Texas Instruments 10-K 2016
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
for the transition period from to
Commission File Number 1-3761
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: 214-479-3773
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No x
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $53,229,272,810 as of June 30, 2015.
1,005,257,723 (Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of February 22, 2016)
Part III hereof incorporates information by reference to the Registrant’s proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders.
We design and make semiconductors that we sell to electronics designers and manufacturers all over the world. We began operations in 1930. We are incorporated in Delaware, headquartered in Dallas, Texas, and have design, manufacturing or sales operations in more than 30 countries. We have two reportable segments: Analog and Embedded Processing. We report the results of our remaining business activities in Other. In 2015, we generated $13 billion of revenue.
We focus our resources on Analog and Embedded Processing because we believe that these segments’ long product life cycles, intrinsic diversity and need for less capital-intensive manufacturing provide a combination of stability, profitability and strong cash generation. This business model is the foundation of our capital management strategy, which is based on our belief that free cash flow growth is important for maximizing shareholder value over the long term. Free cash flow is cash flow from operations less capital expenditures.
Semiconductors are electronic components that serve as the building blocks inside modern electronic systems and equipment. Semiconductors, generally known as “chips,” combine multiple transistors on a single piece of material to form a complete electronic circuit. We have tens of thousands of products that are used to accomplish many different things, such as converting and amplifying signals, interfacing with other devices, managing and distributing power, processing data, canceling noise and improving signal resolution. This broad portfolio includes products that are integral to almost all electronic equipment.
We sell catalog and application-specific standard semiconductor products, both of which we market to multiple customers. Catalog products are designed for use by many customers and/or many applications. The life cycles of catalog products generally span multiple years, with some products continuing to sell for decades after their initial release. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are designed for use by a smaller number of customers and are targeted to a specific application. The life cycles of ASSPs are generally determined by end-equipment upgrade cycles and can be as short as 12 to 24 months, although some can be used across multiple generations of customers’ products. We also sell custom semiconductor products, which are designed for a specific customer to use in a specific application and are sold only to that customer. The vast majority of our revenue is derived from products that are differentiated from competitors’ products. Our products are sold through distribution channels and directly to customers.
Our segments represent groups of similar products that are combined on the basis of similar design and development requirements, product characteristics, manufacturing processes and distribution channels. Our segments also reflect how management allocates resources and measures results. Additional information regarding each segment follows.
Analog generated $8.3 billion of revenue in 2015. Analog semiconductors change real-world signals, such as sound, temperature, pressure or images, by conditioning them, amplifying them and often converting them to a stream of digital data that can be processed by other semiconductors, such as embedded processors. Analog semiconductors also are used to manage power in every electronic device by converting, distributing, storing, discharging, isolating and measuring electrical energy, whether the device is plugged into a wall or running off a battery. Our Analog products are used in many markets, particularly personal electronics and industrial.
Sales of our Analog products generated about 64 percent of our revenue in 2015. According to external sources, the market for analog semiconductors was $45 billion in 2015. Our Analog segment’s revenue in 2015 was 18 percent of this fragmented market, the leading position. We believe we are well positioned to increase our market share over time.
Our Analog segment includes the following major product lines: High Volume Analog & Logic (HVAL), Power Management (Power), High Performance Analog (HPA) and Silicon Valley Analog (SVA).
These include high-volume integrated ASSPs and high-volume catalog products. HVAL products support applications like automotive safety devices, touchscreen controllers, low-voltage motor drivers and integrated motor controllers.
These include both catalog products and ASSPs that help customers manage power in electronic systems. Our broad portfolio of Power products is designed to enhance the efficiency of powered devices using battery management solutions, portable power devices, power supply controls and point-of-load products.
These include catalog products that we market to many different customers who use them in manufacturing a wide range of products. HPA products include high-speed data converters, amplifiers, sensors, high-reliability products, interface products and precision products that are typically used in systems that require high performance. HPA products generally have long life cycles, often more than 10 years.
These include a broad portfolio of industrial, high-voltage power management, data converter, interface and operational amplifier catalog products used in manufacturing a wide range of electronic systems. SVA products support applications like video and data interface products, high voltage power conversion, and mobile lighting and display systems. SVA products generally have long life cycles, often more than 10 years. SVA consists primarily of products that we acquired through our purchase of National Semiconductor Corporation in 2011.
Embedded Processing generated $2.8 billion of revenue in 2015. Embedded Processing products are the “brains” of many electronic devices. Embedded processors are designed to handle specific tasks and can be optimized for various combinations of performance, power and cost, depending on the application. The devices vary from simple, low-cost products used in electric toothbrushes to highly specialized, complex devices used in automotive applications such as infotainment systems and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Our Embedded Processing products are used in many markets, particularly industrial and automotive.
An important characteristic of our Embedded Processing products is that our customers often invest their own research and development (R&D) to write software that operates on our products. This investment tends to increase the length of our customer relationships because many customers prefer to re-use software from one product generation to the next.
