Annual Reports

  • 10-K (May 26, 2017)
  • 10-K (May 24, 2017)
  • 10-K (May 27, 2016)
  • 10-K (May 21, 2015)
  • 10-K (May 19, 2014)
  • 10-K (May 30, 2013)

 
Quarterly Reports

 
8-K

 
Other

Triumph Group 10-K 2016
Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                    to                  

Commission File No. 1-12235
Triumph Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
51-0347963
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
899 Cassatt Road, Suite 210, Berwyn, Pennsylvania 19312
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:(610) 251-1000
____________________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, par value $.001 per share
(Title of each class)
New York Stock Exchange
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. (Check one)
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). Yes o    No x
As of September 30, 2015, the aggregate market value of the shares of Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was approximately $2,041 million. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the Common Stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange on September 30, 2015. For purposes of making this calculation only, the Registrant has defined affiliates as including all directors and executive officers.
The number of outstanding shares of the Registrant's Common Stock, par value $.001 per share, on May 25, 2016 was 49,521,405.
____________________________________________________________________________
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the following document are incorporated herein by reference:
The Proxy Statement of Triumph Group, Inc. to be filed in connection with our 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated in part in Part III hereof, as specified herein.



Table of Contents

Item No.
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I
Item 1.
Business

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 relating to our future operations and prospects, including statements that are based on current projections and expectations about the markets in which we operate, and management's beliefs concerning future performance and capital requirements based upon current available information. Actual results could differ materially from management's current expectations. Additional capital may be required and, if so, may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, at the times and in the amounts we need. In addition to these factors and others described elsewhere in this report, other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include competitive and cyclical factors relating to the aerospace industry, dependence of some of our businesses on key customers, requirements of capital, product liabilities in excess of insurance, uncertainties relating to the integration of acquired businesses, general economic conditions affecting our business segment, technological developments, limited availability of raw materials or skilled personnel, changes in governmental regulation and oversight, and international hostilities and terrorism. For a more detailed discussion of these and other factors affecting us, see the Risk Factors described in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We do not undertake any obligation to revise these forward-looking statements to reflect future events.
General
Triumph Group, Inc. ("Triumph", the "Company", "we", "us", or "our") was incorporated in 1993 in Delaware. Our companies design, engineer, manufacture, repair, overhaul and distribute a broad portfolio of aerostructures, aircraft components, accessories, subassemblies and systems. We serve a broad, worldwide spectrum of the aviation industry, including original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, of commercial, regional, business and military aircraft and aircraft components, as well as commercial and regional airlines and air cargo carriers.

Products and Services
We offer a variety of products and services to the aerospace industry through three operating segments: (i) Triumph Aerostructures Group, whose companies' revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components for the global aerospace OEM market; (ii) Triumph Aerospace Systems Group, whose companies design, engineer and manufacture a wide range of proprietary and build-to-print components, assemblies and systems also for the OEM market; and (iii) Triumph Aftermarket Services Group, whose companies serve aircraft fleets, notably commercial airlines, the U.S. military and cargo carriers, through the maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft components and accessories manufactured by third parties.
Our Aerostructures Group utilizes its capabilities to design, manufacture and build complete metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components. This group also includes companies performing complex manufacturing, machining and forming processes for a full range of structural components, as well as complete assemblies and subassemblies. This group services the full spectrum of aerospace customers, which include aerospace OEMs and the top-tier manufacturers who supply them and airlines, air cargo carriers, and domestic and foreign militaries.
The products that companies within this group design, manufacture, build and repair include:
Acoustic and thermal insulation systems
Engine nacelles
Aircraft wings
Flight control surfaces
Composite and metal bonding
Helicopter cabins
Composite ducts and floor panels
Precision machined parts
Comprehensive processing services
Stretch-formed leading edges and fuselage skins
Empennages
Wing spars and stringers
Our Aerospace Systems Group utilizes its capabilities to design and engineer mechanical, electromechanical, hydraulic and hydromechanical control systems, while continuing to broaden the scope of detailed parts and assemblies that we supply to the aerospace market. Customers typically return such systems to us for repairs and overhauls and spare parts. This group services the full spectrum of aerospace customers, which include aerospace OEMs and the top-tier manufacturers who supply them and airlines, air cargo carriers, and domestic and foreign militaries.


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The products that companies within this group design, engineer, build and repair include:
Aircraft and engine mounted accessory drives
Thermal control systems and components
Cargo hooks
High lift actuation
Cockpit control levers
Hydraulic systems and components
Comprehensive processing services
Landing gear actuation systems
Control system valve bodies
Landing gear components and assemblies
Electronic engine controls
Main engine gear box assemblies
Exhaust nozzles and ducting
Main fuel pumps
Geared transmissions and drive train components
Secondary flight control systems
Fuel metering units
Vibration absorbers
Our Aftermarket Services Group performs maintenance, repair and overhaul services ("MRO") and supplies spare parts for the commercial and military aviation industry and primarily services the world's airline and air cargo carrier customers. This group also designs, engineers, manufactures, repairs and overhauls aftermarket aerospace gas turbine engine components, offers comprehensive MRO solutions, leasing packages, exchange programs and parts and services to airline, air cargo and third-party overhaul facilities. We also continue to develop Federal Aviation Administration ("FAA") approved Designated Engineering Representative ("DER") proprietary repair procedures for the components we repair and overhaul, which range from detailed components to complex subsystems. Companies in our Aftermarket Services Group repair and overhaul various components for the aviation industry including:
Air cycle machines
Blades and vanes
APUs
Cabin panes, shades, light lenses and other components
Constant speed drives
Combustors
Engine and airframe accessories
Stators
Flight control surfaces
Transition ducts
Integrated drive generators
Sidewalls
Nacelles
Light assemblies
Remote sensors
Overhead bins
Thrust reversers
Fuel bladder cells
Certain financial information about our three segments is set forth in Note 21 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."
Effective April 2016, the Company announced that it is realigning into four business units to better meet the evolving needs of its customers. The new structure better supports our go-to-market strategies and will allow us to more effectively satisfy the needs of our customers while continuing to deliver on our commitments, accelerate organic growth and drive predictable profitability. During the first quarter of fiscal 2017, our segment financial performance information will be presented in accordance with these new four business units.
The four business units are as follows:
Integrated Systems. Provides integrated solutions including design, development and support of proprietary components, subsystems and systems, as well as production of complex assemblies using external designs.  Capabilities include hydraulic, mechanical and electro-mechanical actuation, power and control; a complete suite of aerospace gearbox solutions including engine accessory gearboxes and helicopter transmissions; active and passive heat exchange technology; fuel pumps, fuel metering units and Full Authority Digital Electronic Control fuel systems; hydro-mechanical and electromechanical primary and secondary flight controls; and a broad spectrum of surface treatment options.

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Aerospace Structures. Supplies commercial, business, regional and military manufacturers with large metallic and composite structures. Products include wings, wing boxes, fuselage panels, horizontal and vertical tails and sub-assemblies such as floor grids. Inclusive of the former Vought Aircraft Division, Aerospace Structures also has the capability to engineer detailed structural designs in metal and composites.
Precision Components. Produces close-tolerance parts primarily to customer designs and model-based definition, including a wide range of aluminum, hard metal and composite structure capabilities. Capabilities include complex machining, gear manufacturing, sheet metal fabrication, forming, advanced composite and interior structures, joining processes such as welding, autoclave bonding and conventional mechanical fasteners and a variety of special processes including: super plastic titanium forming, aluminum and titanium chemical milling and surface treatments.
Product Support. Provides full life cycle solutions for commercial, regional and military aircraft. Triumph’s extensive product and service offerings include full post-delivery value chain services that simplify the MRO supply chain. Through its line maintenance, component MRO and postproduction supply chain activities, Triumph’s Product Support group is positioned to provide integrated planeside repair solutions globally. Capabilities include fuel tank repair, metallic and composite aircraft structures, nacelles, thrust reversers, interiors, auxiliary power units and a wide variety of pneumatic, hydraulic, fuel and mechanical accessories.
Proprietary Rights
We benefit from our proprietary rights relating to designs, engineering and manufacturing processes and repair and overhaul procedures. For some products, our unique manufacturing capabilities are required by the customer's specifications or designs, thereby necessitating reliance on us for the production of such specially designed products.
We view our name and mark, as well as the Vought and Embee tradenames, as significant to our business as a whole. Our products are protected by a portfolio of patents, trademarks, licenses or other forms of intellectual property that expire at various dates in the future. We continually develop and acquire new intellectual property and consider all of our intellectual property to be valuable. However, based on the broad scope of our product lines, management believes that the loss or expiration of any single intellectual property right would not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, our financial position or our business segments. Our policy is to file applications and obtain patents for our new products as appropriate, including product modifications and improvements. While patents generally expire 20 years after the patent application filing date, new patents are issued to us on a regular basis.
In our overhaul and repair businesses, OEMs of equipment that we maintain for our customers often include language in repair manuals that relate to their equipment, asserting broad claims of proprietary rights to the contents of the manuals used in our operations. There can be no assurance that OEMs will not try to enforce such claims, including the possible use of legal proceedings. In the event of such legal proceedings, there can be no assurance that such actions against the Company will be unsuccessful. However, we believe that our use of manufacture and repair manuals is lawful.
Raw Materials and Replacement Parts
We purchase raw materials, primarily consisting of extrusions, forgings, castings, aluminum and titanium sheets and shapes and stainless steel alloys, from various vendors. We also purchase replacement parts, which are utilized in our various repair and overhaul operations. We believe that the availability of raw materials to us is adequate to support our operations.
Sales, Marketing and Engineering
While each of our operating companies maintains responsibility for selling and marketing its specific products, we have developed two marketing teams at the group level who are focused on cross-selling our broad capabilities. One team supports the Aerostructures and Aerospace Systems Groups and the other the Aftermarket Services Group. These teams are responsible for selling systems, integrated assemblies and repair and overhaul services, reaching across our operating companies, to our OEM, military, airline and air cargo customers. In certain limited cases, we use independent, commission-based representatives to serve our customers' changing needs and the current trends in some of the markets and geographic regions in which we operate.
The two group-level marketing teams operate as the front-end of the selling process, establishing or maintaining relationships, identifying opportunities to leverage our brand, and providing service for our customers. Each individual operating company is responsible for its own technical support, pricing, manufacturing and product support. Also, within the Aerospace Systems Group, we have created a group engineering function to provide integrated solutions to meet our customer needs by designing systems that integrate the capabilities of our companies.

