-based provider of managed services to protect, control, encrypt, and archive electronic communications for $630 million, net of cash acquired. We believe this acquisition complements our SaaS business.
On October 6, 2008, we acquired PC Tools Pty Ltd. (PC Tools), a nonpublic Australia-based provider of security and systems software, for approximately $262 million in cash, net of cash acquired. We believe this acquisition complements our consumer security software business.
We completed four other acquisitions during fiscal 2009 for a combined cash consideration of $215 million. See Note 5 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report for further details.
In the face of a challenging economic environment, cash flows remained strong in fiscal 2009 as we achieved $1.7 billion in operating cash flow. We ended fiscal 2009 with nearly $2.0 billion in cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments. In addition, during fiscal 2009 we repurchased 42 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $16.53, for total consideration of $700 million.
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included in this annual report in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, requires us to make estimates, which include judgments and assumptions, that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We have based our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates on a regular basis and make changes accordingly. Historically, our critical accounting estimates have not differed materially from actual results; however, actual results may differ from these estimates under different conditions. If actual results differ from these estimates and other considerations used in estimating amounts reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report, the resulting changes could have a material adverse effect on our Consolidated Statements of Operations, and in certain situations, could have a material adverse effect on liquidity and our financial condition.
A critical accounting estimate is based on judgments and assumptions about matters that are uncertain at the time the estimate is made. Different estimates that reasonably could have been used or changes in accounting estimates could materially impact the operating results or financial condition. We believe that the estimates described below represent our critical accounting estimates, as they have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. See also Note 1 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
We recognize revenue in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles that have been prescribed for the software industry. We recognize revenue primarily pursuant to the requirements of Statement of Position 97-2, Software Revenue Recognition, and any applicable amendments or modifications. Revenue recognition requirements in the software industry are very complex and require us to make many estimates.
In arrangements that include multiple elements, including perpetual software licenses and maintenance and/or services, and packaged products with content updates, we allocate and defer revenue for the undelivered items based on vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of the fair value of the undelivered elements, and recognize the difference between the total arrangement fee and the amount deferred for the undelivered items as revenue. Our deferred revenue consists primarily of the unamortized balance of enterprise product maintenance, consumer product content updates, and arrangements where VSOE does not exist. Deferred revenue totaled approximately $3.1 billion as of April 3, 2009, of which $419 million was classified as Long-term deferred revenue in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. VSOE of each element is based on the price for which the undelivered element is sold separately. We determine fair value of the undelivered elements based on historical evidence of our stand-alone sales of these elements to third parties or from the stated renewal rate for the undelivered elements. When VSOE does not exist for undelivered items, such as maintenance, then the entire arrangement fee is recognized ratably over the performance period. Changes to the elements in a software arrangement, the ability to identify VSOE for those elements, the fair value of the respective elements, and the degree of flexibility in contractual arrangements could materially impact the amount recognized in the current period and deferred over time.
For our consumer products that include content updates, we recognize revenue and the associated cost of revenue ratably over the term of the subscription upon sell-through to end-users, as the subscription period commences upon sale to an end-user. We defer revenue and cost of revenue amounts for unsold product held by our distributors and resellers.
We expect our distributors and resellers to maintain adequate inventory of consumer packaged products to meet future customer demand, which is generally four or six weeks of customer demand based on recent buying trends. We ship product to our distributors and resellers at their request and based on valid purchase orders. Our distributors and resellers base the quantity of orders on their estimates to meet future customer demand, which may exceed the expected level of a four or six week supply. We offer limited rights of return if the inventory held by our distributors and resellers is below the expected level of a four or six week supply. We estimate future returns under these limited rights of return in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standard (SFAS) No. 48, Revenue Recognition When Right of Return Exists. We typically offer liberal rights of return if inventory held by our distributors and resellers exceeds the expected level. Because we cannot reasonably estimate the amount of excess inventory that will be returned, we primarily offset deferred revenue against trade accounts receivable for the amount of revenue in excess of the expected inventory levels.
Reserves for product returns. We reserve for estimated product returns as an offset to revenue based primarily on historical trends. We fully reserve for obsolete products in the distribution channels as an offset to deferred revenue for products with content updates and to revenue for all other products. If we made different estimates, material differences could result in the amount and timing of our net revenues for any period presented. More or less product may be returned than what was estimated and/or the amount of inventory in the channel could be different than what was estimated. These factors and unanticipated changes in the economic and industry environment could make actual results differ from our return estimates.
Reserves for rebates. We estimate and record reserves for channel and end-user rebates as an offset to revenue. For consumer products that include content updates, rebates are recorded as a ratable offset to revenue over the term of the subscription. Our estimated reserves for channel volume incentive rebates are based on distributors and resellers actual performance against the terms and conditions of volume incentive rebate programs, which are typically entered into quarterly. Our reserves for end-user rebates are estimated based on the terms and conditions of the promotional programs, actual sales during the promotion, amount of actual redemptions received, historical redemption trends by product and by type of promotional program, and the value of the rebate. We also consider current market conditions and economic trends when estimating our reserves for rebates. If actual redemptions
differ from our estimates, material differences may result in the amount and timing of our net revenues for any period presented.
When we acquire businesses, we allocate the purchase price to tangible assets and liabilities and identifiable intangible assets acquired. Any residual purchase price is recorded as goodwill. The allocation of the purchase price requires management to make significant estimates in determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, especially with respect to intangible assets. These estimates are based on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies. These estimates can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, the appropriate weighted-average cost of capital, and the cost savings expected to be derived from acquiring an asset. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. In addition, unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which may affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates.
Goodwill. As of April 3, 2009, goodwill was $4.6 billion. We review goodwill for impairment on an annual basis and on an interim basis whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable in accordance with SFAS No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (SFAS No. 142). The provisions of SFAS No. 142 require that a two-step impairment test be performed on goodwill. In the first step, we compare the estimated fair value of each reporting unit to its allocated carrying value (book value). If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value of the equity assigned to that unit, there is an indicator of impairment and we must perform the second step of the impairment test, which requires determining the implied fair value of that reporting units goodwill in a manner similar to a purchase price allocation for an acquired business. If the carrying value of the reporting units goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, then we would record an impairment loss equal to the excess.
Our reporting units are identified in accordance with SFAS No. 142 and are either equivalent to, or represent one level below, an operating segment. Each reporting unit constitutes a business for which discrete financial information is available and for which segment management regularly reviews the operating results. Our operating segments are significant strategic business units that offer different products and services, distinguished by customer needs. Our reporting units are consistent with our operating segments, except for the Services segment, which includes the SaaS and the Services reporting units. The SaaS reporting unit is new for fiscal 2009 and was primarily the result of an acquisition during the year.
Prior to performing our second step in the goodwill impairment analysis, we perform an assessment of long-lived assets for impairment. Such long-lived assets include tangible and intangible assets recorded in accordance with SFAS No. 144, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets and SFAS No. 86, Accounting for the Costs of Software to Be Sold, Leased of Otherwise Marketed.