Sales of Embedded Processing products generated about 21 percent of our revenue in 2015. According to external sources, the market for embedded processors was $18 billion in 2015. Our 15 percent share of this fragmented market is among the leaders. We believe we are well positioned to increase our market share over time.
Our Embedded Processing segment includes the following major product lines: Microcontrollers, Processors and Connectivity.
These include self-contained systems with a processor core, memory and peripherals that are designed to control a set of specific tasks for electronic equipment. Microcontrollers tend to have minimal requirements for memory and program length, with no operating system and low software complexity. Analog components that control or interface with sensors and other systems are often integrated into microcontrollers.
These include digital signal processors (DSPs) and applications processors. DSPs perform mathematical computations almost instantaneously to process or improve digital data. Processors are typically tailored for a specific class of applications such as industrial (factory automation or grid infrastructure) and automotive (infotainment and ADAS). They are also sold into broad industrial applications.
These include products that enable electronic devices to seamlessly connect and transfer data, and the requirements for speed, data capability, distance, power and security vary depending on the application. Our Connectivity products support many wireless technologies to meet these requirements, including low-power wireless network standards like Zigbee® and other technologies like
Bluetooth®, WiFi and GPS. Our Connectivity products are usually designed into customer devices alongside our processor and microcontroller products, enabling data to be collected, transmitted and acted upon.
We report the results of our remaining business activities in Other, which generated $1.9 billion of revenue in 2015 and includes:
We also include in Other items that are not used in evaluating the results of or in allocating resources to our segments. Examples of these items include acquisition charges; restructuring charges; revenue from our legacy wireless products; and certain corporate-level items, such as litigation expenses, environmental costs, insurance settlements, and gains and losses from other activities, including asset dispositions.
Financial information with respect to our segments and our operations outside the United States is contained in Note 1 to the financial statements, which is included in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” Risks attendant to our foreign operations are described in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Markets for our products
The table below lists the major markets that used our products in 2015 and the estimated percentage of our 2015 revenue that the market represented. The chart also lists, in decreasing order of our revenue, the sectors within each market.
The analog and embedded processing markets are highly fragmented. As a result, we face significant global competition from dozens of large and small companies, including both broad-based suppliers and niche suppliers. Our competitors also include emerging companies, particularly in Asia, that sell products into the same markets in which we operate.
We believe that competitive performance in the semiconductor market generally depends on several factors, including the breadth of a company’s product line, the strength and depth of the sales network, technological innovation, product development execution, technical support, customer service, quality, reliability, price and scale. The primary competitive factors for our Analog products include design proficiency, a diverse product portfolio to meet wide-ranging customer needs, manufacturing process technologies that provide differentiated levels of performance, applications and sales support, and manufacturing expertise and capacity. The primary competitive factors for our Embedded Processing products are the ability to design and cost-effectively manufacture products, system-level knowledge about targeted end markets, installed base of software, software expertise, applications and sales support, and a product’s performance, integration and power characteristics.
The global semiconductor market is characterized by constant, though generally incremental, advances in product designs and manufacturing processes. Semiconductor prices and manufacturing costs tend to decline over time as manufacturing processes and product life cycles mature.
The “semiconductor cycle” refers to the ebb and flow of supply and demand. The semiconductor market historically has been characterized by periods of tight supply caused by strengthening demand and/or insufficient manufacturing capacity, followed by periods of surplus inventory caused by weakening demand and/or excess manufacturing capacity. These are typically referred to as upturns and downturns in the semiconductor cycle. The semiconductor cycle is affected by the significant time and money required to build and maintain semiconductor manufacturing facilities.
We employ several strategies to dampen the effect of the semiconductor cycle on TI. We acquire our facilities and equipment ahead of demand, which usually allows us to acquire this capacity at lower costs. We focus our resources on our Analog and Embedded Processing segments, which serve diverse markets and diverse customers. This diversity reduces our dependence on the performance of a single market or small group of customers. Additionally, we utilize consignment inventory programs with our customers and distributors.
Our revenue is subject to some seasonal variation. Historically, our semiconductor revenue growth rate tends to be weaker in the first and fourth quarters when compared to the second and third quarters. Calculator revenue is tied to the U.S. back-to-school season and is therefore at its highest in the second and third quarters.
Semiconductor manufacturing begins with a sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps that fabricate a number of semiconductor devices on a thin silicon wafer. Each device on the wafer is packaged and tested. The entire process takes place in highly specialized facilities and requires an average of 12 weeks, with most products completing within 7 to 16 weeks.
The cost and lifespan of the equipment and processes we use to manufacture semiconductors vary by technology. Our Analog products and most of our Embedded Processing products can be manufactured using mature and stable, and therefore less expensive, equipment than is needed for manufacturing advanced logic products, such as some of our processor products.