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A significant portion of our government and defense contracts are awarded on a competitive bidding basis. We generally do not bid or act as the primary contractor, but will typically bid and act as a subcontractor on contracts on a fixed-price basis. We generally sell to our other customers on a fixed-price, negotiated contract or purchase order basis.
Backlog
We have a number of long-term agreements with several of our customers. These agreements generally describe the terms under which the customer may issue purchase orders to buy our products and services during the term of the agreement. These terms typically include a list of the products or repair services customers may purchase, initial pricing, anticipated quantities and, to the extent known, delivery dates. In tracking and reporting our backlog, however, we only include amounts for which we have actual purchase orders with firm delivery dates or contract requirements generally within the next 24 months, which primarily relate to sales to our OEM customer base. Purchase orders issued by our aftermarket customers are usually completed within a short period of time. As a result, our backlog data relates primarily to the OEM customers. The backlog information set forth below does not include the sales that we expect to generate from long-term agreements for which we do not have actual purchase orders with firm delivery dates.
As of March 31, 2016, we had outstanding purchase orders representing an aggregate invoice price of approximately $4.15 billion, of which $2.96 billion, $1.15 billion and $37 million relate to the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group, respectively. As of March 31, 2015, our continuing operations had outstanding purchase orders representing an aggregate invoice price of approximately $5.03 billion, of which $3.74 billion, $1.24 billion and $42 million related to the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group, respectively. The sharp decline in backlog was due to the production rate reductions on key programs such as Boeing 747-8, 777 and G450/G550. Of the existing backlog of $4.15 billion, approximately $1.50 billion will not be shipped by March 31, 2017.
Dependence on Significant Customers
For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, the Boeing Company ("Boeing") represented approximately 38%, 42% and 45%, respectively, of our net sales, covering virtually every Boeing plant and product.
For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation ("Gulfstream") represented approximately 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively, of our net sales, covering several of Gulfstream's products.
A significant reduction in sales to Boeing and/or Gulfstream would have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
United States and International Operations
Our revenues from customers in the United States for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 ,were approximately $3,088 million, $3,136 million, and $3,142 million, respectively. Our revenues from customers in all other countries for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, were approximately $798 million, $753 million, and $622 million, respectively.
As of March 31, 2016 and 2015, our long-lived assets located in the United States were approximately $2,746 million and $3,683 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2016 and 2015, our long-lived assets located in all other countries were approximately $347 million and $367 million, respectively.
Competition
We compete primarily with Tier 1 and Tier 2 aerostructures manufacturers, systems suppliers and component manufacturers, some of which are divisions or subsidiaries of other large companies, in the manufacture of aircraft structures, systems components, subassemblies and detail parts. OEMs are increasingly focusing on assembly and integration activities while outsourcing more manufacturing and, therefore, are less of a competitive force than in previous years.
Competition for the repair and overhaul of aviation components comes from four primary sources, some of whom possess greater financial and other resources than we have: OEMs, major commercial airlines, government support depots and other independent repair and overhaul companies. Some major commercial airlines continue to own and operate their own service centers, while others have begun to sell or outsource their repair and overhaul services to other aircraft operators or third parties. Large domestic and foreign airlines that provide repair and overhaul services typically provide these services not only for their own aircraft but for other airlines as well. OEMs also maintain service centers which provide repair and overhaul services for the components they manufacture. Many governments maintain aircraft support depots in their military organizations that maintain and repair the aircraft they operate. Other independent service organizations also compete for the repair and overhaul business of other users of aircraft components.

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Participants in the aerospace industry compete primarily on the basis of breadth of technical capabilities, quality, turnaround time, capacity and price.
Government Regulation and Industry Oversight
The aerospace industry is highly regulated in the United States by the FAA and in other countries by similar agencies. We must be certified by the FAA and, in some cases, by individual OEMs, in order to engineer and service parts and components used in specific aircraft models. If material authorizations or approvals were revoked or suspended, our operations would be adversely affected. New and more stringent government regulations may be adopted, or industry oversight heightened, in the future and these new regulations, if enacted, or any industry oversight, if heightened, may have an adverse impact on us.
We must also satisfy the requirements of our customers, including OEMs, that are subject to FAA regulations, and provide these customers with products and repair services that comply with the government regulations applicable to aircraft components used in commercial flight operations. The FAA regulates commercial flight operations and requires that aircraft components meet its stringent standards. In addition, the FAA requires that various maintenance routines be performed on aircraft components, and we currently satisfy these maintenance standards in our repair and overhaul services. Several of our operating locations are FAA-approved repair stations.
Generally, the FAA only grants licenses for the manufacture or repair of a specific aircraft component, rather than the broader licenses that have been granted in the past. The FAA licensing process may be costly and time-consuming. In order to obtain an FAA license, an applicant must satisfy all applicable regulations of the FAA governing repair stations. These regulations require that an applicant have experienced personnel, inspection systems, suitable facilities and equipment. In addition, the applicant must demonstrate a need for the license. Because an applicant must procure manufacturing and repair manuals from third parties relating to each particular aircraft component in order to obtain a license with respect to that component, the application process may involve substantial cost.
The license approval processes for the European Aviation Safety Agency ("EASA"), which regulates this industry in the European Union, the Civil Aviation Administration of China, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are similarly stringent, involving potentially lengthy audits. EASA was formed in 2002 and is handling most of the responsibilities of the national aviation authorities in Europe, such as the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority.
Our operations are also subject to a variety of worker and community safety laws. For example, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, or OSHA, mandates general requirements for safe workplaces for all employees in the United States. In addition, OSHA provides special procedures and measures for the handling of hazardous and toxic substances. Specific safety standards have been promulgated for workplaces engaged in the treatment, disposal or storage of hazardous waste. We believe that our operations are in material compliance with OSHA's health and safety requirements.
Environmental Matters
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulation by government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"). Among other matters, these regulatory authorities impose requirements that regulate the emission, discharge, generation, management, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, pollutants and contaminants, govern public and private response actions to hazardous or regulated substances which may be or have been released to the environment, and require us to obtain and maintain licenses and permits in connection with our operations. This extensive regulatory framework imposes significant compliance burdens and risks on us. Although management believes that our operations and our facilities are in material compliance with such laws and regulations, future changes in these laws, regulations or interpretations thereof or the nature of our operations or regulatory enforcement actions which may arise, may require us to make significant additional capital expenditures to ensure compliance in the future.
Certain of our facilities, including facilities acquired and operated by us or one of our subsidiaries have at one time or another been under active investigation for environmental contamination by federal or state agencies when acquired, and at least in some cases, continue to be under investigation or subject to remediation for potential environmental contamination. We are frequently indemnified by prior owners or operators and/or present owners of the facilities for liabilities which we incur as a result of these investigations and the environmental contamination found which pre-dates our acquisition of these facilities, subject to certain limitations. We also maintain a pollution liability policy that provides coverage for material liabilities associated with the clean-up of on-site pollution conditions, as well as defense and indemnity for certain third-party suits (including Superfund liabilities at third-party sites), in each case, to the extent not otherwise indemnified. This policy applies to all of our manufacturing and assembly operations worldwide. Also, as we proceed with our plans to exit certain facilities as part of restructuring and related initiatives, the need for remediation for potential environmental contamination could be

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identified. If we are required to pay the expenses related to environmental liabilities because neither indemnification nor insurance coverage is available, these expenses could have a material adverse effect on us.
Employees
As of March 31, 2016, we employed 14,602 persons, of whom 3,465 were management employees, 125 were sales and marketing personnel, 782 were technical personnel, 889 were administrative personnel and 9,341 were production workers. Our segments were composed of the following employees: Aerostructures Group - 9,595 persons, Aerospace Systems Group - 3,567 persons, Aftermarket Services Group - 1,311 persons, and Corporate - 129 persons.
Several of our subsidiaries are parties to collective bargaining agreements with labor unions. Under those agreements, we currently employ approximately 1,907 full-time employees. Currently, approximately 13% of our permanent employees are represented by labor unions and approximately 51% of net sales are derived from the facilities at which at least some employees are unionized. The collective bargaining agreement with our union employees with International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers ("IAM") District 751 at our Spokane, Washington facility has expired. As of May 11, 2016, the workforce in Spokane of approximately 400 employees has elected to strike. While we are currently in negotiations with the workforce, we have implemented plans to continue production in Spokane with support from other locations. Of the 1,907 employees represented by unions, 591 employees are working under contracts that have expired or will expire within one year and 475 employees in our Red Oak, Texas and 386 employees in our Tulsa, Oklahoma facilities have not yet negotiated initial contracts. Our inability to negotiate an acceptable contract with any of these labor unions could result in strikes by the affected workers and increased operating costs as a result of higher wages or benefits paid to union members. If the unionized workers were to engage in a strike or other work stoppage, or other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations and higher ongoing labor costs, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Research and Development Expenses
Certain information about our research and development expenses for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 is available in Note 2 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements."

Executive Officers
Name
Age
 
Position
Daniel J. Crowley
53

 
President and Chief Executive Officer and Director
Jeffrey L. McRae
52

 
Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
John B. Wright, II
62

 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Thomas A. Quigley, III
39

 
Vice President and Controller
Thomas Holtzhum
59

 
Executive Vice President, Integrated Systems
MaryLou Thomas
53

 
Acting Executive Vice President, Aerospace Structures
Rick Rozenjack
57

 
Executive Vice President, Precision Components
Michael Abram
63

 
Executive Vice President, Product Support
Richard Lovely
57

 
Senior Vice President, Human Resources

Daniel J. Crowley was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company on January 4, 2016. Previously, Mr. Crowley served as President of two Raytheon Company business areas from 2010 through 2015. Prior to Raytheon, Mr. Crowley served as Chief Operating Officer of Lockheed Martin Aeronautics after holding a series of increasingly responsible assignments across its space, electronics, and aeronautics sectors.
Jeffrey L. McRae has been our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since February 2014. Mr. McRae was named President of Triumph Aerostructures – Vought Aircraft Division in October 2013, having previously served as President of Triumph Aerostructures – Vought Integrated Programs Division and Chief Financial Officer for Triumph Aerostructures – Vought Aircraft Division, a position he had assumed upon the completion of Triumph’s acquisition of Vought Aircraft Industries, Inc. in June 2010. Prior to the acquisition, Mr. McRae had served as Vought’s Vice President of Business Operations, and had been employed by the Company since 2007.