The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill requires significant judgment at many points during the analysis. In determining the carrying value of the reporting units, we had to apply judgment to allocate the assets and liabilities, such as accounts receivable and property and equipment, based on specific identification or relevant driver, as they are not held by those reporting units but by functional departments. Goodwill was allocated to the reporting units based on a combination of specific identification and relative fair values, which is consistent with the methodology utilized in the prior year impairment analysis. The use of relative fair values was necessary for certain reporting units due to changes in our operating structure in prior years. Furthermore, to determine the reporting units fair value, we use the income approach under which we calculate the fair value of each reporting unit based on the estimated discounted future cash flows of that unit. The income approach was determined to be the most representative valuation technique that would be utilized by a market participant in an assumed transaction, but the results are corroborated with the market approach which measures the value of an asset through an analysis of recent sales or offerings of comparable property. When applied to the valuation of equity interests, consideration is given to the financial condition and operating performance of the company being appraised relative to those of publicly traded companies operating in the same or similar lines of business, potentially subject to corresponding economic, environmental, and political factors and considered to be reasonable investment alternatives. We also consider our market capitalization on the date we perform our analysis. Significant assumptions are based on
historical and forecasted amounts specific to each reporting unit, and consider estimates of cash flows, including revenues, operating costs, growth rates and other relevant factors, as well as discount rates to be applied. Although our cash flow forecasts are based on assumptions that are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying reporting units, there is significant judgment in determining the cash flows attributable to these reporting units over their remaining useful lives.
Based on a combination of factors, including the current economic environment and a decline in our market capitalization, we concluded that there were sufficient indicators to require us to perform an interim goodwill impairment analysis during the third quarter of fiscal 2009. The analysis was not completed during the third quarter of fiscal 2009 and an estimated impairment charge of $7.0 billion was recorded. The analysis was subsequently finalized and an additional impairment charge of $413 million was included in our results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009. As a result, we incurred a total impairment charge of $7.4 billion for fiscal 2009. We also performed our annual impairment analysis during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009 and determined that no additional impairment charge was necessary.
The methodology applied in the current year analyses was consistent with the methodology applied in the prior year analysis, but was based on updated assumptions, as appropriate. As a result of the downturn in the economic environment during the second half of calendar 2008, determining the fair value of the individual reporting units was even more judgmental than in the past. In particular, the global economic recession has reduced our visibility into long-term trends and consequently, estimates of future cash flows used in the current year analyses are lower than those used in the prior year analysis. The discount rates utilized in the analysis also reflect market-based estimates of the risks associated with the projected cash flows of individual reporting units and were increased from the prior year analysis to reflect increased risk due to current volatility in the economic environment.
If there are changes to the methods used to allocate carrying values, if managements estimates of future operating results change, if there are changes in the identified reporting units or if there are changes to other significant assumptions, the estimated carrying values for each reporting unit and the estimated fair value of our goodwill could change significantly, and could result in an impairment charge. Such changes could also result in goodwill impairment charges in future periods, which could have a significant impact on our operating results and financial condition therein.
Intangible Assets. We assess the impairment of identifiable intangible assets according to SFAS Nos. 142 or 144, as appropriate, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an assets carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the undiscounted estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition is less than its carrying amount. Such impairment loss would be measured as the difference between the carrying amount of the asset and its fair value. Our cash flow assumptions are based on historical and forecasted revenue, operating costs, and other relevant factors. If managements estimates of future operating results change, or if there are changes to other assumptions, the estimate of the fair value of our acquired product rights and other identifiable intangible assets could change significantly. Such change could result in impairment charges in future periods, which could have a significant impact on our operating results and financial condition.
We account for developed technology or acquired product rights in accordance with SFAS No. 86. We record impairment charges on acquired product rights when we determine that the net realizable value of the assets may not be recoverable. To determine the net realizable value of the assets, we use the estimated future gross revenues from each product. Our estimated future gross revenues of each product are based on company forecasts and are subject to change.
Long-Lived Assets (including Assets Held for Sale). We account for long-lived assets in accordance with SFAS No. 144. We record impairment charges on long-lived assets to be held and used when we determine that the carrying value of the long-lived assets may not be recoverable. Based upon the existence of one or more indicators of impairment, we measure any impairment of long-lived assets based on a projected undiscounted cash flow method using assumptions determined by our management to be commensurate with the risk inherent in our current business model. Our estimates of cash flows require significant judgment based on our historical results and anticipated results and are subject to many triggering factors which could change and cause a material impact to our operating results or financial condition. We record impairment charges on long-lived assets to be held for sale when
we determine that the carrying value of the long-lived assets may not be recoverable. In determining our fair value, we obtain market value appraisal information from third-parties.
Beginning in the first fiscal quarter of 2009, the assessment of fair value for our financial instruments is based on the provisions of SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements. SFAS No. 157 establishes a fair value hierarchy that is based on three levels of inputs and requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
We use inputs such as actual trade data, benchmark yields, broker/dealer quotes and other similar data which are obtained from independent pricing vendors, quoted market prices or other sources to determine the ultimate fair value of our assets and liabilities. We use such pricing data as the primary input, to which we have not made any material adjustments, to make our assessments and determinations as to the ultimate valuation of our investment portfolio, and we are ultimately responsible for the financial statements and underlying estimates. The fair value and inputs are reviewed for reasonableness, may be further validated by comparison to publicly available information and could be adjusted based on market indices or other information that management deems material to their estimate of fair value.
As of April 3, 2009, our financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis included $1.5 billion of assets. Our cash equivalents primarily consist of money market funds, bank securities, and government notes and represent 98% of our total financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis.
As of April 3, 2009, $392 million of investments were classified as Level 1, most of which represents investments in money market funds. These were classified as Level 1 because their valuations were based on quoted prices for identical securities in active markets. Determining fair value for Level 1 instruments generally does not require significant management judgment.
As of April 3, 2009, $1.1 billion of investments were classified as Level 2, of which $474 million and $654 million (98% together of total financial instruments fair valued on a recurring basis) represent investments in corporate securities and government securities, respectively. These were classified as Level 2 because either (1) the estimated fair value is based on the fair value of similar securities or (2) their valuations were based on pricing models with all significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market prices for identical securities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets). Level 2 inputs generally are based on non-binding market consensus prices that are corroborated by observable market data; quoted prices for similar instruments; and/or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated with observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities or quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities. While determining the fair value for Level 2 instruments does not necessarily require significant management judgment, it generally involves the following level of judgment and subjectivity:
As of April 3, 2009, we have no financial instruments with unobservable inputs as classified in Level 3 under the SFAS No. 157 hierarchy. Level 3 instruments generally would include unobservable inputs to be used in the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of fair value of assets or liabilities. The determination of fair value for Level 3 instruments requires the most management judgment and subjectivity.
We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS No. 123R, Share-Based Payment. Under the fair value recognition provisions of this statement, stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period of the respective award.
Determining the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment. We use the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options. The determination of the fair value of stock-based awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, actual and projected employee stock option exercise and cancellation behaviors, risk-free interest rates, and expected dividends.
We estimate the expected life of options granted based on an analysis of our historical experience of employee exercise and post-vesting termination behavior considered in relation to the contractual life of the option. Expected volatility is based on the average of historical volatility for the period commensurate with the expected life of the option and the implied volatility of traded options. The risk free interest rate is equal to the U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates for the period equal to the expected life. We do not currently pay cash dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, our expected dividend yield is zero.
In accordance with SFAS No. 123R, we only record stock-based compensation expense for awards that are expected to vest. As a result, judgment is also required in estimating the amount of stock-based awards that are expected to be forfeited. Although we estimate forfeitures based on historical experience, actual forfeitures may differ. If actual results differ significantly from these estimates, stock-based compensation expense and our results of operations could be materially impacted when we record a true-up for the difference in the period that the awards vest.