We own and operate semiconductor manufacturing facilities in North America, Asia, Japan and Europe. These include both wafer fabrication and assembly/test facilities. Our facilities require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once in operation. We own much of our manufacturing capacity; therefore, a significant portion of our operating cost is fixed and changes in factory loadings can cause short-term variations in profit margins. When factory loadings decrease, our fixed costs are spread over reduced output and, absent other circumstances, our profit margins decrease. Conversely, as factory loadings increase, our fixed costs
are spread over increased output and, absent other circumstances, our profit margins increase. Our operating focus is more on maximizing long-term free cash flow than minimizing short-term variations in profit margins caused by factory loadings.
To this end, we seek to maximize long-term free cash flow by keeping capital expenditures low through opportunistic purchases of facilities and equipment ahead of demand. For example, in 2013 we purchased an assembly/test facility in Chengdu, China. In 2015 we began production at an existing facility in Dallas, Texas, that we adapted to manufacture analog products using 300-millimeter wafers, our most cost-effective manufacturing process. These activities may have near-term effects on our profit margins, but we believe they will result in long-term benefits to free cash flow.
We expect to maintain sufficient internal manufacturing capacity to meet the vast majority of our production needs. To supplement our manufacturing capacity and maximize our responsiveness to customer demand and return on capital, we utilize the capacity of outside suppliers, commonly known as foundries, and subcontractors. In 2015, we sourced about 20 percent of our total wafers from external foundries and about 40 percent of our assembly/test services from subcontractors.
We estimate that we sell our products to more than 100,000 customers. Our customer base is diverse, with one-third of our revenue deriving from customers outside our largest 100. Our largest single end customer in 2015 was Apple Inc. Apple accounted for approximately 11 percent of revenue, recognized primarily in our Analog segment.
Sales and distribution
We market and sell our semiconductor products through a direct sales force and distributors. We have sales or marketing offices in more than 30 countries. About 60 percent of our revenue comes through distribution channels. Our distributors maintain an inventory of our products and sell directly to a wide range of customers. They also sell products from our competitors.
Our inventory practices differ by product, but we generally maintain inventory levels that are consistent with our expectations of customer demand. We carry proportionally more inventory of products with long life cycles and a broad customer base. Additionally, we sometimes maintain product inventory in unfinished wafer form, as well as higher finished-goods inventory of low-volume products, allowing greater flexibility in periods of high demand.
We generate about 55 percent of our revenue from consignment inventory programs that we have in place for our large customers and distributors. With these programs, we own inventory that is stored at our customers’ and distributors’ locations, and we recognize revenue when the product is pulled from consigned inventory. These consignment programs give us improved insight into demand, allowing us to better manage our factory loadings. About 60 percent of our distributor revenue is generated from sales of consigned inventory.
We define backlog as of a particular date as purchase orders with a customer-requested delivery date within a specified length of time. Our backlog at any particular date may not be indicative of revenue for any future period. As customer requirements and industry conditions change, orders may be subject to cancellation or modification of terms such as pricing, quantity or delivery date. Customer order placement practices continually evolve based on customers’ individual business needs and capabilities, as well as industry supply and capacity considerations. Further, our consignment programs do not result in backlog because the order occurs at the same time as delivery, i.e., when the customer pulls the product from consigned inventory. Our backlog of orders was $0.95 billion at December 31, 2015, and $0.94 billion at December 31, 2014.
Acquisitions, divestitures and investments
From time to time we consider acquisitions and divestitures that may strengthen our business portfolio. We also make investments directly or indirectly in private companies. Investments are focused primarily on next-generation technologies and markets strategic to us.
We purchase materials, parts and supplies from a number of suppliers. In some cases we purchase such items from sole source suppliers. The materials, parts and supplies essential to our business are generally available at present, and we believe that such materials, parts and supplies will be available in the foreseeable future.
We own many patents, and have many patent applications pending, in the United States and other countries in fields relating to our business. We have developed a strong, broad-based patent portfolio and continually add patents to that portfolio. We also have agreements with numerous companies involving license rights to our portfolio and anticipate that other license agreements may be negotiated in the future. In general, our license agreements have multi-year terms and may be renewed after renegotiation.
Our patent portfolio is an ongoing contributor to our revenue. We do not consider our business materially dependent upon any one patent or patent license, although taken as a whole, our rights and the products made and sold under patents and patent licenses are important to our business.
We often participate in industry initiatives to set technical standards. Our competitors may participate in the same initiatives. Participation in these initiatives may require us to license certain of our patents to other companies on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms.
We own trademarks that are used in the conduct of our business. These trademarks are valuable assets, the most important of which are “Texas Instruments” and our corporate monogram. DLP® is another valuable trademark.
Research and development
Our R&D expense was $1.28 billion in 2015, compared with $1.36 billion in 2014 and $1.52 billion in 2013. Our primary areas of R&D investment are Analog and Embedded Processing products.
We conduct most of our R&D internally. However, we also closely engage with a wide range of third parties, including software suppliers, universities and select industry consortia, and we collaborate with our foundry suppliers on semiconductor manufacturing technology.
