TOL » Topics » Inventory

This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Jun 8, 2009.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value, as determined in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventory during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. For those communities that have been temporarily closed, no additional interest is allocated to the community’s inventory until it re-opens and other carrying costs are expensed as incurred. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development and we open the community, it may take four or more years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in our business, the estimated community lives will likely be significantly longer. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as: (a) the expected sales pace in a community, based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
In the three-month period ended April 30, 2009, we reviewed the fair value of 288 operating communities, determined that the fair value of 36 of these communities was below our carrying value, and recognized impairment charges of $67.4 million on these communities. At April 30, 2009, the carrying value of these communities, net of the impairment charges recognized, was $181.8 million.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain the approvals. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.


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The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairment charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have land purchase contracts and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FASB Interpretation No. 46R (collectively referred to as “FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At April 30, 2009, we determined that we were the primary beneficiary of one VIE related to a land purchase contract and had recorded $5.6 million of inventory and $5.3 million of accrued expenses related to this VIE.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Mar 11, 2009.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value, as determined in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventory during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion


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of construction. For those communities that have been temporarily closed, no additional interest is allocated to the community’s inventory until it re-opens and other carrying costs are expensed as incurred. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development and we open the community, it may take four or more years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in our business, the estimated community lives will likely be significantly longer. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as: (a) the expected sales pace in a community, based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain the approvals. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairment charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have land purchase contracts and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FASB Interpretation No. 46R (collectively referred to as “FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling


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financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At January 31, 2009, we determined that we were the primary beneficiary of one VIE related to a land purchase contract and had recorded $5.6 million of inventory and $5.3 million of accrued expenses related to this VIE.
 
These excerpts taken from the TOL 10-K filed Dec 19, 2008.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value, as determined in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventory during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. For those communities that have been temporarily closed, no additional interest is allocated to a community’s inventory until it re-opens and other carrying costs are expensed as incurred. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development and the Company opens the community, it may take four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. The Company’s master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in the Company’s business, the aforementioned estimated community lives will likely be significantly longer. Because the Company’s inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, it is required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each community and write down the value of those communities for which it believes the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, the Company uses various estimates such as: (a) the expected sales pace in a community, based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by the Company or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace,


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Table of Contents

 
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)
 
sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  The Company evaluates all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not the Company expects to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain the approvals. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, the Company decides (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land owned, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. The Company then further determines whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to the Company at the time such estimates are made and its expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, the Company may be required to recognize additional impairment charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  The Company has a significant number of land purchase contracts and several investments in unconsolidated entities which it evaluates in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FASB Interpretation No. 46R (collectively referred to as “FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, the Company performs a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract.
 
Inventory


 



Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value, as
determined in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting
Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for
the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets”
(“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land
acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs
also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead
related to development and construction, which are capitalized
to inventory during the period beginning with the commencement
of development and ending with the completion of construction.
For those communities that have been temporarily closed, no
additional interest is allocated to a community’s inventory
until it re-opens and other carrying costs are expensed as
incurred. Once a parcel of land has been approved for
development and the Company opens the community, it may take
four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the
homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time
periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a
community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a
community. The Company’s master planned communities,
consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten
years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in the
Company’s business, the aforementioned estimated community
lives will likely be significantly longer. Because the
Company’s inventory is considered a long-lived asset under
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, it is
required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying
value of each community and write down the value of those
communities for which it believes the values are not recoverable.


 



Current Communities:  When the profitability of
a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines
significantly or some other factor indicates a possible
impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is
reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future
undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value.
If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the
community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written
down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is
primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash
flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of
revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In
estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, the
Company uses various estimates such as: (a) the expected
sales pace in a community, based upon general economic
conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on
the market in which the community is located and on competition
within the market, including the number of home sites available
and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities
owned by the Company or by other builders; (b) the expected
sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community;
(c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in
the future, including, but not limited to, land and land
development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and
overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may
be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales
pace,





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Table of Contents





 




Notes to
Consolidated Financial
Statements — (Continued)


 



sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be
built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for
the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire
community to another builder or the sale of individual home
sites.


 



Future Communities:  The Company evaluates all
land held for future communities or future sections of current
communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine
whether or not the Company expects to proceed with the
development of the land as originally contemplated. This
evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for
current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of
the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the
estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the
estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and
the possible concessions that will be required to be given in
order to obtain the approvals. Concessions may include cash
payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and
streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the
public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of
the homes to be built. Based upon this review, the Company
decides (a) as to land under contract to be purchased,
whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated,
and (b) as to land owned, whether the land will likely be
developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should
be sold. The Company then further determines whether costs that
have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should
be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in
the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.


 



The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash
flows and fair value of both current and future communities are
based on factors known to the Company at the time such estimates
are made and its expectations of future operations and economic
conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in
determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, the
Company may be required to recognize additional impairment
charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.