We evaluate contingent liabilities including threatened or pending litigation in accordance with SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies. We assess the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes from a potential claim or legal proceeding, as well as potential ranges of probable losses, when the outcomes of the claims or proceedings are probable and reasonably estimable. A determination of the amount of accrued liabilities required, if any, for these contingencies is made after the analysis of each separate matter. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, we base our estimates on the information available at the time of our assessment. As additional information becomes available, we reassess the potential liability related to its pending claims and litigation and may revise our estimates. Any revisions in the estimates of potential liabilities could have a material impact on our operating results and financial position.
We account for income taxes in accordance with SFAS No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards in each jurisdiction in which we operate. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable
income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled. We record a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is believed more likely than not to be realized.
We are required to compute our income taxes in each federal, state, and international jurisdiction in which we operate. This process requires that we estimate the current tax exposure as well as assess temporary differences between the accounting and tax treatment of assets and liabilities, including items such as accruals and allowances not currently deductible for tax purposes. The income tax effects of the differences we identify are classified as current or long-term deferred tax assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our judgments, assumptions, and estimates relative to the current provision for income tax take into account current tax laws, our interpretation of current tax laws, and possible outcomes of current and future audits conducted by foreign and domestic tax authorities. Changes in tax laws or our interpretation of tax laws and the resolution of current and future tax audits could significantly impact the amounts provided for income taxes in our Consolidated Balance Sheets and Consolidated Statements of Operations. We must also assess the likelihood that deferred tax assets will be realized from future taxable income and, based on this assessment, establish a valuation allowance, if required. Our determination of our valuation allowance is based upon a number of assumptions, judgments, and estimates, including forecasted earnings, future taxable income, and the relative proportions of revenue and income before taxes in the various domestic and international jurisdictions in which we operate. To the extent we establish a valuation allowance or change the valuation allowance in a period, we reflect the change with a corresponding increase or decrease to our tax provision in our Consolidated Statements of Operations, or to goodwill to the extent that the valuation allowance related to tax attributes of the acquired entities.
In July 2008, we reached an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) concerning our eligibility to claim a lower tax rate on a distribution made from a Veritas foreign subsidiary prior to the July 2005 acquisition. The distribution was intended to be made pursuant to the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, and therefore eligible for a 5.25% effective U.S. federal rate of tax, in lieu of the 35% statutory rate. The final impact of this agreement is not yet known since this relates to the taxability of earnings that are otherwise the subject of the tax years 2000-2001 transfer pricing dispute which in turn is being addressed in the U.S. Tax Court. To the extent that we owe taxes as a result of the transfer pricing dispute, we anticipate that the incremental tax due from this negotiated agreement will decrease. We currently estimate that the most probable outcome from this negotiated agreement will be $13 million or less, for which an accrual has already been made. We made a payment of $130 million to the IRS for this matter in May 2006. We applied $110 million of this payment as a deposit on the outstanding transfer pricing matter for the tax years 2000-2001.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Total Net Revenues
Net revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to a $301 million increase in Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues. This increase was primarily related to increased revenues in our Storage and Server Management and Services segments. In addition, revenues for fiscal 2009 benefited from additional amortization of deferred revenue of approximately $75 million as a result of fiscal 2009 comprising 53 weeks as compared to 52 weeks in fiscal 2008. The global economic slowdown has increased competitive pricing pressure and the lead time to close on sales for some of our products. While we cannot predict the intensity or duration of this slowdown, we believe the recurring nature of our business and the mission-critical nature of our products position us well in this challenging environment.
Net revenues increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to a $644 million increase in Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues coupled with a $31 million increase in Licenses revenues. These increases were primarily related to increased revenues in our Storage and Server Management, Security and Compliance, and Consumer segments as a result of higher beginning deferred revenue balances and increased sales.
Included in the increase noted above is $194 million due to the sales of new products and services from our Altiris acquisition for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period. The increase is also due to a favorable foreign currency impact. We also benefited in fiscal 2008 from a higher deferred revenue balance compared to fiscal 2007.
Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to an aggregate increase in revenue from the Storage and Server Management and Services segments of $246 million. The increase in these two segments revenue is largely attributable to demand for our Storage and Server Management products and consulting services as a result of increased demand for security and storage solutions. This increased demand was driven by the proliferation of structured and unstructured data, and increasing sales of services in conjunction with our license sales as a result of our focus on offering our customers a more comprehensive IT solution. Furthermore, growth in our customer base through acquisitions and new license sales results in an increase to Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues because a large number of our customers renew their annual maintenance contracts.
Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues increased in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to an increase of $394 million in revenue related to enterprise products and services, excluding acquired Altiris products. This increase in enterprise product and services revenue was largely attributable to higher amortization of deferred revenue, as a result of our larger deferred revenue balances during fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007. In addition, Content, subscriptions, and maintenance revenues increased from sales of new products from our Altiris acquisition for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period. The increase is also due to a favorable foreign currency impact for fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007.
Licenses revenues decreased slightly for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to a decrease in revenue related to our Security and Compliance products offset by an increase in revenue related to our Storage and Server Management products. The decreases in Security and Compliance license revenues are primarily a result of the challenging economic environment and a decline in demand from small and medium businesses. Offsetting increases in Storage and Server Management license revenues are a result of increased demand for storage solutions driven by the proliferation of structured and unstructured data.
Licenses revenue increased in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to an increase from the sales of new products from our Altiris acquisition for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period and a favorable foreign currency impact.
Net revenues and operating income by segment
Consumer revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to an increase from our core consumer security products in our electronic channels, offset by a decrease in our retail channels. Our electronic channels include sales derived from OEMs, subscriptions, upgrades, online sales, and renewals. In addition, Consumer revenues increased from the sale of our consumer services and acquired security products.
Consumer revenues increased for fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 due to an aggregate increase from our core consumer security products in our electronic channels. The increase was also due to a favorable foreign currency impact.
Operating income for this segment increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008, as the increase in revenue more than offset the increase in expenses. Total expenses for fiscal 2009 increased primarily as a result of the PC Tools acquisition.
Operating income for this segment increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, as the increase in revenue more than offset the increase in expenses. Total expenses for fiscal 2008 increased primarily as a result of higher OEM placement fees.
Security and Compliance revenues were flat for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008.
Security and Compliance revenues increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to sales of new products from our Altiris acquisition for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period. Included in the total Security and Compliance segment revenue increase for fiscal 2008 is a favorable foreign currencies impact.
Operating income for the Security and Compliance segment increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008, as expenses decreased while revenue growth remained relatively flat. Total expenses for fiscal 2009 benefited from continued cost containment measures.
Operating income for this segment increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, as the increase in revenues more than offset the increase in expenses. Total expenses increased primarily as a result of higher salary and commissions which includes the impact of the fiscal 2008 Altiris and Vontu acquisitions.
Storage and Server Management revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to increased sales of products related to storage management, data protection, disaster recovery and products supporting high availability. The demand for these products is driven by the increase in the proliferation of structured and unstructured data as well as the increasing demand for optimization of storage systems.
Storage and Server Management revenues increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to increased demand for products related to the standardization and simplification of data center infrastructure and higher amortization of deferred revenue, for the reasons discussed above in Total Net Revenues. Included in the total Storage and Server Management segment revenue increase for fiscal 2008 is a favorable foreign currencies impact.
Operating income for the Storage and Server Management segment increased for the fiscal 2009 as compared to the fiscal 2008, as revenue growth was coupled with a decrease in expenses. Total expenses for the fiscal 2009 decreased partly as a result of the fiscal 2008 divestiture of the APM business.