Executive officers of the Registrant
The following is an alphabetical list of the names and ages of the executive officers of the company and the positions or offices with the company held by each person named:
The term of office of these officers is from the date of their election until their successor shall have been elected and qualified. All have been employees of the company for more than five years. Messrs. Anderson, Crutcher, Delagi, March, Ritchie and Templeton and Mses. West and Whitaker have served as executive officers of the company for more than five years. Ms. Trochu and Mr. Xie became executive officers of the company in 2015.
At December 31, 2015, we had 29,977 employees.
Our Internet address is www.ti.com. Information on our web site is not a part of this report. We make available free of charge through our Investor Relations web site our reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with the SEC. Also available through the TI Investor Relations web site are reports filed by our directors and executive officers on Forms 3, 4 and 5, and amendments to those reports.
Available on our web site at www.ti.com/corporategovernance are: (i) our Corporate Governance Guidelines; (ii) charters for the Audit, Compensation, and Governance and Stockholder Relations Committees of our board of directors; (iii) our Code of Conduct; and (iv) our Code of Ethics for TI Chief Executive Officer and Senior Finance Officers. Stockholders may request copies of these documents free of charge by writing to Texas Instruments Incorporated, P.O. Box 660199, MS 8657, Dallas, Texas, 75266-0199, Attention: Investor Relations.
You should read the following risk factors in conjunction with the factors discussed elsewhere in this and other of our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and in materials incorporated by reference into these filings. These risk factors are intended to highlight certain factors that may affect our financial condition and results of operations and are not meant to be an exhaustive discussion of risks that apply to companies like TI with broad international operations. Like other companies, we are susceptible to macroeconomic downturns in the United States or abroad that may affect the general economic climate and our performance and the performance of our customers. Similarly, the price of our securities is subject to volatility due to fluctuations in general market conditions, actual financial results that do not meet our and/or the investment community’s expectations, changes in our and/or the investment community’s expectations for our future results and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
We face substantial competition that requires us to respond rapidly to product development and pricing pressures.
We face intense technological and pricing competition in the markets in which we operate. We expect this competition will continue to increase from large competitors and from smaller competitors serving niche markets, and also from emerging companies, particularly in Asia, that sell products into the same markets in which we operate. For example, the China market is highly competitive, and both international and domestic competitors are aggressively seeking to increase their market share. Additionally, we may face increased competition as a result of China’s adoption of policies designed to promote its domestic semiconductor industry. Certain of our competitors possess sufficient financial, technical and management resources to develop and market products that may compete favorably against our products, and consolidation among our competitors may allow them to compete more effectively. Additionally, traditional intellectual property licensors are increasingly providing functionality, designs and complete hardware or software solutions that compete with our products. The price and product development pressures that result from competition may lead to reduced profit margins and lost business opportunities in the event that we are unable to match the price declines or cost efficiencies, or meet the technological, product, support, software or manufacturing advancements of our competitors.
Rapid technological change in markets we serve requires us to develop new technologies and products.
Rapid technological change in markets we serve could contribute to shortened product life cycles and a decline in average selling prices of our products. Our results of operations depend in part upon our ability to successfully develop, manufacture and market innovative products. We require significant investments to develop new technologies and products that meet changing customer demands, and we might not realize a return on our investments because they are generally made before commercial viability can be assured. Further, projects that are commercially viable may not contribute significant revenue until at least a few years after they are completed.
Changes in expected demand for our products could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our customers include companies in a wide range of end markets and sectors within those markets. If demand in one or more sectors within our end markets declines or grows at a significantly slower pace than management expects, our results of operations may be adversely affected. Additionally, the loss or significant curtailment of purchases by one or more of our large customers, including curtailments due to a change in the design or manufacturing sourcing policies or practices of these customers, or the timing of customer or distributor inventory adjustments, may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations also might suffer because of a general decline in customer demand resulting from, for example: uncertainty regarding the stability of global credit and financial markets; natural events or domestic or international political, social, economic or other conditions; breaches of customer information technology systems that disrupt customer operations; or a customer’s inability to access credit markets and other sources of needed liquidity.
Our ability to match inventory and production with the product mix needed to fill orders may affect our ability to meet a quarter’s revenue forecast. In addition, when responding to customers’ requests for shorter shipment lead times, we manufacture products based on forecasts of customers’ demands. These forecasts are based on multiple assumptions. If we inaccurately forecast customer demand, we may hold inadequate, excess or obsolete inventory that would reduce our profit margins and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our margins may vary over time.
Our profit margins may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including decreases in customer demand and shipment volume; obsolescence of our inventory; and shifts in our product mix. In addition, we operate in a highly competitive market environment that might adversely affect pricing for our products. Because we own much of our manufacturing capacity, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these fixed costs do not decline with reductions in customer demand or factory loadings, and can adversely affect profit margins as a result.
Cyclicality in the semiconductor market may affect our performance.
Semiconductor products are the principal source of our revenue. The cyclical nature of the semiconductor market may lead to significant and often rapid increases and decreases in product demand. These changes could have adverse effects on our results of operations, and on the market price of our securities.