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John B. Wright, II has been a Vice President and our General Counsel and Secretary since 2004. From 2001 until he joined us, Mr. Wright was a partner with the law firm of Ballard Spahr LLP, where he practiced corporate and securities law.
Thomas A. Quigley, III has been our Vice President and Controller since November 2012, and serves as the Company's principal accounting officer. Mr. Quigley has served as the Company's SEC Reporting Manager since January 2009. From June 2002 until joining Triumph in 2009, Mr. Quigley held various roles within the audit practice of KPMG LLP, including Senior Audit Manager.
Thomas Holzthum was appointed Executive Vice President, Integrated Systems in April 2016. Prior thereto, he served as Corporate Vice President-Systems since 2013 with responsibility for eight Triumph Group companies in the Aerospace Systems segment. He joined Triumph in 1998 with the acquisition of Frisby Aerospace, where he held the position of Group Director, Hydraulics. Mr. Holzthum previously served as President of Triumph Actuation Systems-Connecticut and more recently led the successful integration of the hydraulic actuation business of GE Aviation after its acquisition.
MaryLou Thomas was appointed acting Executive Vice President, Aerospace Structures in April 2016. Prior thereto, she was Corporate Vice President -  Composites, Structures and Interiors business area with operations in the United States, Mexico, Thailand and U.K. Ms. Thomas has more than thirty years of experience in the aerospace and defense industry, including service at Lockheed, Boeing and the Company.
Rick Rosenjack was appointed Executive Vice President, Precision Components in April 2016. He previously served as Corporate Vice President-Structures responsible for the Triumph Structures’ group of companies, having joined Triumph in October 2014. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Rosenjack was Chief Operating Officer of HM Dunn AeroSystems, and Vice President and General Manager of Precision Castparts Corp (PCC) after the acquisition of Heroux Devtek Aerostructures in 2012. Before that, Mr. Rosenjack spent 20 years with Textron, Inc., including five years with Bell Helicopter where he was Senior Vice President of the Commercial Helicopter Business.
Michael Abram was appointed Executive Vice President, Product Supply in April 2016. Since joining Triumph in 2003 as Vice President of Operations for Triumph Airborne Structures, Mr. Abram has served as Vice President of Triumph Aftermarket Services Group, North America and, most recently, Vice President-Aftermarket Services Group, where he was responsible for the company’s maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) activities supporting commercial, regional, business and military aircraft worldwide. Before joining Triumph, he was Vice President of Operations for NORDAM Repair Division. Mr. Abram has extensive international business operations experience establishing start-up MRO facilities in Europe and Singapore.
Richard Lovely was appointed Senior Vice President, Human Resources in April 2016. Prior thereto, he served as Senior Vice President, Global Human Resources for Houghton International and Executive Vice President, Human Resources for Rohm and Haas.
Available Information
For more information about us, visit our website at www.triumphgroup.com. The contents of the website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our electronic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") (including all Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, and any amendments to these reports) are available free of charge through our website immediately after we electronically file with or furnish them to the SEC. These filings may also be read and copied at the SEC's Public Reference Room which is located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers who file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Factors that have an adverse impact on the aerospace industry may adversely affect our results of operations and liquidity.
A substantial percentage of our gross profit and operating income derives from commercial aviation. Our operations have been focused on designing, engineering, manufacturing, repairing and overhauling a broad portfolio of aerostructures, aircraft components, accessories, subassemblies and systems. Therefore, our business is directly affected by economic factors and other trends that affect our customers in the aerospace industry, including a possible decrease in outsourcing by OEMs and aircraft operators or projected market growth that may not materialize or be sustainable. We are also significantly dependent on sales to the commercial aerospace market, which has been cyclical in nature with significant downturns in the past. When these economic and other factors adversely affect the aerospace industry, they tend to reduce the overall customer demand for our products and services, which decreases our operating income. Economic and other factors that might affect the aerospace industry may have an adverse impact on our results of operations and liquidity. We have credit exposure to a number of

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commercial airlines, some of which have encountered financial difficulties. In addition, an increase in energy costs and the price of fuel to the airlines could result in additional pressure on the operating costs of airlines. The market for jet fuel is inherently volatile and is subject to, among other things, changes in government policy on jet fuel production, fluctuations in the global supply of crude oil and disruptions in oil production or delivery caused by hostility in oil-producing areas. Airlines are sometimes unable to pass on increases in fuel prices to customers by increasing fares due to the competitive nature of the airline industry, and this compounds the pressure on operating costs. Other events of general impact such as natural disasters, war, terrorist attacks against the industry or pandemic health crises may lead to declines in the worldwide aerospace industry that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
In addition, demand for our maintenance, repair and overhaul services is strongly correlated with worldwide flying activity. A significant portion of the MRO activity required on commercial aircraft is mandated by government regulations that limit the total time or number of flights that may elapse between scheduled MRO events. As a result, although short-term deferrals are possible, MRO activity is ultimately required to continue to operate the aircraft in revenue-producing service. Therefore, over the intermediate and long-term, trends in the MRO market are closely related to the size and utilization level of the worldwide aircraft fleet, as reflected by the number of available seat miles, commonly referred to as ASMs, and cargo miles flown. Consequently, conditions or events which contribute to declines in worldwide ASMs and cargo miles flown, such as those mentioned above, could negatively impact our MRO business.
We may not be successful in achieving expected operating efficiencies and sustaining or improving operating expense reductions, and may experience business disruptions associated with restructuring, facility consolidations, realignment, cost reduction and other strategic initiatives.
Over the past several years we have implemented a number of restructuring, realignment and cost reduction initiatives, including facility consolidations, organizational realignments and reductions in our workforce. While we have realized some efficiencies from these actions, we may not realize the benefits of these initiatives to the extent we anticipated. Further, such benefits may be realized later than expected, and the ongoing difficulties in implementing these measures may be greater than anticipated, which could cause us to incur additional costs or result in business disruptions. In addition, if these measures are not successful or sustainable, we may be compelled to undertake additional realignment and cost reduction efforts, which could result in significant additional charges. Moreover, if our restructuring and realignment efforts prove ineffective, our ability to achieve our other strategic and business plan goals may be adversely affected.
Changes in levels of U.S. Government defense spending or overall acquisition priorities could negatively impact our financial position and results of operations. We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from the U.S. Government, primarily from defense related programs with the U.S. Department of Defense ("DoD") . Levels of U.S. defense spending in future periods are very difficult to predict and subject to significant risks. In addition, significant budgetary delays and constraints have already resulted in reduced spending levels, and additional reductions may be forthcoming. In August 2011, the Budget Control Act (the "Act") established limits on U.S. Government discretionary spending, including a reduction of defense spending by approximately $490 billion between the 2012 and 2021 U.S. Government fiscal years. The Act also provided that the defense budget would face “sequestration” cuts of up to an additional $500 billion during that same period to the extent that discretionary spending limits are exceeded. The impact of sequestration cuts has been reduced with respect to FY2016 and FY2017 following the enactment of The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 in November 2015. However, long-term uncertainty remains with respect to overall levels of defense spending and it is likely that U.S. Government discretionary spending levels will continue to be subject to significant pressure, including risk of future sequestration cuts.
In addition, there continues to be significant uncertainty with respect to program-level appropriations for the DoD and other government agencies (including NASA) within the overall budgetary framework described above. While the FY2016 appropriations enacted December 2015 included funding for Boeing’s major programs, such as F/A-18, CH-47 Chinook, AH-64 Apache, KC-46A Tanker and P-8 programs, uncertainty remains about how defense budgets in FY2017 and beyond will affect Boeing’s programs. We also expect that ongoing concerns regarding the U.S. national debt will continue to place downward pressure on DoD spending levels. Future budget cuts, including cuts mandated by sequestration, or future procurement decisions associated with the authorizations and appropriations process could result in reductions, cancellations, and/or delays of existing contracts or programs. Any of these impacts could have a material effect on the results of the Company’s operations, financial position and/or cash flows.
In addition, as a result of the significant ongoing uncertainty with respect to both U.S. defense spending levels and the nature of the threat environment, we expect the DoD to continue to emphasize cost-cutting and other efficiency initiatives in its

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procurement processes. If we can no longer adjust successfully to these changing acquisition priorities and/or fail to meet affordability targets set by the DoD customer, our revenues and market share would be further impacted.
Cancellations, reductions or delays in customer orders may adversely affect our results of operations.
Our overall operating results are affected by many factors, including the timing of orders from large customers and the timing of expenditures to manufacture parts and purchase inventory in anticipation of future sales of products and services. A large portion of our operating expenses are relatively fixed. Because several of our operating locations typically do not obtain long-term purchase orders or commitments from our customers, they must anticipate the future volume of orders based upon the historic purchasing patterns of customers and upon our discussions with customers as to their anticipated future requirements. These historic patterns may be disrupted by many factors, including changing economic conditions, inventory adjustments, or work stoppages or labor disruptions at our customers' locations. Cancellations, reductions or delays in orders by a customer or group of customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our acquisition strategy exposes us to risks, including the risk that we may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses.
We have a consistent strategy to grow, in part, through the acquisition of additional businesses in the aerospace industry and are continuously evaluating various acquisition opportunities, including those outside the United States and those that may have a material impact on our business. Our ability to grow by acquisition is dependent upon, among other factors, the availability of suitable acquisition candidates. Growth by acquisition involves risks that could adversely affect our operating results, including difficulties in integrating the operations and personnel of acquired companies, the risk of diverting the attention of senior management from our existing operations, the potential amortization of acquired intangible assets, the potential impairment of goodwill and the potential loss of key employees of acquired companies. We may not be able to consummate acquisitions on satisfactory terms or, if any acquisitions are consummated, successfully integrate these acquired businesses.
A significant decline in business with a key customer could have a material adverse effect on us.
Boeing, or Boeing Commercial, Military and Space, represented approximately 38% of our net sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, covering virtually every Boeing plant and product. Gulfstream represented approximately 12% of our net sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, covering several Gulfstream plants and products. As a result, a significant reduction in purchases by Boeing and/or Gulfstream could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, some of our other group companies rely significantly on particular customers, the loss of which could have an adverse effect on those businesses.
The profitability of certain development programs depends significantly on the assumptions surrounding satisfactory settlement of claims and assertions.
For certain of our new development programs, we regularly commence work or incorporate customer-requested changes prior to negotiating pricing terms for engineering work or the product which has been modified. We typically have the legal right to negotiate pricing for customer-directed changes. In those cases, we assert to our customers our contractual rights to obtain the additional revenue or cost reimbursement we expect to receive upon finalizing pricing terms. An expected recovery value of these assertions is incorporated into our contract profitability estimates when applying contract accounting. Our inability to recover these expected values, among other factors, could result in the recognition of a forward loss on these programs and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We incur risk associated with new programs.
New programs with new technologies typically carry risks associated with design responsibility, development of new production tools, hiring and training of qualified personnel, increased capital and funding commitments, ability to meet customer specifications, delivery schedules and unique contractual requirements, supplier performance, ability of the customer to meet its contractual obligations to us, and our ability to accurately estimate costs associated with such programs. In addition, any new aircraft program may not generate sufficient demand or may experience technological problems or significant delays in the regulatory certification or manufacturing and delivery schedule. If we were unable to perform our obligations under new programs to the customer's satisfaction or manufacture products at our estimated costs, if we were to experience unexpected fluctuations in raw material prices or supplier problems leading to cost overruns, if we were unable to successfully perform under revised design and manufacturing plans or successfully resolve claims and assertions, or if a new program in which we had made a significant investment was terminated or experienced weak demand, delays or technological problems, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. This risk includes the potential for