Operating income for this segment increased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, as the increase in revenues more than offset the increase in expenses. Total expenses from our Storage and Server Management segment increased primarily as a result of the impairment of intangible assets related to the APM business of $95 million. Additionally, increases in sales expenses drove costs higher for the Storage and Server Management group.
Services revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to an increase in SaaS revenues as a result of our November 14, 2008 acquisition of MessageLabs. The remaining increase in revenues was in our consulting services and Business Critical Services, as a result of increased demand for more comprehensive software implementation assistance and increased demand for our Business Critical Services. Customers are increasingly purchasing our service offerings in conjunction with the purchase of our products and augmenting the capabilities of their own IT staff with our onsite consultants.
Services revenues increased for fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to an increase in consulting services as a result of increased demand for a more comprehensive solution by purchasing our service offerings in conjunction with the purchase of our products and the increased desire for customers to augment the capabilities of their own IT staff with our onsite consultants. Services revenues increased as a result of sales of new services from
our Altiris acquisition for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period. In addition, Services revenue increased due to increased demand for our Business Critical Services.
The operating loss for the Services segment decreased for the fiscal 2009, as revenue growth exceeded expense growth for the segment. Our focus on margin improvement contributed to the decrease in operating loss.
Operating loss for this segment decreased for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007, as the increase in revenues more than offset the increase in expenses. Total expenses from our Services segment increased $80 million in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007. The increase is primarily a result of higher salary and wages to support the increase in revenue and includes the impact of the fiscal 2008 Altiris acquisition.
Revenue from our Other segment is comprised primarily of sunset products and products nearing the end of their life cycle. Our Other segment also includes general and administrative expenses; amortization of acquired product rights, intangible assets, and other assets; goodwill impairment charges; charges such as stock-based compensation and restructuring; and certain indirect costs that are not charged to the other operating segments. The operating loss of our Other segment for fiscal 2009 primarily consists of the $7.4 billion charge related to impairment of goodwill that was recorded during fiscal 2009.
Revenues from the Other segment for fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007 were immaterial.
Americas revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to increased revenues related to our Storage and Server Management and Services segments. In addition, for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008, Americas revenues related to our Consumer segment increased driven by demand for our Consumer segment products suites.
EMEA revenues decreased slightly for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to decreased revenues related to our Consumer and Security and Compliance segments as a result of a strengthening U.S. dollar and a decrease in endpoint security product sales to small and medium sized businesses. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in revenues related to our Storage and Server Management and Services segments.
Asia Pacific Japan revenues increased for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to increased revenues related to our Storage and Server Management segment.
International revenues increased in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 primarily due to increased revenues related to our Storage and Server Management and Security and Compliance segments, as a result of increased demand for products related to the standardization and simplification of data center infrastructure and higher amortization of deferred revenue for the reasons described above. These products also contributed to the increased revenues in the Americas in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007. Sales of new products from our acquisition of Altiris increased revenues in the international regions and the Americas for which there is no comparable revenue in the prior period. Growth in revenues in international regions and the Americas from sales of our Consumer products was driven by prior period demand for Norton Internet Security products. Foreign currencies had a favorable impact on net revenues in fiscal 2008 compared to fiscal 2007.
Our international sales are and will continue to be a significant portion of our net revenues. As a result, net revenues will continue to be affected by foreign currency exchange rates as compared to the U.S. dollar. While the current global economic slowdown has recently resulted in a strengthening U.S. dollar, we are unable to predict the extent to which revenues in future periods will be impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates. If international sales become a greater portion of our total sales in the future, changes in foreign currency exchange rates may have a greater impact on our revenues and operating results.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues consists primarily of the amortization of acquired product rights, fee-based technical support costs, the costs of billable services, payments to OEMs under revenue-sharing arrangements, manufacturing and direct material costs, and royalties paid to third parties under technology licensing agreements.
Gross margin increased slightly in fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 primarily due to higher revenues and, to a lesser extent, lower OEM royalty payments and distribution costs, partially offset by a year over year increase in technical support costs.
Gross margin increased in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 due primarily to an increase in revenue and the fact that the terms of several of our OEM arrangements changed from revenue-sharing arrangements to placement fee arrangements in late fiscal 2007. Placement fee arrangements are expensed on an estimated average cost basis, while revenue-sharing arrangements are generally amortized ratably over a one-year period. In addition, we realized year over year increases in services and technical support costs.
Cost of content, subscriptions, and maintenance consists primarily of fee-based technical support costs, costs of billable services, and payments to OEMs under revenue-sharing agreements.
Cost of content, subscriptions, and maintenance as a percentage of related revenue for the fiscal 2009 decreased one percentage point as compared to the same period last year. The decrease is primarily driven by higher revenues, lower OEM royalties and distribution costs, partially offset by a year-over-year increase in technical support costs.
Cost of content, subscriptions, and maintenance decreased as a percentage of the related revenue in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007. The year over year decrease in cost of content, subscriptions, and maintenance as a percentage of the related revenue is primarily driven by higher revenues and lower OEM royalties as a percentage of revenue more than offsetting increases in Services expenses.
Cost of licenses consists primarily of royalties paid to third parties under technology licensing agreements and manufacturing and direct material costs.
Cost of licenses remained stable as a percentage of the related revenue for the fiscal 2009 as compared to the fiscal 2008. Decreases in manufacturing and site license costs were partially offset by higher royalties.
Cost of licenses decreased as a percentage of the related revenue in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007. The year over year decrease in Cost of licenses as a percentage of the related revenue is primarily attributable to higher revenues and to a lesser extent due to lower obsolescence reserves. Fiscal 2007 had relatively high obsolescence reserves due to our decision to exit certain aspects of the appliance business.
Acquired product rights are comprised of developed technologies and patents from acquired companies.
The increase in amortization for the fiscal 2009 as compared to the fiscal 2008 is primarily due to amortization associated with SwapDrive, PC Tools and MessageLabs acquisitions during the fiscal 2009 periods offset in part by the APM business divestiture in the fiscal 2008 period.
The amortization in fiscal 2008 was higher than fiscal 2007 primarily due to amortization associated with the Altiris acquisition, offset in part by certain acquired product rights becoming fully amortized. For further discussion of acquired product rights and related amortization, see Notes 5 and 6 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report.
As discussed above under Our Business, our operating expenses for fiscal 2009 as compared to fiscal 2008 were adversely impacted by an additional week during fiscal 2009. Our international expenses during the fiscal
2009 were favorably impacted by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar compared to foreign currencies during fiscal 2008 and by the 2009 restructuring plan. In addition, our ongoing cost and expense discipline positively contributed to our increased operating margins for the fiscal 2009 periods.
Our operating expenses for fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 were adversely impacted by higher international expenses resulting from the U.S. dollar weakening in comparison to foreign currencies coupled with additional headcount resulting from acquisitions. These increases were partially offset by our 2008 restructuring plan initiatives and our ongoing cost and expense discipline.
As a percent of net revenues, sales and marketing expenses decreased to 39% for the fiscal 2009 as compared to 41% for the fiscal 2008 as a result of the factors discussed above under Operating expenses overview.
Sales and marketing expense as a percentage of total revenues increased to 41% in fiscal 2008 as compared to 39% in fiscal 2007. The percentage increase and increase in absolute dollars in sales and marketing expenses in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 is primarily due to higher employee compensation expense as a result of the Altiris and Vontu acquisitions and the OEM placement fees as discussed above under Financial Results and Trends. We negotiated new contract terms with some of our OEM partners in fiscal 2007, for which the expense commenced being recognized in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2007. In addition, these new contract terms had the effect of moving our OEM payments from Cost of revenues to Operating expenses.