Our global operations subject us to risks associated with domestic or international political, social, economic or other conditions.
We have facilities in more than 30 countries. About 85 percent of our revenue comes from shipments to locations outside the United States; in particular, shipments of products into China typically represent a large portion of our revenue. We are exposed to political, social and economic conditions, security risks, terrorism or other hostile acts, health conditions, labor conditions, and possible disruptions in transportation, communications and information technology networks of the various countries in which we operate. Any of these could result in an adverse effect on our operations and our financial results. Additionally, in periods when the U.S. dollar significantly fluctuates in relation to the non-U.S. currencies in which we transact business, the remeasurement of non-U.S. dollar transactions can have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our results of operations could be affected by natural events in the locations in which we operate.
We have manufacturing, data and design facilities and other operations in locations subject to natural occurrences such as severe weather, geological events or health epidemics that could disrupt operations. A natural disaster that results in a prolonged disruption to our operations may adversely affect our results and financial condition.
We face supply chain and manufacturing risks.
We rely on third parties to supply us with goods and services in a cost-effective and timely manner. Our access to needed goods and services may be adversely affected if our suppliers’ operations were disrupted as a result of, for example: quality excursions; uncertainty regarding the stability of global credit and financial markets; domestic or international political, social, economic and other conditions; natural events in the locations in which our suppliers operate; or limited or delayed access to key raw materials, natural resources, and utilities. Additionally, a breach of our suppliers’ information technology systems could result in a release of our confidential or proprietary information. If our suppliers are unable to access credit markets and other sources of needed liquidity, we may be unable to obtain needed supplies, collect accounts receivable or access needed technology.
In particular, our manufacturing processes and critical manufacturing equipment require that certain key raw materials, natural resources and utilities be available. Limited or delayed access to and high costs of these items could adversely affect our results of operations. Our products contain materials that are subject to conflict minerals reporting requirements. Our relationships with customers and suppliers may be adversely affected if we are unable to describe our products as conflict-free. Additionally, our costs may increase if one or more of our customers demands that we change the sourcing of materials we cannot identify as conflict-free.
Our inability to timely implement new manufacturing technologies or install manufacturing equipment could adversely affect our results of operations. We subcontract a portion of our wafer fabrication and assembly and testing of our products, and we depend on third parties to provide advanced logic manufacturing process technology development. We do not have long-term contracts with all of these suppliers, and the number of alternate suppliers is limited. Reliance on these suppliers involves risks, including possible shortages of capacity in periods of high demand, suppliers’ inability to develop and deliver advanced logic manufacturing process technology in a timely, cost effective, and appropriate manner and the possibility of suppliers’ imposition of increased costs on us.
Our operating results and our reputation could be adversely affected by breaches of our information technology systems.
Breaches of our information technology systems could be caused by computer viruses, unauthorized access, sabotage, vandalism or terrorism. These breaches could compromise our information technology networks and could result in unauthorized release of our, our customers’ or our suppliers’ confidential or proprietary information, cause a disruption to our manufacturing and other operations, result in release of employee personal data, or cause us to incur increased information technology protection costs, any of which could adversely affect our operating results and our reputation.
Our performance depends in part on our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights and to develop and license new intellectual property.
Access to worldwide markets depends in part on the continued strength of our intellectual property portfolio. There can be no assurance that, as our business expands into new areas, we will be able to independently develop the technology, software or know-how necessary to conduct our business or that we can do so without infringing the intellectual property rights of others. To the extent that we have to rely on licensed technology from others, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain licenses at all or on terms we consider reasonable. The lack of a necessary license could expose us to claims for damages and/or injunction from third parties, as well as claims for indemnification by our customers in instances where we have a contractual or other legal obligation to indemnify them against damages resulting from infringement claims.
We actively enforce and protect our own intellectual property rights. However, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be adequate to prevent misappropriation or improper use of our protected technology. Moreover, the laws of countries where we operate may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as U.S. laws.
We benefit from royalty revenue generated from various patent license agreements. The amount of such revenue depends in part on negotiations with new licensees, and with existing licensees in connection with renewals of their licenses. There is no guarantee that such negotiations will be successful. Future royalty revenue also depends on the strength and enforceability of our patent portfolio and our enforcement efforts, and on the sales and financial stability of our licensees. Additionally, consolidation of our licensees may negatively affect our royalty revenue. Royalty revenue from licensees is not always uniform or predictable, in part due to the performance of our licensees and in part due to the timing of new license agreements or the expiration and renewal of existing agreements.
Our operations could be affected by the complex laws, rules and regulations to which our business is subject.
We are subject to complex laws, rules and regulations affecting our domestic and international operations relating to, for example, the environment, safety and health; exports and imports; bribery and corruption; tax; data privacy and protection; labor and employment; competition; and intellectual property ownership and infringement. Compliance with these laws, rules and regulations may be onerous and expensive, and if we fail to comply or if we become subject to enforcement activity, our ability to manufacture our products and operate our business could be restricted and we could be subject to fines, penalties or other legal liability. Furthermore, should these laws, rules and regulations be amended or expanded, or new ones enacted, we could incur materially greater compliance costs or restrictions on our ability to manufacture our products and operate our business.