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default, quality problems, or inability to meet weight requirements and could result in low margin or forward loss contracts, and the risk of having to write-off inventory if it were deemed to be unrecoverable over the life of the program. In addition, beginning new work on existing programs also carries risks associated with the transfer of technology, knowledge and tooling.
In order to perform on new programs we may be required to construct or acquire new facilities requiring additional up-front investment costs. In the case of significant program delays and/or program cancellations, we could be required to bear certain unrecoverable construction and maintenance costs and incur potential impairment charges for the new facilities. Also, we may need to expend additional resources to determine an alternate revenue generating use for the facilities. Likewise, significant delays in the construction or acquisition of a plant site could impact production schedules.
Future volatility in the financial markets may impede our ability to successfully access capital markets and ensure adequate liquidity and may adversely affect our customers and suppliers.
Future turmoil in the capital markets may impede our ability to access the capital markets when we would like, or need, to raise capital or restrict our ability to borrow money on favorable terms. Such market conditions could have an adverse impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions and on our ability to fund our operations and capital expenditures in the future. In addition, interest rate fluctuations, financial market volatility or credit market disruptions may also negatively affect our customers' and our suppliers' ability to obtain credit to finance their businesses on acceptable terms. As a result, our customers' need for and ability to purchase our products or services may decrease, and our suppliers may increase their prices, reduce their output or change their terms of sale. If our customers' or suppliers' operating and financial performance deteriorates, or if they are unable to make scheduled payments or obtain credit, our customers may not be able to pay, or may delay payment of, accounts receivable owed to us, and our suppliers may restrict credit or impose different payment terms. Any inability of customers to pay us for our products and services or any demands by suppliers for different payment terms may adversely affect our earnings and cash flow.
Our international sales and operations are subject to applicable laws relating to trade, export controls and foreign corrupt practices, the violation of which could adversely affect our operations.
We must comply with all applicable export control laws and regulations of the United States and other countries. United States laws and regulations applicable to us include the Arms Export Control Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR"), the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR") and the trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by the United States Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). EAR restricts the export of dual-use products and technical data to certain countries, while ITAR restricts the export of defense products, technical data and defense services. The U.S. Government agencies responsible for administering EAR and ITAR have significant discretion in the interpretation and enforcement of these regulations. We cannot provide services to certain countries subject to United States trade sanctions unless we first obtain the necessary authorizations from OFAC. In addition, we are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act which generally bars bribes or unreasonable gifts to foreign governments or officials.
Violations of these laws or regulations could result in significant additional sanctions, including fines, more onerous compliance requirements, more extensive debarments from export privileges, loss of authorizations needed to conduct aspects of our international business and criminal penalties and may harm our ability to enter into contracts with the U.S. Government. A future violation of ITAR or the other regulations enumerated above could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our expansion into international markets may increase credit, currency and other risks, and our current operations in international markets expose us to such risks.
As we pursue customers in Asia, South America and other less developed aerospace markets throughout the world, our inability to ensure the creditworthiness of our customers in these areas could adversely impact our overall profitability. In addition, with operations in Canada, China, France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, Thailand and the United Kingdom, and customers throughout the world, we will be subject to the legal, political, social and regulatory requirements and economic conditions of other jurisdictions. In the future, we may also make additional international capital investments, including further acquisitions of companies outside the United States or companies having operations outside the United States. Risks inherent to international operations include, but are not limited to, the following:
difficulty in enforcing agreements in some legal systems outside the United States;
imposition of additional withholding taxes or other taxes on our foreign income, tariffs or other restrictions on foreign trade and investment, including currency exchange controls;
fluctuations in exchange rates which may affect demand for our products and services and may adversely affect our profitability in U.S. dollars;

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inability to obtain, maintain or enforce intellectual property rights;
changes in general economic and political conditions in the countries in which we operate;
unexpected adverse changes in the laws or regulatory requirements outside the United States, including those with respect to environmental protection, export duties and quotas;
failure by our employees or agents to comply with U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies abroad;
difficulty with staffing and managing widespread operations; and
difficulty of and costs relating to compliance with the different commercial and legal requirements of the countries in which we operate.
We may need additional financing for internal growth and acquisitions and capital expenditures and additional financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us.
A key element of our strategy has been, and continues to be, internal growth supplemented by growth through the acquisition of additional aerospace companies and product lines. In order to grow internally, we may need to make significant capital expenditures, such as investing in facilities in low-cost countries, and may need additional capital to do so. Our ability to grow is dependent upon, and may be limited by, among other things, access to markets and conditions of markets, availability under the Credit Facility and the Securitization Facility (each as defined in Note 10 of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements") and by particular restrictions contained in the Credit Facility and our other financing arrangements. In that case, additional funding sources may be needed, and we may not be able to obtain the additional capital necessary to pursue our internal growth and acquisition strategy or, if we can obtain additional financing, the additional financing may not be on financial terms that are satisfactory to us.
Competitive pressures may adversely affect us.
We have numerous competitors in the aerospace industry. We compete primarily with the top-tier systems integrators and the manufacturers that supply them, some of which are divisions or subsidiaries of OEMs and other large companies that manufacture aircraft components and subassemblies. Our OEM competitors, which include Boeing, Airbus, Bell Helicopter, Bombardier, Cessna, General Electric, Gulfstream, Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Rolls Royce and Sikorsky, may choose not to outsource production of aerostructures or other components due to, among other things, their own direct labor and overhead considerations, capacity utilization at their own facilities and desire to retain critical or core skills. Consequently, traditional factors affecting competition, such as price and quality of service, may not be significant determinants when OEMs decide whether to produce a part in-house or to outsource. We also face competition from non-OEM component manufacturers, including Alenia Aeronautica, Fokker Technologies, Fuji Heavy Industries, GKN Westland Aerospace (U.K.), Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Spirit AeroSystems and UTC Aerospace Systems. Competition for the repair and overhaul of aviation components comes from three primary sources: OEMs, major commercial airlines and other independent repair and overhaul companies.
We may need to expend significant capital to keep pace with technological developments in our industry.
The aerospace industry is constantly undergoing development and change and it is likely that new products, equipment and methods of repair and overhaul service will be introduced in the future. In order to keep pace with any new developments, such as additive technology, we may need to expend significant capital to purchase new equipment and machines or to train our employees in the new methods of production and service.
The construction of aircraft is heavily regulated and failure to comply with applicable laws could reduce our sales or require us to incur additional costs to achieve compliance, and we may incur significant expenses to comply with new or more stringent governmental regulation.
The aerospace industry is highly regulated in the United States by the FAA and in other countries by similar agencies. We must be certified by the FAA and, in some cases, by individual OEMs in order to engineer and service parts, components and aerostructures used in specific aircraft models. If any of our material authorizations or approvals were revoked or suspended, our operations would be adversely affected. New or more stringent governmental regulations may be adopted, or industry oversight heightened in the future, and we may incur significant expenses to comply with any new regulations or any heightened industry oversight.
We may not realize our anticipated return on capital commitments made to expand our capabilities.
We continually make significant capital expenditures to implement new processes and to increase both efficiency and capacity. Some of these projects require additional training for our employees and not all projects may be implemented as

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anticipated. If any of these projects do not achieve the anticipated increase in efficiency or capacity, our returns on these capital expenditures may be lower than expected.
Any product liability claims in excess of insurance may adversely affect our financial condition.
Our operations expose us to potential liability for personal injury or death as a result of the failure of an aircraft component that has been serviced by us or the failure of an aircraft component designed or manufactured by us. While we believe that our liability insurance is adequate to protect us from these liabilities, our insurance may not cover all liabilities. Additionally, as the number of insurance companies providing general aviation product liability insurance coverage has decreased in recent years, insurance coverage may not be available in the future at a cost acceptable to us. Any material liability not covered by insurance or for which third-party indemnification is not available could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
The lack of available skilled personnel may have an adverse effect on our operations.
From time to time, some of our operating locations have experienced difficulties in attracting and retaining skilled personnel to design, engineer, manufacture, repair and overhaul sophisticated aircraft components. Our ability to operate successfully could be jeopardized if we are unable to attract and retain a sufficient number of skilled personnel to conduct our business.
Our fixed-price contracts may commit us to unfavorable terms.
A significant portion of our net sales are derived from fixed-price contracts under which we have agreed to provide components or aerostructures for a price determined on the date we entered into the contract. Several factors may cause the costs we incur in fulfilling these contracts to vary substantially from our original estimates, and we bear the risk that increased or unexpected costs may reduce our profit or cause us to sustain losses on these contracts. In a fixed-price contract, we must fully absorb cost overruns, notwithstanding the difficulty of estimating all of the costs we will incur in performing these contracts. Because our ability to terminate contracts is generally limited, we may not be able to terminate our performance requirements under these contracts at all or without substantial liability and, therefore, in the event we are sustaining reduced profits or losses, we could continue to sustain these reduced profits or losses for the duration of the contract term. Our failure to anticipate technical problems, estimate delivery reductions, estimate costs accurately or control costs during performance of a fixed-price contract may reduce our profitability or cause significant losses on programs similar in nature to the forward losses incurred on the Boeing 747-8 ("747-8 program") and Bombardier Global 7000/8000 contracts.
Due to the size and long-term nature of many of our contracts, we are required by GAAP to estimate sales and expenses relating to these contracts in our financial statements, which may cause actual results to differ materially from those estimated under different assumptions or conditions.
Our financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("GAAP"). These principles require our management to make estimates and assumptions regarding our contracts that affect the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Contract accounting requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract sales and costs, and making assumptions for schedule and technical issues. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total sales and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. While we base our estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances at the time made, actual results may differ materially from those estimated.
Any exposure to environmental liabilities may adversely affect us.
Our business, operations and facilities are subject to numerous stringent federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, and we are subject to potentially significant fines or penalties, including criminal sanctions, if we fail to comply with these requirements. In addition, we could be affected by future laws and regulations, including those imposed in response to climate change concerns and other actions commonly referred to as "green initiatives." Compliance with current and future environmental laws and regulations currently requires and is expected to continue to require significant operating and capital costs.
Pursuant to certain environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of a contaminated site may be held liable for the entire cost of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous materials at such property, whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of any hazardous materials. Although management believes that our operations and facilities are in material compliance with such laws and regulations, future changes in such laws, regulations or interpretations thereof or the nature of our operations or regulatory enforcement actions which may arise, may require us to make significant additional capital expenditures to ensure compliance in the future. Certain of our facilities, including facilities acquired and operated by us or one of our subsidiaries, have at one time or another been under active investigation for environmental contamination by federal or state agencies when acquired and, at least in some cases, continue to be under