As a percent of net revenues, research and development expense has remained relatively constant in fiscal 2009 and fiscal 2008.
Research and development expense as a percentage of total revenues has remained relatively constant in fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007. The increase in absolute dollars in fiscal 2008 as compared to fiscal 2007 is attributable to a higher employee compensation expense primarily related to the Altiris and Vontu acquisitions.
General and administrative expense as a percentage of total revenues has remained relatively constant in fiscal 2009, fiscal 2008, and fiscal 2007. The decrease in general and administrative expenses in fiscal 2009 as compared with the fiscal 2008 is primarily due to items discussed above under Operating expenses overview. The increase in
general and administrative expenses in fiscal 2008 as compared with fiscal 2007 is primarily due to higher salaries and wages resulting from the Altiris and Vontu acquisitions offset by a gradual reduction in headcount during fiscal 2008.
Other purchased intangible assets are comprised of customer base and tradenames. Amortization for the fiscal 2009 compared to the fiscal 2008 remained relatively stable. The increased amortization in fiscal 2008 is primarily associated with a full year of amortization of intangible assets associated with the Altiris purchase which occurred in April 2007.
In connection with the restructuring plans described in Note 9 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report, restructuring charges increased to $96 million for fiscal 2009 from $74 million in fiscal 2008. The 2009 restructuring amount primarily consisted of severance charges of $64 million largely related to the 2009 Plan (as defined in Note 9) reduction in force and the 2008 Plan business structure changes, $21 million related to the outsourcing of back office functions to various third-party outsourcers and $11 million related to facilities costs associated with earlier acquisitions. The 2008 amount primarily consisted of severance charges of $59 million largely related to the reduction in force actions in both the 2008 Plan and 2007 Plan (each as defined in Note 9) and $15 million related to facilities costs associated with earlier acquisitions. Restructuring charges increased slightly in fiscal 2008 from $71 million in fiscal 2007. The 2007 amount primarily consisted of severance charges related to the 2007 Plan reduction in force.
Total remaining costs for the 2008 Plan are estimated to range from $25 million to $55 million. Total remaining costs for the transition activities associated with outsourcing back office functions are estimated to be approximately $40 million. Total remaining costs related to the 2009 Plan and 2007 Plan are not expected to be material.
Based on a combination of factors, including the current economic environment and a decline in our market capitalization, we concluded that there were sufficient indicators to require us to perform an interim goodwill impairment analysis during the third quarter of fiscal 2009. The analysis was not completed during the third quarter of fiscal 2009 and an estimated impairment charge of $7.0 billion was recorded. The analysis was subsequently finalized and an additional impairment charge of $413 million was included in our results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009. As a result, we incurred a total impairment charge of $7.4 billion for fiscal 2009. We also performed our annual impairment analysis during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009 and determined that no additional impairment charge was necessary.
For the purposes of this analysis, our estimates of fair value are based on a combination of the income approach, and the market approach. The income approach estimates the fair value of our reporting units based on the future discounted cash flows. We also consider the market approach, which estimates the fair value of our reporting units based on comparable market prices.
During the year ended April 3, 2009, we recognized an impairment of $47 million on certain land and buildings classified as held for sale. SFAS No. 144 provides that a long-lived asset classified as held for sale should be measured at the lower of its carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell.
During the year ended March 28, 2007, we determined that the APM business in the Storage and Server Management segment did not meet the long-term strategic objectives of the segment. As such, we recognized an impairment of $96 million, primarily due to sale of the APM business during fiscal 2008.
During the third quarter of fiscal 2009, we settled a patent lawsuit in which the result was a gain of approximately $10 million reflected in the Consolidated Statement of Operations under the caption Patent settlement.
Interest income decreased during fiscal years 2009 and 2008 primarily due to lower average cash balances outstanding and lower average yields on our invested cash and short-term investment balances. We expect that our interest expense will increase with the adoption of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) FSP APB No. 14-1, Accounting for Convertible Debt Instruments That May Be Settled in Cash upon Conversion (Including Partial Cash Settlement). Please see Newly Adopted and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements below.
Interest expense is primarily related to the interest and amortization of issuance costs related to our 0.75% and 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes issued in June 2006. Fiscal 2007 also includes interest and accretion related to the 0.25% Convertible Subordinated Notes that we assumed in connection with our acquisition of Veritas, which were paid in full during August 2006.
In fiscal 2008, we recorded a net gain from Settlements of litigation.
Other income, net includes a net gain of foreign currency for fiscal 2009, while fiscal 2008 and fiscal 2007 include net foreign currency losses. In fiscal 2007, Other income, net includes a gain of $20 million on the sale of our buildings in Milpitas, California, and Maidenhead, United Kingdom.
Our effective tax rate was approximately (3)%, 35%, and 36% in fiscal 2009, 2008, and 2007, respectively. The tax provision for fiscal 2009 includes a $56 million net tax benefit associated with the impairment of goodwill charge of $7.4 billion, materially impacting the overall effective tax rate. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2009 otherwise reflects the benefits of lower-taxed foreign earnings and losses from the joint venture, domestic manufacturing tax incentives, and research and development credits. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2008 reflects the impact of non-deductible stock-based compensation offset by U.S. tax benefits from domestic manufacturing deductions. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2007 reflects the impact of non-deductible stock-based compensation offset by foreign earnings taxed at a lower rate than the U.S. tax rate.
The $56 million net tax benefit arising from the impairment of goodwill during the year consists of a $112 million tax benefit from elements of tax deductible goodwill, net of a $56 million tax provision to increase our valuation allowances for certain deferred tax assets in a foreign jurisdiction that will require an extended period of time to realize. The valuation allowance increased by $63 million in total in fiscal 2009 and totals $101 million as of April 3, 2009.
As a result of the impairment of goodwill, we have cumulative pre-tax book losses, as measured by the current and prior two years. We considered the negative evidence of this cumulative pre-tax book loss position on our ability to continue to recognize deferred tax assets that are dependent upon future taxable income for realization. Levels of
future taxable income are subject to the various risks and uncertainties discussed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors, set forth in this annual report. We considered the following as positive evidence: the vast majority of the goodwill impairment is not deductible for tax purposes and thus will not result in tax losses; we have a strong, consistent taxpaying history; we have substantial U.S. federal income tax carryback potential; and we have substantial amounts of scheduled future reversals of taxable temporary differences from our deferred tax liabilities. We have concluded that this positive evidence outweighs the negative evidence and, thus, that the deferred tax assets as of April 3, 2009 of $702 million, after application of the valuation allowances, are realizable on a more likely than not basis.
On March 29, 2006, we received a Notice of Deficiency from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) claiming that we owe $867 million of additional taxes, excluding interest and penalties, for the 2000 and 2001 tax years based on an audit of Veritas. On June 26, 2006, we filed a petition with the U.S. Tax Court protesting the IRS claim for such additional taxes. In the March 2007 quarter, we agreed to pay $7 million out of $35 million originally assessed by the IRS in connection with several of the lesser issues covered in the assessment. The IRS agreed to waive the assessment of penalties. During July 2008, we completed the trial phase of the Tax Court case, which dealt with the remaining issue covered in the assessment. At trial, the IRS changed its position with respect to this remaining issue, decreasing the remaining amount at issue from $832 million to $545 million, excluding interest. We filed our post-trial briefs in October 2008 and rebuttal briefs in November 2008 with the U.S. Tax Court.