 



Variable Interest Entities:  The Company has a
significant number of land purchase contracts and several
investments in unconsolidated entities which it evaluates in
accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board
(“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46
“Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an
interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FASB
Interpretation No. 46R (collectively referred to as
“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise
that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a
majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest
entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary
beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity
with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity
investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling
financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers
meeting the definition of a VIE, the Company performs a review
to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE.
This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These
judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to
various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the
entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows
associated with changes in the fair value of the land under
contract.


 




This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Sep 9, 2008.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs also include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventory during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it may take four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in our business, the aforementioned estimated community lives will likely be significantly longer. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.


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Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the future undiscounted cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as: (a) the expected sales pace in a community, based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain the approvals. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional impairment charges and write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have a significant number of land purchase contracts and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FASB Interpretation No. 46R (collectively referred to as “FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At July 31, 2008, we determined that we were the primary beneficiary of two VIEs related to land purchase contracts and had recorded $20.9 million of inventory and $17.3 million of accrued expenses.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Jun 6, 2008.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate


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taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in our business, the aforementioned estimated community lives will likely be significantly longer. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the impairment is determined. In estimating the cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as: (a) the expected sales pace in a community based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and on competition within the market, including the number of home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above, as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain them. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvements to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period in which the need for the write-off is determined.
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional write-downs/write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to herein as “land purchase contracts,” “purchase agreements,” “options” or “option agreements,” and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity


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investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At April 30, 2008, we had determined that we were the primary beneficiary of one VIE related to a land purchase contract and had recorded $15.3 million of inventory and $12.0 million of accrued expenses.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Mar 10, 2008.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in our business, the aforementioned estimated community lives may be significantly longer. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles,


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we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period the impairment is determined. In estimating the cash flow of a community, we use various estimates such as (a) the expected sales pace in a community based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and competition within the market, including the number of homes/home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain them. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvement to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period that the need for the write-off is determined.
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of both current and future communities are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional write-downs/write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to herein as “land purchase contracts,” “purchase agreements,” “options” or “option agreements,” and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At January 31, 2008, we determined that we were the primary beneficiary of one VIE related to a land purchase contract and had recorded $15.3 million of inventory and $12.0 million of accrued expenses.


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This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-K filed Dec 21, 2007.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with SFAS No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of the Company’s typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. The Company’s master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to ten years or more to complete. Because of the downturn in the Company’s business, the aforementioned estimated community lives may be significantly longer. Because the Company’s inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, the Company is required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of its communities and write down the value of those communities for which it believes the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated future undiscounted cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period the impairment is determined. In estimating the cash flow of a community, the Company uses various estimates such as (a) the expected sales pace in a community based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and competition within the market, including the number of homes/home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by it or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  The Company evaluates all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not it expects to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain them. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvement to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, the Company decides (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land the Company owns, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. The Company then further determines whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period that the need for the write-off is determined.


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Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements — (Continued)
 
The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of a community are based on factors known to the Company at the time such estimates are made and the Company’s expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, the Company may be required to recognize additional impairment charges or write-offs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  The Company has a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to herein as “land purchase agreements,” “purchase agreements,” “options” or “option agreements,” and several investments in unconsolidated entities which it evaluates in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, the Company performs a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantial judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Sep 6, 2007.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to 10 years or more to complete. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Jun 8, 2007.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction. Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to 10 years or more to complete. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable.
 
Current Communities:  When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If the estimated cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value. Fair value is primarily determined by discounting the estimated future cash flow of each community. The impairment is charged to cost of revenues in the period the impairment is determined. In estimating the cash flow of a community we use various estimates such as (a) the expected sales pace in a community based upon general economic conditions that will have a short-term or long-term impact on the market in which the community is located and competition within the market, including the number of homes/home sites available and pricing and incentives being offered in other communities owned by us or by other builders; (b) the expected sales prices and sales incentives to be offered in a community; (c) costs expended to date and expected to be incurred in the future, including, but not limited to, land and land development costs, home construction costs, interest costs and overhead costs; (d) alternative product offerings that may be offered in a community that will have an impact on sales pace, sales price, building cost or on the number of homes that can be built on a particular site; and (e) alternative uses for the property such as the possibility of a sale of the entire community to another builder or the sale of individual home sites.
 
Future Communities:  We evaluate all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. This evaluation encompasses the same types of estimates used for current communities described above as well as an evaluation of the regulatory environment in which the land is located and the estimated probability of obtaining the necessary approvals, the estimated time and cost it will take to obtain the approvals and the possible concessions that will be required to be given in order to obtain them. Concessions may include cash payments to fund improvement to public places such as parks and streets, dedication of a portion of the property for use by the public or as open space or a reduction in the density or size of the homes to be built. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land under contract to be purchased, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine whether costs that have been capitalized to the community are recoverable or should be written off. The write-off is charged to cost of revenues in the period that the need for the write-off is determined.