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investigation or subject to remediation for potential or identified environmental contamination. Lawsuits, claims and costs involving environmental matters are likely to continue to arise in the future. Individual facilities of ours have also been subject to investigation on occasion for possible past waste disposal practices which might have contributed to contamination at or from remote third-party waste disposal sites. In some instances, we are indemnified by prior owners or operators and/or present owners of the facilities for liabilities which we incur as a result of these investigations and the environmental contamination found which pre-dates our acquisition of these facilities, subject to certain limitations, including, but not limited to specified exclusions, deductibles and limitations on the survival period of the indemnity. We also maintain a pollution liability policy that provides coverage, subject to specified limitations, for specified material liabilities associated with the clean-up of certain on-site pollution conditions, as well as defense and indemnity for certain third-party suits (including Superfund liabilities at third-party sites), in each case, to the extent not otherwise indemnified. Also, as we proceed with our plans to exit certain facilities as part of restructuring and related initiatives, the need for remediation for potential environmental contamination could be identified. However, if we are required to pay the expenses related to environmental liabilities because neither indemnification nor insurance coverage is available, these expenses could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We could become involved in intellectual property litigation, which could have a material and adverse impact on our profitability.
We and other companies in our industry possess certain proprietary rights relating to designs, engineering, manufacturing processes and repair and overhaul procedures. In the event that we believe that a third party is infringing upon our proprietary rights, we may bring an action to enforce such rights. In addition, third parties may claim infringement by us with respect to their proprietary rights and may initiate legal proceedings against us in the future. The expense and time of bringing an action to enforce such rights or defending against infringement claims can be significant. Intellectual property litigation involves complex legal and factual questions which makes the outcome of any such proceedings subject to considerable uncertainty. Not only can such litigation divert management's attention, but it can also expose the Company to damages and potential injunctive relief which, if granted, may preclude the Company from making, using or selling particular products or technology. The expense and time associated with such litigation may have a material and adverse impact on our profitability.
We do not own certain intellectual property and tooling that is important to our business.
In our overhaul and repair businesses, OEMs of equipment that we maintain for our customers include language in repair manuals relating to their equipment asserting broad claims of proprietary rights to the contents of the manuals used in our operations. Although we believe that our use of manufacture and repair manuals is lawful, there can be no assurance that OEMs will not try to enforce such claims, including through the possible use of legal proceedings, or that any such actions will be unsuccessful.
Our business also depends on using certain intellectual property and tooling that we have rights to use pursuant to license grants under our contracts with our OEM customers. These contracts contain restrictions on our use of the intellectual property and tooling and may be terminated if we violate certain of these restrictions. Our loss of a contract with an OEM customer and the related license rights to use an OEM's intellectual property or tooling would materially adversely affect our business.
Any significant disruption from key suppliers of raw materials and key components could delay production and decrease revenue.
We are highly dependent on the availability of essential raw materials such as carbon fiber, aluminum and titanium, and purchased engineered component parts from our suppliers, many of which are available only from single customer-approved sources. Moreover, we are dependent upon the ability of our suppliers to provide raw materials and components that meet our specifications, quality standards and delivery schedules. Our suppliers' failure to provide expected raw materials or component parts could require us to identify and enter into contracts with alternate suppliers that are acceptable to both us and our customers, which could result in significant delays, expenses, increased costs and management distraction and adversely affect production schedules and contract profitability.
We have from time to time experienced limited interruptions of supply, and we may experience a significant interruption in the future. Our continued supply of raw materials and component parts are subject to a number of risks including:
availability of capital to our suppliers;
the destruction of our suppliers' facilities or their distribution infrastructure;
a work stoppage or strike by our suppliers' employees;
the failure of our suppliers to provide raw materials or component parts of the requisite quality;

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the failure of essential equipment at our suppliers' plants;
the failure or shortage of supply of raw materials to our suppliers;
contractual amendments and disputes with our suppliers; and
geopolitical conditions in the global supply base.
In addition, some contracts with our suppliers for raw materials, component parts and other goods are short-term contracts, which are subject to termination on a relatively short-term basis. The prices of our raw materials and component parts fluctuate depending on market conditions, and substantial increases in prices could increase our operating costs, which, as a result of our fixed-price contracts, we may not be able to recoup through increases in the prices of our products.
Due to economic difficulty, we may face pressure to renegotiate agreements resulting in lower margins. Our suppliers may discontinue provision of products to us at attractive prices or at all, and we may not be able to obtain such products in the future from these or other providers on the scale and within the time periods we require. Furthermore, substitute raw materials or component parts may not meet the strict specifications and quality standards we and our customers demand, or that the U.S. Government requires. If we are not able to obtain key products on a timely basis and at an affordable cost, or we experience significant delays or interruptions of their supply, revenues from sales of products that use these supplies will decrease.
Our operations depend on our manufacturing facilities, which are subject to physical and other risks that could disrupt production.
Our manufacturing facilities or our customers' facilities could be damaged or disrupted by a natural disaster, war, or terrorist activity. We maintain property damage and business interruption insurance at the levels typical in our industry or for our customers and suppliers, however, a major catastrophe, such as an earthquake, hurricane, fire, flood, tornado or other natural disaster at any of our sites, or war or terrorist activities in any of the areas where we conduct operations could result in a prolonged interruption of our business. Any disruption resulting from these events could cause significant delays in shipments of products and the loss of sales and customers and we may not have insurance to adequately compensate us for any of these events. For leased facilities, timely renewal of leases and risk mitigation from the sale of our leased facilities is required to avoid any business interruption.
Our business could be negatively affected by cyber or other security threats or other disruptions.
Our businesses depend heavily on information technology and computerized systems to communicate and operate effectively. The Company's systems and technologies, or those of third parties on which we rely, could fail or become unreliable due to equipment failures, software viruses, cyber threats, terrorist acts, natural disasters, power failures or other causes. These threats arise in some cases as a result of our role as a defense contractor.
Cybersecurity threats are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to our sensitive information, including that of our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, and joint venture partners, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in mission critical systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information, and corruption of data.
Although we utilize various procedures and controls to monitor and mitigate these threats, there can be no assurance that these procedures and controls will be sufficient to prevent security threats from materializing. If any of these events were to materialize, the costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified and could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, operating results, and financial condition.
Significant consolidation by aerospace industry suppliers could adversely affect our business.
The aerospace industry continues to experience consolidation among suppliers and customers, primarily the airlines. Suppliers have consolidated and formed alliances to broaden their product and integrated system offerings and achieve critical mass. This supplier consolidation is in part attributable to aircraft manufacturers more frequently awarding long-term sole-source or preferred supplier contracts to the most capable suppliers, thus reducing the total number of suppliers. This consolidation could cause us to compete against certain competitors with greater financial resources, market penetration and purchasing power. When we purchase component parts and services from suppliers to manufacture our products, consolidation reduces price competition between our suppliers, which could diminish incentives for our suppliers to reduce prices. If this consolidation continues, our operating costs could increase and it may become more difficult for us to be successful in obtaining new customers.


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We may be subject to work stoppages at our facilities or those of our principal customers and suppliers, which could seriously impact the profitability of our business.
At March 31, 2016, we employed 14,602 people, of which 13.1% belonged to unions. Our unionized workforces and those of our customers and suppliers may experience work stoppages. For example, The collective bargaining agreement with our union employees with the IAM District 751 at our Spokane, Washington facility has expired. As of May 11, 2016, the workforce in Spokane of approximately 400 employee has elected to strike. While we are currently in negotiations with the workforce, we have implemented plans to continue production in Spokane with support from other locations. Our union employees with Local 848 at our Red Oak, Texas and Local 952 at our Tulsa, Oklahoma, facilities of the United Auto Workers ("UAW") are currently working without a contract. If we are unable to negotiate a contract with those workforces, our operations may be disrupted and we may be prevented from completing production and delivery of products from those facilities, which would negatively impact our results. Contingency plans have been developed that would allow production to continue in the event of a strike.
Many aircraft manufacturers, airlines and aerospace suppliers have unionized workforces. Strikes, work stoppages or slowdowns experienced by aircraft manufacturers, airlines or aerospace suppliers could reduce our customers' demand for our products or prevent us from completing production. In turn, this may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Financial market conditions may adversely affect the benefit plan assets for our defined benefit plans, increase funding requirements and materially impact our statements of financial position and cash flows.
Our benefit plan assets are invested in a diversified portfolio of investments in both the equity and debt categories, as well as limited investments in other alternative investments. The current market values of all of these investments, as well as the related benefit plan liabilities are impacted by the movements and volatility in the financial markets. In accordance with the Compensation—Retirement Benefits topic of the Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC"), we have recognized the over-funded or under-funded status of a defined benefit postretirement plan as an asset or liability on our balance sheet, and will recognize changes in that funded status in the year in which the changes occur. The funded status is measured as the difference between the fair value of the plan's assets and the projected benefit obligation. A decrease in the fair value of these plan assets or a decrease in interest rates resulting from movements in the financial markets will increase the under-funded status of the plans recorded on our statement of financial position and result in additional cash funding requirements to meet the minimum required funding levels.
The U.S. Government is a significant customer of our largest customers, and we and they are subject to specific U.S. Government contracting rules and regulations.
The military aircraft manufacturers' business, and by extension, our business, is affected by the U.S. Government's continued commitment to programs under contract with our customers. The terms of defense contracts with the U.S. Government generally permit the government to terminate contracts partially or completely, either for its convenience or if we default by failing to perform under the contract. Termination for convenience provisions provide only for our recovery of unrecovered costs incurred or committed, settlement expenses and profit on the work completed prior to termination. Termination for default provisions provide for the contractor to be liable for excess costs incurred by the U.S. Government in procuring undelivered items from another source. On contracts where the price is based on cost, the U.S. Government may review our costs and performance, as well as our accounting and general business practices. Based on the results of such audits, the U.S. Government may adjust our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs. In addition, under U.S. Government purchasing regulations, some of our costs, including most financing costs, portions of research and development costs, and certain marketing expenses may not be subject to reimbursement.
We bear the potential risk that the U.S. Government may unilaterally suspend our customers or us from new contracts pending the resolution of alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations. Sales to the U.S. Government are also subject to changes in the government's procurement policies in advance of design completion. An unexpected termination of, or suspension from, a significant government contract, a reduction in expenditures by the U.S. Government for aircraft using our products, lower margins resulting from increasingly competitive procurement policies, a reduction in the volume of contracts awarded to us, or substantial cost overruns could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to the requirements of the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual for facility security clearance, which is a prerequisite for our ability to perform on classified contracts for the U.S. Government.
DoD facility security clearance is required in order to be awarded and perform on classified contracts for the DoD and certain other agencies of the U.S. Government, which is a significant part of our business. We have obtained clearance at