We strongly believe the IRS position with regard to this matter is inconsistent with applicable tax laws and existing Treasury regulations, and that our previously reported income tax provision for the years in question is appropriate. If, upon resolution, the final assessment differs from our tax provision the adjustment, including interest, would be accounted for through income tax expense in the period the matter is resolved, with the application of SFAS No. 141(Revised 2007), Business Combinations (SFAS No. 141(R)) effective in the first quarter of our fiscal year 2010.
On March 30, 2006, we received notices of proposed adjustments from the IRS with regard to an unrelated audit of Symantec for fiscal 2003 and 2004. The IRS claimed that we owed an incremental tax liability with regard to this audit of $110 million, excluding penalties and interest. The incremental tax liability primarily relates to transfer pricing matters between Symantec and a foreign subsidiary. On September 5, 2006, we executed a closing agreement with the IRS with respect to the audit of Symantecs fiscal 2003 and 2004 federal income tax returns. The closing agreement represents the final assessment by the IRS of additional tax for these fiscal years of approximately $35 million, including interest. Based on the final settlement, a tax benefit of $8 million was recognized.
In July 2008, we reached an agreement with the IRS concerning our eligibility to claim a lower tax rate on a distribution made from a Veritas foreign subsidiary prior to the July 2005 acquisition. The distribution was intended to be made pursuant to the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, and therefore eligible for a 5.25% effective U.S. federal rate of tax, in lieu of the 35% statutory rate. The final impact of this agreement is not yet known since this relates to the taxability of earnings that are otherwise the subject of the tax years 2000-2001 transfer pricing dispute which in turn is being addressed in the U.S. Tax Court. To the extent that we owe taxes as a result of the transfer pricing dispute, we anticipate that the incremental tax due from this negotiated agreement will decrease. We currently estimate that the most probable outcome from this negotiated agreement will be $13 million or less, for which an accrual has already been made. We made a payment of $130 million to the IRS for this matter in May 2006. We have applied $110 million of this payment as a deposit on the outstanding transfer pricing matter for the tax years 2000-2001.
In connection with the note hedge transactions discussed in Note 8 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report, we established a deferred tax asset of approximately $232 million to account for the book-tax basis difference in the convertible notes resulting from note hedge transactions. The establishment of the deferred tax asset has been accounted for as an increase to additional paid-in capital. As a result of the adoption of FSP APB No. 14-1 in the June 2009 quarter, book and tax basis in the convertible notes will be comparable, and as a result, this deferred tax asset will be adjusted through additional paid-in capital, as part of the adoption.
The Company adopted the provisions of FASB FIN 48, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, effective March 31, 2007. FIN 48 addresses the accounting for and disclosure of uncertainty in income tax positions, by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold that a tax position is required to satisfy before being recognized in the financial statements. FIN 48 also provides guidance on derecognition, measurement, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition.
The cumulative effect of adopting FIN 48 was a decrease in tax reserves of $16 million, resulting in a decrease in Veritas goodwill of $10 million, an increase of $5 million to Accumulated earnings balance, and a $1 million increase in Additional paid-in capital. Upon adoption, the gross liability for unrecognized tax benefits as of March 31, 2007 was $456 million, exclusive of interest and penalties.
On February 5, 2008, Symantec formed Huawei-Symantec, Inc. (joint venture) with a subsidiary of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. (Huawei). The joint venture is domiciled in Hong Kong with principal operations in Chengdu, China. The joint venture develops, manufactures, markets and supports security and storage appliances to global telecommunications carriers and enterprise customers.
As described further in Note 7 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this annual report, we account for our investment in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting. Under this method, we record our proportionate share of the joint ventures net income or loss based on the quarterly financial statements of the joint venture. We record our proportionate share of net income or loss one quarter in arrears. For the fiscal 2009, we recorded a loss of approximately $53 million related to our share of the joint ventures net loss incurred for the period from February 5, 2008 (its date of inception) to December 31, 2008.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
We have historically relied primarily on cash flows from operations, borrowings under a credit facility, issuances of convertible notes and equity securities for our liquidity needs. Key sources of cash include earnings from operations and existing cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, and our revolving credit facility.
In fiscal 2007, we entered into a five-year $1 billion senior unsecured revolving credit facility that expires in July 2011. During fiscal 2008, we borrowed $200 million under the credit facility. In order to be able to draw on the credit facility, we must maintain certain covenants, including a specified ratio of debt to earnings (before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization and impairments) as well as various other non-financial covenants. As of April 3, 2009, we were in compliance with all required covenants, and there was no outstanding balance on the credit facility.
As of April 3, 2009, we had cash and cash equivalents of $1.8 billion and short-term investments of $199 million resulting in a net liquidity position, defined as unused availability of the credit facility, cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, of approximately $3.0 billion.
We believe that our existing cash balances, cash that we generate over time from operations, and our borrowing capacity will be sufficient to satisfy our anticipated cash needs for working capital and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months.
Our principal cash requirements include working capital, capital expenditures, payments of principal and interest on our debt and payments of taxes. In addition, we regularly evaluate our ability to repurchase stock, pay debts and acquire other businesses.
Revolving credit facility. In early fiscal 2009, we repaid the entire $200 million principal amount, plus $3 million of accrued interest, that we borrowed during fiscal 2008 under our senior unsecured revolving credit facility.
Acquisition-Related. We generally use cash to fund the acquisition of other businesses and from time to time use our revolving credit facility when necessary. We acquired six companies for cash totaling $1.1 billion in fiscal 2009, three companies for approximately $1.4 billion in fiscal 2008 and two companies for approximately $46 million in fiscal 2007. Also in fiscal 2008, we entered into a joint venture with Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. and contributed $150 million in cash.
Convertible Senior Notes. In June 2006, we issued $1.1 billion principal amount of 0.75% Convertible Senior Notes due June 15, 2011, and $1.0 billion principal amount of 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes (collectively the Senior Notes) due June 15, 2013, to initial purchasers in a private offering for resale to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to SEC Rule 144A. Concurrently with the issuance of the Senior Notes, we entered into note hedge transactions for $592 million with affiliates of certain of the initial purchasers whereby we have the option to purchase up to 110 million shares of our common stock at a price of $19.12 per share.
Stock Repurchases. During fiscal 2009, we repurchased 42 million shares, or $700 million, of our common stock. As of April 3, 2009, we have $300 million remaining under the plan authorized by the Board of Directors in June 2007. During fiscal 2008, we repurchased a total of 81 million shares, or $1.5 billion, of our common stock. During fiscal 2007, we repurchased 162 million shares, or $2.8 billion, of our common stock.
The following table summarizes, for the periods indicated, selected items in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows:
Net cash provided by operating activities of $1.7 billion during fiscal 2009 primarily resulted from non-cash charges related to depreciation and amortization expenses of $837 million and the $7.4 billion goodwill impairment charge offset by the net loss of $6.7 billion.
Net cash provided by operating activities during fiscal 2008 resulted largely from net income of $464 million adjusted for non-cash items depreciation and amortization charges of $824 million, stock-based compensation expense of $164 million, income taxes payable of $197 million and an increase in deferred revenue of $127 million. These 2008 amounts were partially offset by a decrease in non-cash deferred income taxes of $180 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities during fiscal 2007 resulted largely from net income of $404 million adjusted for non-cash items depreciation and amortization of $811 million, stock-based compensation expense of $154 million and an increase in deferred revenue of $400 million. These 2007 amounts were partially offset by a decrease in income taxes payable of $182 million, primarily due to the timing of tax payments.
