This excerpt taken from the TPTX 10-K filed Mar 16, 2006.
F. Government Regulation
Regulation by governmental authorities in the United States and foreign countries is an important factor in the development, manufacture and marketing of our proposed products. It is expected that all of our products will require regulatory approval by governmental agencies prior to their commercialization. Human therapeutic products are subject to rigorous pre-clinical and clinical testing and other approval procedures by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and similar regulatory agencies in foreign countries.
Pre-clinical testing is conducted on animals in the laboratory to evaluate the potential efficacy and the safety of a potential pharmaceutical product. The results of these studies are submitted to the FDA as a part of an Investigational New Drug (IND) application, which must be approved before clinical testing in humans can begin in the USA. Typically, the clinical evaluation process involves three phases. In Phase I, clinical trials are conducted with a small number of healthy human subjects to determine the early safety profile, the pattern of drug distribution and metabolism. In Phase II, clinical trials are conducted with groups of patients afflicted with a specific disease to determine preliminary evidence of efficacy, the optimal dosages, and more extensive evidence of safety. In Phase III, large scale, statistically-driven multi-center, comparative clinical trials are conducted with patients afflicted with a target disease in order to provide enough data to demonstrate the efficacy and safety required by the FDA.
The FDA requires that all pre-clinical and clinical testing, as well as manufacturing of drug product, meet certain Good Practices guidelines, including Good Manufacturing Processes, Good Laboratory Practices and Good Clinical Practices. These guidelines are designed to ensure formal training, standard operating procedures, independent performance checks and measures, the accuracy, consistency, validity and completeness of the particular activity. In our case, Contract Research Organizations, or CROs, and academic or other sponsored research laboratories that we utilize for our pre-clinical and clinical research, as well as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing of pure drug product, must comply with these guidelines. Our contracted manufacturers, sponsored research labs and CROs undertake to adhere to Good Manufacturing Processes, Good Laboratory Practices and Good Clinical Practices. We select only CROs that have a record of adherence to those standards and have internal quality assurance and control functions in place to ensure such adherence. However, no assurance can be given that these CROs will in fact completely adhere to the relevant standards in their work for us.
The results of all of the pre-clinical and clinical testing are submitted to the FDA in the form of a New Drug Application (NDA) for approval to commence commercial sales. In responding to an NDA, the FDA may grant marketing approval, request additional information, or deny the application if the FDA determines that the application does not satisfy its regulatory approval criteria. We cannot assure you that approvals will be granted on a timely basis, if at all. Similar regulatory procedures are in place in most developed countries outside the United States.