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appropriate levels that require stringent qualifications, and we may be required to seek higher level clearances in the future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our security clearance. If for some reason our security clearance is invalidated or terminated, we may not be able to continue to perform our present classified contracts or be able to enter into new classified contracts, which could affect our ability to compete for and capture new business.
New regulations related to conflict minerals have and will continue to force us to incur additional expenses, may make our supply chain more complex, and could adversely impact our business.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 contains provisions to improve transparency and accountability concerning the supply of certain minerals and metals, known as conflict minerals, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (the "DRC") and adjoining countries. As a result, in August 2012, the SEC adopted annual investigation, disclosure and reporting requirements for those companies that manufacture or contract to manufacture products that contain conflict minerals that originated from the DRC and adjoining countries. We have and will continue to incur compliance costs, including costs related to determining the sources of conflict minerals used in our products and other potential changes to processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. The implementation of these rules could adversely affect the sourcing, supply and pricing of materials used in certain of our products. As there may be only a limited number of suppliers offering "conflict free" minerals, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain necessary conflict-free minerals from such suppliers in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. Also, we may face reputational challenges if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict free.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.
Properties
As of March 31, 2016, our segments owned or leased the following facilities with the following square footage:
(Square feet in thousands)
Owned
 
Leased
 
Total
Aerostructures Group
5,176

 
5,634

 
10,810

Aerospace Systems Group
1,294

 
1,035

 
2,329

Aftermarket Services Group
716

 
628

 
1,344

Corporate

 
17

 
17

       Total
7,186

 
7,314

 
14,500

At March 31, 2016, our segments occupied 7.4 million square feet of floor space at the following major locations:
Aerostructures Group: Nashville, Tennessee; Hawthorne, California; Red Oak, Texas; Grand Prairie, Texas; Milledgeville, Georgia; Spokane, Washington; and Stuart, Florida
Aerospace Systems Group: West Hartford, Connecticut; and Park City, Utah
Aftermarket Services Group: Hot Springs, Arkansas
We believe that our properties are adequate to support our operations for the foreseeable future.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of our business, we are involved in disputes, claims, lawsuits, and governmental and regulatory inquiries that we deem to be immaterial. Some may involve claims or potential claims of substantial damages, fines or penalties. While we cannot predict the outcome of any pending or future litigation or proceeding, we do not believe that any pending matter will have a material effect, individually or in the aggregate, on our financial position or results of operations, although no assurances can be given to that effect.

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.



18


PART II

Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Range of Market Price
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "TGI." The following table sets forth the range of high and low prices for our common stock for the periods indicated:

 
High
 
Low
Fiscal 2015
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
72.31

 
$
61.86

2nd Quarter
70.38

 
62.00

3rd Quarter
70.93

 
59.53

4th Quarter
67.84

 
51.15

Fiscal 2016
 
 
 
1st Quarter
$
70.68

 
$
57.25

2nd Quarter
67.16

 
41.14

3rd Quarter
47.28

 
32.82

4th Quarter
40.36

 
22.94


On May 25, 2016, the reported closing price for our common stock was $37.78. As of May 25, 2016, there were approximately 102 holders of record of our common stock and we believe that our common stock was beneficially owned by approximately 30,000 persons.

Dividend Policy
During fiscal 2016 and 2015, we paid cash dividends of $0.16 per share and $0.16 per share, respectively. However, our declaration and payment of cash dividends in the future and the amount thereof will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, limitations imposed by credit agreements or indentures governing debt securities and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. No assurance can be given that cash dividends will continue to be declared and paid at historical levels or at all. Certain of our debt arrangements, including the Credit Facility, restrict our paying dividends and making distributions on our capital stock, except for the payment of stock dividends and redemptions of an employee's shares of capital stock upon termination of employment. On May 2, 2016, the Company announced that its Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly dividend of $0.04 per share on its outstanding common stock. The dividend is next payable on June 15, 2016, to stockholders of record as of May 31, 2016.
Repurchases of Stock
In December 1998, we announced a program to repurchase up to 500,000 shares of our common stock. In February 2008, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an increase in the Company's existing stock repurchase program by up to an additional 500,000 shares of its common stock. In February 2014, the Company's Board of Directors authorized an increase in the Company's existing stock repurchase program by up to an additional 5,000,000 shares of its common stock. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we did not repurchase any shares. During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, we repurchased 2,923,011 and 300,000 shares, respectively, for a purchase price of $184.4 million and $19.1 million, respectively. From the inception of the program through March 31, 2013, we repurchased 499,200 shares (prior to fiscal 2012 stock split) for a purchase price of $19.2 million. Repurchases may be made from time to time in open market transactions, block purchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise at prevailing prices. No time limit has been set for completion of the program. As a result, as of May 27, 2016, the Company remains able to purchase an additional 2,277,789 shares.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The information required regarding equity compensation plan information will be included in our Proxy Statement in connection with our 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on July 21, 2016, under the heading "Equity Compensation Plan Information" and is incorporated herein by reference.

19


The following graph compares the cumulative 5-year total return provided stockholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the Russell 1000 index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense index. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each of the indexes on March 31, 2011, and its relative performance is tracked through March 31, 2016.
COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Triumph Group, Inc., and The Russell 1000 Indexes
And The S&P Aerospace & Defense Index
* $100 invested on March 31, 2011 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.

 
Fiscal year ended March 31
 
3/11
 
3/12
 
3/13
 
3/14
 
3/15
 
3/16
Triumph Group, Inc. 
100.00
 
142.05
 
178.40
 
147.09
 
136.55
 
72.14
Russell 1000
100.00
 
107.86
 
123.42
 
151.09
 
170.33
 
171.18
S&P Aerospace & Defense
100.00
 
104.54
 
121.06
 
173.68
 
198.30
 
200.23

        The stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.




20


Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes thereto and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included herein.
 
Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
 
2016(1)
 
2015(2)
 
2014(3)
 
2013(4)
 
2012(5)
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Operating Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
3,886,072

 
$
3,888,722

 
$
3,763,254

 
$
3,702,702

 
$
3,407,929

Cost of sales
3,597,299

 
3,141,453

 
2,911,802

 
2,763,488

 
2,564,995

 
288,773

 
747,269

 
851,452

 
939,214

 
842,934

Selling, general and administrative expense
287,349

 
285,773

 
254,715

 
241,349

 
242,553

Depreciation and amortization
177,755

 
158,323

 
164,277

 
129,506

 
119,724

Impairment of intangible assets
874,361

 

 

 

 

Restructuring
36,182

 
3,193

 
31,290

 
2,665

 
6,342

Curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives
(1,244
)
 

 
1,166

 
34,481

 
(40,400
)
Loss (gain) on legal settlement, net
5,476

 
(134,693
)
 

 

 

Operating (loss) income
(1,091,106
)
 
434,673

 
400,004

 
531,213

 
514,715

Interest expense and other
68,041

 
85,379

 
87,771

 
68,156

 
77,138

(Loss) income from continuing operations, before income taxes
(1,159,147
)
 
349,294

 
312,233

 
463,057

 
437,577

Income tax (benefit) expense
(111,187
)
 
110,597

 
105,977

 
165,710

 
155,955

(Loss) income from continuing operations
(1,047,960
)
 
238,697

 
206,256

 
297,347

 
281,622

Loss from discontinued operations

 

 

 

 
(765
)
Net (loss) income
$
(1,047,960
)
 
$
238,697

 
$
206,256

 
$
297,347

 
$
280,857

Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Loss) income from continuing operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(21.29
)
 
$
4.70

 
$
3.99

 
$
5.99

 
$
5.77

Diluted(6)
$
(21.29
)
 
$
4.68

 
$
3.91

 
$
5.67

 
$
5.43

Cash dividends declared per share
$
0.16

 
$
0.16

 
$
0.16

 
$
0.16

 
$
0.14

Shares used in computing earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
49,218

 
50,796

 
51,711

 
49,663

 
48,821

Diluted(6)
49,218

 
51,005

 
52,787

 
52,446

 
51,873

 
 
As of March 31,
 
2016(1)
 
2015(2)
 
2014(3)
 
2013(4)
 
2012(5)
 
(in thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital
$
606,767

 
$
1,023,144

 
$
1,141,741

 
$
892,818

 
$
741,105

Total assets
4,835,093

 
5,956,325

 
5,553,386

 
5,239,179

 
4,597,224

Long-term debt, including current portion
1,417,320

 
1,368,600

 
1,550,383

 
1,329,863

 
1,158,862

Total stockholders' equity
$
934,944

 
$
2,135,784

 
$
2,283,911

 
$
2,045,158

 
$
1,793,369


(1)
Includes the acquisition of Fairchild Controls Corporation (October 2015) from the date of acquisition, forward losses on the Bombardier and 747-8 programs of $561,158 and restructuring charges of $75,596 (March 2016). See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(2)
Includes the acquisitions of Spirit AeroSytems Holdings, Inc. - Gulfstream G650 and G280 Wings Programs and forward losses on the 747-8 program of $151,992 (December 2014), North American Aircraft Services, Inc. (October 2014) and GE Aviation - Hydraulic Actuation (June 2014) from the date of each respective acquisition. See Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
(3)
Includes the acquisitions of Insulfab Product Line (Chase Corporation) (October 2013), General Donlee Canada, Inc. (October 2013) and Primus Composites (May 2013) from the date of each respective acquisition. Includes the divestitures of Triumph Aerospace Systems - Wichita (January 2014) and Triumph Instruments (April 2013) from the date of respective divestiture. See Note 3 and 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, respectively.
(4)
Includes the acquisitions of Goodrich Pump & Engine Control Systems, Inc. (March 2013) and Embee, Inc. (December 2012) from the date of each respective acquisition.