Net cash used in investing activities of $1.0 billion in fiscal 2009 was primarily due to an aggregate payment of $1.1 billion in cash payments for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, and $272 million paid for capital expenditures, partially offset by net proceeds of $336 million from the sale of short-term investments which were used to partially fund acquisitions.
Net cash used in investing activities of $1.5 billion for 2008 was primarily related to an aggregate payment of $1.2 billion in cash paid for acquisitions and the joint venture, net of cash acquired.
Net cash used in investing activities of $222 million in fiscal 2007 was primarily due to a net increase in capital expenditures of $298 million and $46 million in cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired, partially offset by the net proceeds from sales of short-term investments of $123 million.
Net cash used in financing activities of $676 million in fiscal 2009 was primarily due to stock repurchases of 42 million shares of our common stock for $700 million and the repayment of $200 million on our revolving credit facility, partially offset by net proceeds of $229 million received from the issuance of our common stock through employee stock plans.
Net cash used in financing activities of $1.1 billion in fiscal 2008 was primarily related to the repurchase of 81 million shares of our common stock for $1.5 billion, partially offset by the net proceeds of $224 million received from the issuance of our common stock through employee stock plans and a borrowing of $200 million on our revolving credit facility.
Net cash used in financing activities of $1.3 billion in fiscal 2007 was primarily related to the repurchase of 162 million shares of our common stock for $2.8 billion, the purchase of note hedges for $592 million and repayment of the Veritas notes for $520 million; partially offset by $2.1 billion proceeds from the issuance of our Senior Notes, proceeds from the sale of common stock warrants of $326 million and $230 million proceeds from the issuance of our common stock through employee stock plans.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations and commitments as of April 3, 2009:
As permitted under Delaware law, we have agreements whereby we indemnify our officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or director is, or was, serving at our request in such capacity. The maximum potential amount of future payments we could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is not limited; however, we have directors and officers insurance coverage that reduces our exposure and may enable us to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. We believe the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements in excess of applicable insurance coverage is minimal.
We provide limited product warranties and the majority of our software license agreements contain provisions that indemnify licensees of our software from damages and costs resulting from claims alleging that our software infringes the intellectual property rights of a third party. Historically, payments made under these provisions have been immaterial. We monitor the conditions that are subject to indemnification to identify if a loss has occurred.
In April 2009, the FASB issued (1) FSP FAS 115-2 and FSP FAS 124-2, which provides guidance on determining other-than-temporary impairments for debt securities; and (2) FSP FAS 107-1 and FSP APB 28-1, which provides additional fair value disclosures for financial instruments in interim periods. Each of these FSPs are effective for interim and annual periods ending after June 15, 2009. We do not expect the adoption of these FSPs to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2008, the FASB issued EITF Issue No. 07-5, Determining Whether an Instrument (or an Embedded Feature) Is Indexed to an Entitys Own Stock. EITF Issue No. 07-5 provides guidance on evaluating whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to a companys own stock, including evaluating the instruments contingent exercise and settlement provisions. EITF Issue No. 07-5 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. We are currently assessing the impact of EITF Issue No. 07-5 on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2008, the FASB issued FSP APB No. 14-1, Accounting for Convertible Debt Instruments That May Be Settled in Cash upon Conversion (Including Partial Cash Settlement). The FSP will require the issuer of convertible debt instruments with cash settlement features to separately account for the liability and equity components of the instrument. The debt will be recognized at the present value of its cash flows discounted using the issuers nonconvertible debt borrowing rate at the time of issuance. The equity component will be recognized as the difference between the proceeds from the issuance of the note and the fair value of the liability. The FSP will also require interest to be accreted as interest expense of the resultant debt discount over the expected life of the debt.
The transition guidance requires retrospective application to all periods presented, and does not grandfather existing instruments. The guidance will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, and interim periods within those years. As such, we will adopt the FSP in the first quarter of fiscal year 2010. Our 0.75% Convertible Senior Notes due June 15, 2011, and our 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes due June 15, 2013 (collectively the Senior Notes), each issued in June 2006, are subject to the FSP.
Upon adoption, we will record a debt discount, which will be amortized to interest expense through maturity of the Senior Notes. Although we have not completed our evaluation of the impact of adoption, we expect to retrospectively adjust the original carrying amount of the Senior Notes as of June 2006 to reflect a discount of approximately $586 million on the date of issuance, with an offsetting increase in additional paid-in capital of approximately $354 million and a decrease in deferred tax assets of approximately $232 million. Excluding the corresponding impact of income taxes, we expect to retrospectively record an increase in non-cash interest expense of approximately $91 million in fiscal 2008 and approximately $97 million in fiscal 2009. As a result of applying the FSP, we also expect non-cash interest expense in fiscal 2010 to increase by approximately $104 million, excluding the corresponding impact of income taxes. The additional non-cash interest expense will have no impact on the total operating, investing and financing cash flows in prior periods or in future consolidated statements of cash flows. If future interpretations of, or changes to, the FSP necessitate a further change in these reporting practices, our previously reported and future results of operations could be adversely affected.
In May 2008, the FASB issued SFAS No. 162, The Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. SFAS No. 162 defines the order in which accounting principles that are generally accepted should be followed. SFAS No. 162 is effective 60 days following the SECs approval of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) amendments to AU Section 411, The Meaning of Present Fairly in Conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. We do not expect the adoption of SFAS No. 162 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2008, the FASB finalized FSP No. 142-3, Determination of the Useful Life of Intangible Assets. The position amends the factors that should be considered in developing renewal or extension assumptions used to determine the useful life of a recognized intangible asset under FASB SFAS No. 142. The position applies to intangible assets that are acquired individually or with a group of other assets and both intangible assets acquired in business combinations and asset acquisitions. FSP 142-3 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We are currently evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of FSP 142-3 on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements, an amendment of ARB No. 51. The standard changes the accounting for noncontrolling (minority) interests in consolidated financial statements including the requirements to classify noncontrolling interests as a component of consolidated stockholders equity, to identify earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests reported as part of consolidated earnings, and to measure gain or loss on the deconsolidated subsidiary using the fair value of the noncontrolling equity investment. Additionally, SFAS No. 160 revises the accounting for both increases and decreases in a parents controlling ownership interest. SFAS No. 160 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, with early adoption prohibited. We do not expect the adoption of SFAS No. 160 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141(R). This standard changes the accounting for business combinations by requiring that an acquiring entity measures and recognizes identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date fair value with limited exceptions. The changes include the treatment of acquisition related transaction costs, the valuation of any noncontrolling interest at acquisition date fair value, the recording of acquired contingent liabilities at acquisition date fair value and the subsequent re-measurement of such liabilities after acquisition date, the recognition of capitalized in-process research and development, the accounting for acquisition-related restructuring cost accruals subsequent to the acquisition date, and the recognition of changes in the acquirers income tax valuation allowance. SFAS No. 141(R) is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008, with early adoption prohibited. We are currently evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of SFAS No. 141(R) on our consolidated financial statements. The accounting treatment related to pre-acquisition uncertain tax positions will change when SFAS No. 141(R) becomes effective, which will be in the first quarter of
our fiscal year 2010. At such time, any changes to the recognition or measurement of uncertain tax positions related to pre-acquisition periods will be recorded through income tax expense, where currently the accounting treatment would require any adjustment to be recognized through the purchase price. In April 2009, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 141(R)-1, Accounting for Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed in a Business Combination That Arise from Contingencies. FSP No. FAS 141(R)-1 provides guidance on the accounting and disclosure of contingencies acquired or assumed in a business combination. FSP No. FAS 141(R)-1 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. We are currently evaluating the impact of the pending adoption of FSP No. FAS 141(R)-1 on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 14 for further details.