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The estimates used in the determination of the estimated cash flows and fair value of a community are based on factors known to us at the time such estimates are made and our expectations of future operations and economic conditions. Should the estimates or expectations used in determining estimated fair value deteriorate in the future, we may be required to recognize additional write-downs related to current and future communities.
 
Variable Interest Entities:  We have a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to herein as “options” or “option agreements,” and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantive judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At April 30, 2007, we determined that we were not the primary beneficiary of any VIEs related to our land purchase contracts.
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-Q filed Mar 9, 2007.
Inventory
 
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction.
 
Once a parcel of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of our typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible


23


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depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in a community. Our master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to 10 years or more to complete. Because our inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required, under SFAS 144, to regularly review the carrying value of each of our communities and write down the value of those communities for which we believe the values are not recoverable. When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If such cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value by charging cost of revenues in the period the impairment is determined. Fair value is determined by the use of estimates made by management including estimate of future revenues and costs.
 
In addition, we review all land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not we expect to proceed with the development of the land as originally contemplated. Based upon this review, we decide (a) as to land that is under a purchase contract but not owned, whether the contract will likely be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land we own, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. We then further determine which costs that have been capitalized to the property are recoverable and which costs should be written off. We recognized $96.9 million and $1.1 million of write-offs of costs related to current and future communities in the three-month periods ended January 31, 2007 and 2006, respectively. The write-offs in fiscal 2007 were attributable to the write-down of the carrying cost of several operating communities and owned land, primarily located in Florida, Minnesota and New Jersey and one condominium conversion project in Maryland, and the write-off of land deposits and predevelopment costs of land optioned for future communities primarily in California and Florida.
 
We have a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to herein as “options” or “option agreements,” and several investments in unconsolidated entities which we evaluate in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51,” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the operations of the VIE. A VIE is an entity with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, we perform a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantive judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. At January 31, 2007, we had determined that we were the primary beneficiary of one VIE related to a land purchase contract and recorded $76.1 million as inventory, $68.6 million as a loan payable and $5.5 million as accrued liabilities .
 
This excerpt taken from the TOL 10-K filed Jan 5, 2007.

Inventory

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with SFAS No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” (“SFAS 144”). In addition to direct land acquisition, land development and home construction costs, costs include interest, real estate taxes and direct overhead related to development and construction, which are capitalized to inventories during the period beginning with the commencement of development and ending with the completion of construction.

Once a piece of land has been approved for development, it generally takes four to five years to fully develop, sell and deliver all the homes in one of the Company’s typical communities. Longer or shorter time periods are possible depending on the number of home sites in a community and the sales and delivery pace of the homes in that community. The Company’s master planned communities, consisting of several smaller communities, may take up to 10 years or more to complete. Because the Company’s inventory is considered a long-lived asset under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, the Company is required, under SFAS 144, to review the carrying value of each of its communities and write down the value of those communities to the extent to which it believes the values are not recoverable. When the profitability of a current community deteriorates, the sales pace declines significantly or some other factor indicates a possible impairment in the recoverability of the asset, the asset is reviewed for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flow for the community to its carrying value. If such cash flow is less than the community’s carrying value, the carrying value is written down to its estimated fair value by charging cost of revenues in the period the impairment is determined. Fair value is determined by the use of estimates made by management, based upon its judgment at the time the estimate is made, including estimate of future sales trends, revenues and costs.

In addition, the Company reviews all the land held for future communities or future sections of current communities, whether owned or under contract, to determine whether or not it expects to proceed with the development of the land, and, if so, whether it will be developed in the manner originally contemplated. Based upon this review, the Company decides (a) as to land that is under a purchase contract but not owned, whether the contract will be terminated or renegotiated, and (b) as to land the Company owns, whether the land will likely be developed as contemplated or in an alternative manner, or should be sold. The Company then further determines which costs that have been capitalized to the property are recoverable and which costs should be written off.

The Company has a significant number of land purchase contracts, sometimes referred to as “options” or “option agreements,” and investments in unconsolidated entities which it evaluates in accordance with FASB Interpretation No. 46, “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an interpretation of ARB No. 51” as amended by FIN 46R (“FIN 46”). Pursuant to FIN 46, an enterprise that absorbs a majority of the expected losses or receives a majority of the expected residual returns of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is considered to be the primary beneficiary and must consolidate the operations of the VIE. A VIE is an entity

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with insufficient equity investment or in which the equity investors lack some of the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. For land purchase contracts with sellers meeting the definition of a VIE, the Company performs a review to determine which party is the primary beneficiary of the VIE. This review requires substantive judgment and estimation. These judgments and estimates involve assigning probabilities to various estimated cash flow possibilities relative to the entity’s expected profits and losses and the cash flows associated with changes in the fair value of the land under contract. Because, in most cases, the Company does not have any ownership interests in the entities with which it contracts to purchase land, it generally does not have the ability to compel these entities to provide assistance in its review.

The Company capitalizes certain project marketing costs and charges them against income as homes are closed.

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