Some of these complex laws, rules and regulations – for example, those related to environmental, safety and health requirements – may particularly affect us in the jurisdictions in which we manufacture products, especially if such laws and regulations: require the use of abatement equipment beyond what we currently employ; require the addition or elimination of a raw material or process to or from our current manufacturing processes; or impose costs, fees or reporting requirements on the direct or indirect use of energy, natural resources, or materials or gases used or emitted into the environment in connection with the manufacture of our products. A substitute for a prohibited raw material or process might not be available, or might not be available at reasonable cost.
Our results of operations and our reputation could be affected by warranty claims, product recalls, product liability claims, or legal proceedings.
We could be subject to claims based on warranty, product liability, epidemic or delivery failures, or other grounds relating to our products, manufacturing, services, designs or communications that could lead to significant expenses as we defend such claims or pay damage awards or settlements. In the event of a claim, we may also incur costs if we decide to compensate the affected customer or end consumer. We maintain product liability insurance, but there is no guarantee that such insurance will be available or adequate to protect against all such claims. In addition, it is possible for one of our customers to recall a product containing a TI part. In such instances, we may incur costs and expenses relating to the recall. Costs or payments we may make in connection with warranty, epidemic failure and delivery claims, product recalls or other legal proceedings may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and our reputation.
Our results of operations could be affected by changes in tax-related matters.
We have facilities in more than 30 countries and as a result are subject to taxation and audit by a number of taxing authorities. Tax rates vary among the jurisdictions in which we operate. If our tax rate increases, our results of operations could be adversely affected. A number of factors could cause our tax rate to increase, including a change in the jurisdictions in which our profits are earned and taxed; a change in the mix of profits from those jurisdictions; changes in available tax credits; changes in applicable tax rates; or adverse resolution of audits by taxing authorities.
In addition, we are subject to laws and regulations in various jurisdictions that determine how much profit has been earned and when it is subject to taxation in that jurisdiction. Changes in these laws and regulations could affect the locations where we are deemed to earn income, which could in turn affect our results of operations. We have deferred tax assets on our balance sheet. Changes in applicable tax laws and regulations or in our business performance could affect our ability to realize those deferred tax assets, which could also affect our results of operations. Each quarter we forecast our tax liability based on our forecast of our performance for the year. If that performance forecast changes, our forecasted tax liability will change.
We have not made a provision for U.S. income tax on the portion of our undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries that is considered permanently reinvested outside the United States. If in the future we repatriate any of these foreign earnings, we might incur incremental U.S. income tax, which could affect our results of operations.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by our distributors’ promotion of competing product lines or our distributors’ financial performance.
In 2015, about 60 percent of our revenue was generated from sales of our products through distributors. Our distributors carry competing product lines, and our sales could be affected if our distributors promote competing products over our products. Moreover, our results of operations could be affected if our distributors suffer financial difficulties that result in their inability to pay amounts owed to us.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected if a customer or a distributor suffers a loss with respect to our inventory.
We have consignment inventory programs in place for some of our largest customers and distributors. If a customer or distributor were to experience a loss with respect to TI-consigned inventory, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected if we do not recover the full value of the lost inventory from the customer, distributor or insurer, or if our recovery is delayed.
Our debt could affect our operations and financial condition.
From time to time, we issue debt securities with various interest rates and maturities. While we believe we will have the ability to service this debt, our ability to make principal and interest payments when due depends upon our future performance, which will be subject to general economic conditions, industry cycles, and business and other factors affecting our operations, including the other risk factors described under Item 1A, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, our obligation to make principal and interest payments could divert funds that otherwise would be invested in our operations or returned to shareholders, or could cause us to raise funds by, for example, issuing new debt or equity or selling assets.
Our results of operations and liquidity could be affected by changes in the financial markets.
We maintain bank accounts, one or more multi-year revolving credit agreements, and a portfolio of investments to support the financing needs of the company. Our ability to fund our operations, invest in our business, make strategic acquisitions, service our debt obligations and meet our cash return objectives depends upon continuous access to our bank and investment accounts, and may depend on access to our bank credit lines that support commercial paper borrowings and provide additional liquidity through short-term bank loans. If we are unable to access these accounts and credit lines (for example, due to instability in the financial markets), our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected and our ability to access the capital markets or redeem our investments could be restricted.
Increases in health care and pension benefit costs could affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Federal and state health care reform programs could increase our costs with regard to medical coverage of our employees, which could reduce profitability and affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, obligations related to our pension and other postretirement plans reflect assumptions that affect the planned funding and costs of these plans, including the actual return on plan assets, discount rates, plan participant population demographics and changes in pension regulations. Changes in these assumptions may affect plan funding, cash flow and results of operations, and our costs and funding obligations could increase significantly if our plans’ actual experience differs from these assumptions.