21


(5)
Includes the acquisition of Aviation Network Services, LLC (October 2011) from the date of acquisition.
(6)
Diluted earnings per share for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2015, 2014, 2013 and 2012, included 40,177, 811,083, 2,400,439 and 2,606,189 shares, respectively, related to the dilutive effects of the Company's Convertible Notes.


Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto contained elsewhere herein.

OVERVIEW
We are a major supplier to the aerospace industry and have three operating segments: (i) Triumph Aerostructures Group, whose companies' revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components for the global aerospace original equipment manufacturers, or OEM, market; (ii) Triumph Aerospace Systems Group, whose companies design, engineer and manufacture a wide range of proprietary and build-to-print components, assemblies and systems also for the OEM market; and (iii) Triumph Aftermarket Services Group, whose companies serve aircraft fleets, notably commercial airlines, the U.S. military and cargo carriers, through the maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft components and accessories manufactured by third parties.
Effective October 21, 2015, the Company acquired the ownership of all of the outstanding shares of Fairchild Controls Corporation ("Fairchild"). Fairchild is a leading provider of proprietary thermal management systems, auxiliary power generation systems and related aftermarket spares and repairs. The acquired business operates as Triumph Thermal Systems-Maryland, Inc. and its results are included in Aerospace Systems Group from the date of acquisition.
Significant financial results for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 include:
Net sales for fiscal 2016 decreased 0.1% to $3.89 billion, including a 9.8% decrease in organic sales.
Operating loss for fiscal 2016 was $(1.09) billion.
Included in operating loss for fiscal 2016 was a non-cash impairment charge of $874.4 million primarily related to goodwill and the indefinite-lived tradename in the Aerostructures reporting, forward losses to the Bombardier Global 7000/8000 and 747-8 programs of $561.2 million and restructuring and related accelerated depreciation charges of $81.0 million.
Net loss for fiscal 2016 was $(1.05) billion and included a charge for an income tax valuation allowance of $155.8 million.
Backlog decreased 17.4% over the prior year to $4.15 billion.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, net sales totaled $3.89 billion, a 0.1% decrease from fiscal year 2015 net sales of $3.89 billion. Net income for fiscal year 2016 decreased 539.0% to $(1.05) billion, or $(21.29) per diluted common share, versus $238.7 million, or $4.68 per diluted common share, for fiscal year 2015.
Our working capital needs are generally funded through cash flows from operations and borrowings under our credit arrangements. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we generated $83.9 million of cash flows from operating activities, used $128.0 million in investing activities and received $32.5 million in financing activities. Cash flows from operating activities in fiscal year 2015 was $467.3 million and included $112.3 million in pension contributions.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, the Company committed to a restructuring of certain its businesses as well as the consolidation of certain of its facilities ("2016 Restructuring Plan"). The Company expects to reduce its footprint by approximately 3.5 million square feet and to reduce head count by 1,200 employees. Over the next few fiscal years, the Company estimates that it will record aggregate pre-tax charges of $150.0 million to $160.0 million related to these programs, which represent employee termination benefits, contract termination costs, accelerated depreciation and facility closure and other exit costs, and will result in future cash outlays. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, the Company recorded charges of $81.0 million related to this program, including accelerated depreciation of $22.4 million and severance of $16.3 million.
We are currently performing work on several new programs, which are in various stages of development. Several of the these programs are expected to enter flight testing during our fiscal 2017, including the Bombardier Global 7000/8000, and Embraer second generation E-Jet ("E2-Jets") and we expect to deliver revenue generating production units for these programs in late fiscal 2017, or early fiscal 2018. Historically, low-rate production commences during flight testing, followed by an

22


increase to full-rate production, assuming that successful testing and certification are achieved. Accordingly, we anticipate that each of these programs will begin generating full-rate production level revenues between fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2021. We are still in the early development stages for the Gulfstream G500/G600 programs, as these aircraft are not expected to enter service until fiscal 2019. Transition of each of these programs from development to recurring production levels is dependent upon the success of each program at achieving flight testing and certification, as well as the ability of the OEM to generate acceptable levels of aircraft sales.
Fiscal 2016 was a challenging year for certain of our new programs. While work progressed on these development programs, we experienced difficulties in achieving estimated cost targets particularly in the areas of engineering and estimated recurring costs. As described in more detail in “Results of Operations”, we recorded a $399.8 million forward loss on our Bombardier Global 7000/8000 wing contract in the fourth quarter of 2016. The Global 7000/8000 contract provides for fixed pricing and requires us to fund certain up-front development expenses, with certain milestone payments made by Bombardier. The Global 7000/8000 program charge resulted in the impairment of previously capitalized pre-production costs due to the combination of cost recovery uncertainty, higher than anticipated non-recurring costs and increased forecasted costs on recurring production. The increases in costs were driven by several factors, including: changing technical requirements, increased spending on the design and engineering phase of the program and uncertainty regarding cost reduction and cost recovery initiatives with our customer and suppliers. Further cost increases or an inability to meet revised recurring cost forecasts on the Global 7000/8000 program may result in additional forward loss reserves in future periods, while improvements in future costs compared to current estimates may result in favorable adjustments if forward loss reserves are no longer required.
     Under our contract with Embraer, we have the exclusive right to design, develop and manufacture the center fuselage section III, rear fuselage section and various tail section components (rudder and elevator) for the E2-Jets over the initial 600 ship sets. The contract provides for funding on a fixed amount of non-recurring costs, which will be paid over a specified number of production units. Higher than expected spending on the E2-Jets program has resulted in a low single digit estimated profit margin percentage, with additional potential future cost pressures as well as opportunities for improved performance. While we still estimate positive margins for this contract, risks related to additional engineering as well as the recurring cost profile remains as this program enters flight testing.
     We seek additional consideration for customer work statement changes throughout the development process as a standard course of business. The ability to recover or negotiate additional consideration is not certain and varies by contract. Varying market conditions for these products may also impact future profitability.
     Although none of these new programs individually are expected to have a material impact on our net revenues, they do have the potential, either individually or in the aggregate, to materially and negatively impact our consolidated results of operations if future changes in estimates result in the need for a forward loss provision. Absent any such loss provisions, we do not anticipate that any of these new programs will significantly dilute our future consolidated margins.
In January 2016, Boeing announced a rate reduction to the 747-8 program, which lowers production to one plane every two months. We have assessed the impact of the rate reduction and have recorded an additional $161.4 million forward loss during the quarter ended March 31, 2016. This announcement follows the September 2015 decision by Boeing to in-source production of the 747-8 program beginning in the second half of fiscal 2019, effectively terminating this program with us after our current contract. Additional costs associated with exiting the facilities where the 747-8 program is manufactured, such as asset impairment, supplier and lease termination charges, as well as severance and retention payments to employees and contractors have been included in the 2016 Restructuring Plan.
As disclosed during fiscal 2015, we also recognized a provision for forward losses associated with our long-term contract on the 747-8 program. There is still risk similar to what we have experienced on the 747-8 program. Particularly, our ability to manage risks related to supplier performance, execution of cost reduction strategies, hiring and retaining skilled production and management personnel, quality and manufacturing execution, program schedule delays and many other risks, will determine the ultimate performance of these long-term programs.
Consistent with our policy described in our Critical Accounting Policies here within, we performed Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test on an interim basis upon the occurrence of events or substantive changes in circumstances that indicate a reporting unit's fair value may be less than its carrying value. During the third quarter of fiscal 2016, we performed an interim assessment of the fair value of our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets due to potential indicators of impairment related to the continued decline in our stock price during the third quarter.

23


Our assessment focused on the Aerostructures reporting unit since it had significant changes in its economic indicators and adjusted for select changes in the risk adjusted discount rate to consider both the current return requirements of the market and the risks inherent in the reporting unit, expected long-term growth rate and cash flow projections to determine if any decline in the estimated fair value of a reporting unit could result in a goodwill impairment. We concluded that the goodwill was not impaired as of the interim impairment assessment date. However, the excess of the fair value over the carrying value was within 5% for the Company's Aerostructures reporting unit. The amount of goodwill for our Aerostructures reporting unit amounted to $1.42 billion as of the interim testing date.
During the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, consistent with our policy described herein, we performed our annual assessment of the fair value of our goodwill for each of our three reporting units. We concluded that the goodwill of our Aerostructures reporting unit was impaired as of the annual testing date. We concluded that the goodwill had an implied fair value of $822.8 million (Level 3) compared to a carrying value of $1.42 billion. Accordingly, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 of $597.6 million, which is presented on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations as "Impairment of intangible assets". The decline in fair value is the result of continued declines in stock price and related market multiples for stock price to EBITDA of both the Company and our peer group. Going forward, we will continue to monitor the performance of this reporting unit in relation to the key assumptions in our analysis.
In the event that market multiples for stock price to EBITDA in the aerospace and defense markets decrease, or the expected EBITDA and cash flows for our reporting units decreases, an additional goodwill impairment charge may be required, which would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. If management determines that impairment exists, the impairment will be recognized in the period in which it is identified.
During the third quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we performed an interim assessment of fair value on our indefinite-lived intangible assets due to potential indicators of impairment related to the continued decline in our stock price during the fiscal third quarter. We estimated the fair value of the tradenames using the relief-from-royalty method, which uses several significant assumptions, including revenue projections that consider historical and estimated future results, general economic and market conditions, as well as the impact of planned business and operational strategies. The following estimates and assumptions were also used in the relief-from-royalty method:
Royalty rates between 2% and 4% based on market observed royalty rates and profit split analysis; and
Discount rates between 12% and 13% based on the required rate of return for the tradename assets.
Based on our evaluation, we concluded that the Vought tradename had a fair value of $195.8 million (Level 3) compared to a carrying value of $425.0 million. Accordingly, we recorded a non-cash impairment charge during the quarter ended December 31, 2015, of $229.2 million, which is presented on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations as "Impairment of intangible assets". The decline in fair value compared to carrying value of the Vought tradename is the result of declining revenues from production rate reductions and the slower than previously projected ramp in Bombardier Global 7000/8000 and the timing of associated earnings.
During the fourth quarter of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we performed our annual assessment of fair value on our indefinite-lived intangible assets. We estimated the fair value of the tradenames using the relief-from-royalty method, which uses several significant assumptions, including revenue projections that consider historical and estimated future results, general economic and market conditions, as well as the impact of planned business and operational strategies. The following estimates and assumptions were also used in the relief-from-royalty method:
Royalty rates between 2% and 4% based on market observed royalty rates and profit split analysis; and
Discount rate of 14% based on the required rate of return for the tradename assets, which increased from our interim assessment driven by increased risk due to continued declines in stock price and related market multiples for stock price to EBITDA of both the Company and our peer group and increased interest rates.
Based on our evaluation of indefinite-lived assets, including the tradenames, we concluded that the Vought and Embee tradenames had a fair value of $163.0 million (Level 3) compared to a carrying value of $209.2 million. The decline in fair value compared to carrying value of the tradenames is the result of the increase in discount rate during the fourth quarter, which required the Company to assess whether events and/or circumstances have changed regarding the indefinite-life conclusion. Accordingly, we revalued both the tradenames as if these intangible assets were no longer indefinite and recorded a non-cash impairment charge during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, of $46.2 million, which is presented on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations as "Impairment of intangible assets". Additionally, we determined that the tradenames will be amortized over their remaining estimated useful life of 20 years.