In February 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 159, The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, including an amendment of SFAS No. 115. SFAS No. 159 permits companies to choose to measure certain financial instruments and certain other items at fair value and requires unrealized gains and losses on items for which the fair value option has been elected to be reported in earnings. SFAS No. 159 is effective for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2007. Effective March 29, 2008, we adopted SFAS 159, but we have not elected the fair value option for any eligible financial instruments as of April 3, 2009.
In September 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements, which defines fair value, establishes guidelines for measuring fair value and expands disclosures regarding fair value measurements. SFAS No. 157 does not require any new fair value measurements but rather eliminates inconsistencies in guidance found in various prior accounting pronouncements and is effective for fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2007. In February 2008, the FASB issued FSP No. 157-2, The Effective Date of FASB Statement No. 157, which delays the effective date of SFAS No. 157 for all nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities, except those that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually), until fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008, and interim periods within those fiscal years. These nonfinancial items include assets and liabilities such as reporting units measured at fair value in a goodwill impairment test and nonfinancial assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Effective March 29, 2008, we adopted SFAS No. 157 for financial assets and liabilities recognized at fair value on a recurring basis. The partial adoption of SFAS No. 157 for financial assets and liabilities did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In October 2008, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 157-3, Determining the Fair Value of a Financial Asset When the Market for That Asset Is Not Active. FSP No. FAS 157-3 provides examples to illustrate key considerations in determining the fair value of a financial asset when the market for that financial asset is not active. FSP No. FAS 157-3 is effective upon issuance. The adoption of the FSP did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. In April 2009, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 157-4, Determining Fair Value When the Volume and Level of Activity for the Asset or Liability Have Significantly Decreased and Identifying Transactions That Are Not Orderly. FSP No. FAS 157-4 provides guidance on estimating fair value when the volume and level of activity for an asset or liability have significantly decreased and determining when a transaction is not orderly. FSP No. FAS 157-4 is effective for interim and annual periods ending after June 15, 2009. We do not expect adoption of the FSP to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 2 for information and related disclosures regarding our fair value measurements.
We are exposed to various market risks related to fluctuations in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and equity prices. We may use derivative financial instruments to mitigate certain risks in accordance with our investment and foreign exchange policies. We do not use derivatives or other financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Our exposure to interest rate risk relates primarily to our short-term investment portfolio and the potential losses arising from changes in interest rates. Our investment objective is to achieve the maximum return compatible with capital preservation and our liquidity requirements. Our strategy is to invest our cash in a manner that preserves capital, maintains sufficient liquidity to meet our cash requirements, maximizes yields consistent with approved credit risk, and limits inappropriate concentrations of investment by sector, credit, or issuer. We classify our cash equivalents and short-term investments in accordance with SFAS No. 115, Accounting for Certain Investments in
Debt and Equity Securities. We consider investments in instruments purchased with an original maturity of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents. We classify our short-term investments as available-for-sale, and short-term investments consist of marketable debt or equity securities with original maturities in excess of 90 days. Our cash equivalents and short-term investment portfolios consist primarily of money market funds, commercial paper, corporate debt securities, and U.S. government and government-sponsored debt securities. Our short-term investments do not include equity investments in privately held companies. Our short-term investments are reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, included in Accumulated other comprehensive income within Stockholders equity in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The amortization of premiums and discounts on the investments, realized gains and losses, and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary on available-for-sale securities are included in Other income, net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. We use the specific identification method to determine cost in calculating realized gains and losses upon sale of short-term investments.
The following table presents the fair value and hypothetical changes in fair values on short-term investments sensitive to changes in interest rates (in millions):
The modeling technique used above measures the change in fair market value arising from selected potential changes in interest rates. Market changes reflect immediate hypothetical parallel shifts in the yield curve of plus 150 bps, plus 100 bps, plus 50 bps, minus 25 bps, and minus 75 bps.
We conduct business in 40 currencies through our worldwide operations and, as such, we are exposed to foreign currency exposure risk. Foreign currency risks are associated with our cash and cash equivalents, investments, receivables, and payables denominated in foreign currencies. Fluctuations in exchange rates will result in foreign exchange gains and losses on these foreign currency assets and liabilities and are included in Other income, net. Our objective in managing foreign exchange activity is to preserve stockholder value by minimizing the risk of foreign currency exchange rate changes. Our strategy is to primarily utilize forward contracts to hedge foreign currency exposures. Under our program, gains and losses in our foreign currency exposures are offset by losses and gains on our forward contracts. Our forward contracts generally have terms of one to six months. At the end of the reporting period, open contracts are marked-to-market with unrealized gains and losses included in Other income, net.
The following table presents a sensitivity analysis on our foreign forward exchange contract portfolio using a statistical model to estimate the potential gain or loss in fair value that could arise from hypothetical appreciation or depreciation of foreign currency (in millions):
In June 2006, we issued $1.1 billion principal amount of 0.75% Convertible Senior Notes due 2011 and $1.0 billion of 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2013. Holders may convert their Senior Notes prior to maturity upon the occurrence of certain circumstances. Upon conversion, we would pay the holder the cash value of the applicable number of shares of Symantec common stock, up to the principal amount of the note. Amounts in excess of the principal amount, if any, may be paid in cash or in stock at our option. Concurrent with the issuance of the Senior Notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions and separately, warrant transactions, to reduce the potential dilution from the conversion of the Senior Notes and to mitigate any negative effect such conversion may have on the price of our common stock.
For business and strategic purposes, we also hold equity interests in several privately held companies, many of which can be considered to be in the start-up or development stages. These investments are inherently risky and we could lose a substantial part or our entire investment in these companies. These investments are recorded at cost and classified as Other long-term assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of April 3, 2009, these investments had an aggregate carrying value of $3 million.
The consolidated financial statements and related disclosures included in Part IV, Item 15 of this annual report are incorporated by reference into this Item 8.
Selected Quarterly Financial Data
The SEC defines the term disclosure controls and procedures to mean a companys controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported, within the time periods specified in the SECs rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by an issuer in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the issuers management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer have concluded, based on an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act) by our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of the end of the period covered by this report.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) for Symantec. Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, has conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of April 3, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). We have excluded from our evaluation, the internal control over financial reporting of (a) PC Tools Pty. Ltd. and subsidiaries, which we acquired on October 6, 2008, and is included in the fiscal 2009 consolidated financial statements of Symantec and constituted $310.5 million of total assets (of which $273.0 million represents goodwill and intangible assets included within the scope of the assessment), as of April 3, 2009, and $13.9 million of revenue, for the year then ended and (b) MessageLabs Group Limited and subsidiaries, which we acquired on November 14, 2008, and is included in the fiscal year 2009 consolidated financial statements of Symantec and constituted $715.1 million of total assets (of which $640.1 million represents goodwill and intangible assets included within the scope of the assessment), as of April 3, 2009 and $37.8 million of revenues, for the year then ended.
Our management has concluded that, as of April 3, 2009, our internal control over financial reporting was effective based on these criteria.
The Companys independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report regarding its assessment of the Companys internal control over financial reporting as of April 3, 2009, which is included in Part IV, Item 15 of this annual report.