Our continued success depends in part on our ability to retain and recruit a sufficient number of qualified employees in a competitive environment.
Our continued success depends in part on the retention and recruitment of skilled personnel, including technical, marketing, management and staff personnel. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully retain and recruit the key personnel that we require.
Our ability to successfully implement business and organizational changes could affect our business plans and results of operations.
From time to time, we undertake business and organizational changes, including acquisitions, divestitures and restructuring actions, to support or carry out our strategic objectives. Our failure to successfully implement these changes could adversely affect our business plans and operating results. For example, we may not realize the expected benefits of an acquisition if we are unable to timely and successfully integrate acquired operations, product lines and technology, and our pre-acquisition due diligence may not identify all possible issues and risks that might arise with respect to an acquisition. Further, we may not achieve or sustain the expected growth or cost savings benefits of business and organizational changes, and restructuring charges could differ materially in amount and timing from our expectations.
Material impairments of our goodwill or intangible assets could adversely affect our results of operations.
Charges associated with impairments of our goodwill or intangible assets could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently if certain impairment indicators arise or upon the disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. The review compares the fair value for each reporting unit to its associated book value including goodwill. A decrease in the fair value associated with a reporting unit resulting from, among other things, unfavorable changes in the estimated future discounted cash flow of the reporting unit, may require us to recognize impairments of goodwill. Most of our intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives, but they are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If the sum of the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the intangible asset and its eventual disposition is less than the carrying amount of the asset, we would recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value.
Our principal executive offices are located at 12500 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Texas. The following table indicates the general location of our principal manufacturing and design operations and the reportable segments that make major use of them. Except as otherwise indicated, we own these facilities.
Our facilities in the United States contained approximately 13.7 million square feet at December 31, 2015, of which approximately 1.2 million square feet were leased. Our facilities outside the United States contained approximately 10.2 million square feet at December 31, 2015, of which approximately 1.6 million square feet were leased.
At the end of 2015, we occupied substantially all of the space in our facilities.
Leases covering our currently occupied leased facilities expire at varying dates generally within the next five years. We believe our current properties are suitable and adequate for both their intended purpose and our current and foreseeable future needs.
We are involved in various inquiries and proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. We believe that the amount of our liability, if any, will not have a material adverse effect upon our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
The information concerning the number of stockholders of record at December 31, 2015, is contained in Item 6, “Selected Financial Data.”
Common stock prices and dividends
TI common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Select Market. The table below shows the high and low closing prices of TI common stock as reported by Bloomberg L.P. and the dividends paid per common share in each quarter during the past two years.
Issuer purchases of equity securities
The following table contains information regarding our purchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2015.
(b) Prior periods reclassified to conform to the 2015 presentation, having adopted certain accounting standards. See Note 2.
See Notes to the financial statements and Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations.
We design, make and sell semiconductors to electronics designers and manufacturers all over the world. Our business model is carefully constructed around the following attributes:
The combined effect of these attributes is that we have consistently grown free cash flow and gained market share in Analog and Embedded Processing. These attributes put us in a unique class of companies with the ability to grow, generate cash, and return that cash to shareholders.
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations (MD&A) should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this document. In the following discussion of our results of operations:
Results of operations
We continued to perform well in 2015, reflecting our focus on Analog and Embedded Processing semiconductors. These products serve highly diverse markets with thousands of applications, and we believe have dependable long-term growth opportunities. In 2015, Analog and Embedded Processing represented 86 percent of revenue, up from 83 percent in 2014. Gross margin of 58.2 percent for the year, a new record, reflects the quality of our product portfolio, as well as the efficiency of our manufacturing strategy.
Our focus on Analog and Embedded Processing allows us to generate strong cash flow from operations. In 2015, free cash flow, also a record, was 28.6 percent of revenue, up from 26.9 percent a year ago and consistent with our targeted range of 20-30 percent of revenue. During the year, we returned $4.2 billion of cash to investors through a combination of stock repurchases and dividends. Free cash flow is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a reconciliation to GAAP and an explanation of the reason for providing this non-GAAP measure, see the Non-GAAP financial information section after the Liquidity and capital resources section.
Details of financial results – 2015 compared with 2014
Revenue of $13.00 billion was about even with 2014, as higher revenue from Analog and Embedded Processing was offset by lower revenue from Other. Our 2015 revenue was negatively affected by about $150 million from changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Gross profit was $7.56 billion, an increase of $133 million, or 2 percent, due to lower manufacturing costs. Gross profit margin was 58.2 percent of revenue compared with 56.9 percent.
Operating expenses were $1.28 billion for R&D and $1.75 billion for SG&A. R&D expense decreased $78 million, or 6 percent, and SG&A decreased $95 million, or 5 percent. Both comparisons reflect savings from ongoing efforts across the company to align costs with growth opportunities, including the completed restructuring actions in Embedded Processing and Japan. These decreases were partially offset by higher compensation-related costs.
Acquisition charges were related to our 2011 acquisition of National Semiconductor and were $329 million, about even with 2014. These non-cash charges were primarily from the amortization of intangible assets. See Note 13 to the financial statements.
Restructuring charges/other was a net credit of $71 million, which included gains on sales of assets of $83 million that were partially offset by $12 million related to restructuring charges and other credits. This compared with a net credit of $51 million in 2014, reflecting gains on sales of assets of $75 million that were partially offset by restructuring charges and other expenses of $24 million. These amounts are included in Other for segment reporting purposes. See Note 3 to the financial statements.
Operating profit was $4.27 billion, or 32.9 percent of revenue, compared with $3.95 billion, or 30.3 percent of revenue.
The income tax provision was $1.23 billion compared with $1.05 billion. The increase in the total tax provision was due to higher income before income taxes and, to a lesser extent, a lower benefit from non-U.S. effective tax rates. Our annual effective tax rate was 29 percent in 2015 and 27 percent in 2014. See Note 6 to the financial statements for a reconciliation of the income tax provision to the statutory federal tax.
Net income was $2.99 billion, an increase of $165 million, or 6 percent. EPS was $2.82 compared with $2.57. EPS benefited $0.07 due to a lower number of average shares outstanding as a result of our stock repurchase program.
In the near term, for the first quarter of 2016, we expect about a $150 million decline in revenue from the first quarter of 2015 within a sector of the personal electronics market.
Segment results – 2015 compared with 2014
Analog (includes High Volume Analog & Logic (HVAL), Power Management (Power), High Performance Analog (HPA) and Silicon Valley Analog (SVA) product lines)
Analog revenue increased primarily due to HVAL. Power and SVA also grew, but to a lesser extent. HPA declined due to the mix of products shipped. Operating profit increased due to higher revenue and associated gross profit and, to a lesser extent, lower manufacturing costs.
Embedded Processing (includes Microcontrollers, Processors and Connectivity product lines)
Embedded Processing revenue increased due about equally to Connectivity and Microcontrollers, which together offset a decline in Processors. Operating profit increased primarily due to lower operating expenses.
Other (includes DLP products, calculators, custom ASICs and royalties)
*Includes Acquisition charges and Restructuring charges/other
Other revenue declined primarily due to custom ASICs. Revenue from DLP products also declined, but to a lesser extent. Operating profit declined primarily due to lower revenue and associated gross profit.
Prior results of operations
In 2014, Analog revenue grew 13 percent and Embedded Processing revenue grew 12 percent. Gross margin of 56.9 percent for 2014 reflected the diversity and longevity of our product portfolio, as well as the efficiency of our manufacturing strategy. In 2014, free cash flow was 26.9 percent of revenue, up from 24.4 percent in 2013. During 2014, we returned $4.2 billion of cash to investors through a combination of stock repurchases and dividends.
Details of financial results – 2014 compared with 2013
Revenue was $13.05 billion, up $840 million, or 7 percent, from 2013 due to higher revenue from Analog and Embedded Processing. These increases more than offset lower revenue from legacy wireless products.
Gross profit was $7.43 billion, an increase of $1.06 billion, or 17 percent, from 2013 primarily due to higher revenue and, to a lesser extent, the mix of products shipped. Gross profit margin was 56.9 percent of revenue compared with 52.1 percent in 2013.
Operating expenses were $1.36 billion for R&D and $1.84 billion for SG&A. R&D expense decreased $164 million, or 11 percent, from 2013 primarily due to savings from ongoing efforts across the company to align costs with growth opportunities, including the wind-down of our legacy wireless products and restructuring actions in Embedded Processing and Japan. SG&A expense was about even, as higher variable compensation costs were offset by savings from our cost alignment efforts.
Acquisition charges were related to our 2011 acquisition of National Semiconductor and were $330 million compared with $341 million in 2013. The charges were primarily from the amortization of intangible assets.
Restructuring charges/other was a net credit of $51 million, which included gains on sales of assets of $75 million that were partially offset by restructuring charges and other expenses of $24 million. This compared with a net credit of $189 million in 2013, reflecting a $315 million gain from our transfer of wireless connectivity technology to a customer that was partially offset by restructuring charges of $126 million.
Operating profit was $3.95 billion, or 30.3 percent of revenue, compared with $2.83 billion, or 23.2 percent, in 2013.
The income tax provision was $1.05 billion compared with $592 million in 2013. The increase in the total tax provision was due to higher income before income taxes and, to a lesser extent, the effect of the retroactive reinstatement of the federal research tax credit for 2012 in 2013. Our annual effective tax rate was 27 percent in 2014 and 24 percent in 2013.
Net income was $2.82 billion, an increase of $659 million, or 30 percent, from 2013. EPS was $2.57 compared with $1.91 in 2013. EPS benefited $0.07 from 2013 due to a lower number of average shares outstanding as a result of our stock repurchase program.
Segment results – 2014 compared with 2013