24


In the event of significant loss of revenues and related earnings associated with the Vought and Embee tradenames, further impairment charges may be required, which would adversely affect our operating results.
The collective bargaining agreement with our union employees with IAM District 751 at our Spokane, Washington facility has expired. As of May 11, 2016, the workforce in Spokane of approximately 400 employees has elected to strike. While we are currently in negotiations with the workforce, we have implemented plans to continue production in Spokane with support from other locations. Our union employees with UAW Local 848 at our Red Oak, Texas facility and UAW Local 952 at our Tulsa, Oklahoma facility are currently working without a contract. If we are unable to negotiate a contract with each of those workforces, our operations may be disrupted and we may be prevented from completing production and delivery of products from those facilities, which would negatively impact our results. Contingency plans have been developed that would allow production to continue in the event of an additional strike.
Effective December 30, 2014, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, Triumph Aerostructures-Tulsa LLC, doing business as Triumph Aerostructures-Vought Aircraft Division-Tulsa, completed the acquisition of the Gulfstream G650 and G280 wing programs (the "Tulsa Programs") located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, from Spirit AeroSystems, Inc. The acquisition of the Tulsa Programs establishes the Company as a leader in fully integrated wing design, engineering and production and advances its standing as a strategic Tier One Capable aerostructures supplier. The acquired business operates as Triumph Aerostructures-Vought Aircraft Division-Tulsa and its results are included in the Aerostructures Group from the date of acquisition.
Effective October 17, 2014, the Company acquired the ownership of all of the outstanding shares of North American Aircraft Services, Inc. and its affiliates ("NAAS"). NAAS is based in San Antonio, Texas, with fixed-based operator units throughout the United States as well as international locations and delivers line maintenance and repair, fuel leak detection and fuel bladder cell repair services. The acquired business operates as Triumph Aviation Services-NAAS Division and its results are included in Aftermarket Services Group from the date of acquisition.
Effective June 27, 2014, the Company acquired the hydraulic actuation business of GE Aviation ("GE"). GE's hydraulic actuation business consists of three facilities located in Yakima, Washington, Cheltenham, England and the Isle of Man and is a technology leader in actuation systems. GE's key product offerings include complete landing gear actuation systems, door actuation, nose-wheel steerings, hydraulic fuses, manifolds flight control actuation and locking mechanisms for the commercial, military and business jet markets. The acquired business operates as Triumph Actuation Systems-Yakima and Triumph Actuation Systems-UK & IOM and its results are included in Aerospace Systems Group from the date of acquisition.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following includes a discussion of our consolidated and business segment results of operations. The Company's diverse structure and customer base do not provide for precise comparisons of the impact of price and volume changes to our results. However, we have disclosed the significant variances between the respective periods.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We prepare and publicly release quarterly unaudited financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. In accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") guidance on Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations, we also disclose and discuss certain non-GAAP financial measures in our public releases. Currently, the non-GAAP financial measure that we disclose is Adjusted EBITDA, which is our (loss) income from continuing operations before interest, income taxes, amortization of acquired contract liabilities, curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives and depreciation and amortization. We disclose Adjusted EBITDA on a consolidated and a reportable segment basis in our earnings releases, investor conference calls and filings with the SEC. The non-GAAP financial measures that we use may not be comparable to similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Also, in the future, we may disclose different non-GAAP financial measures in order to help our investors more meaningfully evaluate and compare our future results of operations to our previously reported results of operations.
We view Adjusted EBITDA as an operating performance measure and, as such, we believe that the GAAP financial measure most directly comparable to it is income from continuing operations. In calculating Adjusted EBITDA, we exclude from (loss) income from continuing operations the financial items that we believe should be separately identified to provide additional analysis of the financial components of the day-to-day operation of our business. We have outlined below the type and scope of these exclusions and the material limitations on the use of these non-GAAP financial measures as a result of these exclusions. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as a measure of liquidity, as an alternative to net (loss) income, (loss) income from continuing operations, or as an indicator of any other measure of performance derived in accordance with GAAP. Investors and potential investors in our securities should not rely on Adjusted EBITDA as a substitute for any GAAP financial measure, including net (loss) income or (loss) income from

25


continuing operations. In addition, we urge investors and potential investors in our securities to carefully review the reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to (loss) income from continuing operations set forth below, in our earnings releases and in other filings with the SEC and to carefully review the GAAP financial information included as part of our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Annual Reports on Form 10-K that are filed with the SEC, as well as our quarterly earnings releases, and compare the GAAP financial information with our Adjusted EBITDA.
Adjusted EBITDA is used by management to internally measure our operating and management performance and by investors as a supplemental financial measure to evaluate the performance of our business that, when viewed with our GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliation, we believe provides additional information that is useful to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business. We have spent more than 20 years expanding our product and service capabilities partially through acquisitions of complementary businesses. Due to the expansion of our operations, which included acquisitions, our (loss) income from continuing operations has included significant charges for depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA excludes these charges and provides meaningful information about the operating performance of our business, apart from charges for depreciation and amortization. We believe the disclosure of Adjusted EBITDA helps investors meaningfully evaluate and compare our performance from quarter to quarter and from year to year. We also believe Adjusted EBITDA is a measure of our ongoing operating performance because the isolation of non-cash charges, such as depreciation and amortization, and non-operating items, such as interest and income taxes, provides additional information about our cost structure, and, over time, helps track our operating progress. In addition, investors, securities analysts and others have regularly relied on Adjusted EBITDA to provide a financial measure by which to compare our operating performance against that of other companies in our industry.
Set forth below are descriptions of the financial items that have been excluded from our (loss) income from continuing operations to calculate Adjusted EBITDA and the material limitations associated with using this non-GAAP financial measure as compared to (loss) income from continuing operations:
Legal settlements may be useful for investors to consider because it reflects gains or losses from disputes with third parties. We do not believe these earnings necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash earnings related to our operations.
Curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the current period impact of the change in the defined benefit obligation due to the reduction in future service costs as well as the incremental cost of retirement incentive benefits paid to participants. We do not believe these earnings necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash earnings related to our operations.
Amortization of acquired contract liabilities may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the non-cash earnings on the fair value of off-market contracts acquired through acquisitions. We do not believe these earnings necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash earnings related to our operations.
Amortization expense (including intangible asset impairments) may be useful for investors to consider because it represents the estimated attrition of our acquired customer base and the diminishing value of product rights and licenses. We do not believe these charges necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash charges related to our operating cost structure.
Depreciation may be useful for investors to consider because it generally represents the wear and tear on our property and equipment used in our operations. We do not believe these charges necessarily reflect the current and ongoing cash charges related to our operating cost structure.
The amount of interest expense and other we incur may be useful for investors to consider and may result in current cash inflows or outflows. However, we do not consider the amount of interest expense and other to be a representative component of the day-to-day operating performance of our business.
Income tax expense may be useful for investors to consider because it generally represents the taxes which may be payable for the period and the change in deferred income taxes during the period and may reduce the amount of funds otherwise available for use in our business. However, we do not consider the amount of income tax expense to be a representative component of the day-to-day operating performance of our business.
Management compensates for the above-described limitations of using non-GAAP measures by using a non-GAAP measure only to supplement our GAAP results and to provide additional information that is useful to gain an understanding of the factors and trends affecting our business.


26


The following table shows our Adjusted EBITDA reconciled to our (loss) income from continuing operations for the indicated periods (in thousands):
 
Fiscal year ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
(Loss) income from continuing operations
$
(1,047,960
)
 
$
238,697

 
$
206,256

Legal settlement charge (gain), net of expenses
5,476

 
(134,693
)
 

Amortization of acquired contract liabilities
(132,363
)
 
(75,733
)
 
(42,629
)
Depreciation and amortization *
1,052,116

 
158,323

 
164,277

Curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives
(1,244
)
 

 
1,166

Interest expense and other
68,041

 
85,379

 
87,771

Income tax (benefit) expense
(111,187
)
 
110,597

 
105,977

Adjusted EBITDA
$
(167,121
)
 
$
382,570

 
$
522,818

* - Includes Impairment charges related to intangible assets
 
 
 
 
 
   
The following tables show our Adjusted EBITDA by reportable segment reconciled to our operating (loss) income for the indicated periods (in thousands):
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2016
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating (loss) income
$
(1,091,106
)
 
$
(1,274,777
)
 
$
216,520

 
$
24,977

 
$
(57,826
)
Legal settlement charge, net
5,476

 
12,070

 
(8,494
)
 
1,900

 

Curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives
(1,244
)
 

 

 

 
(1,244
)
Amortization of acquired contract liabilities
(132,363
)
 
(90,778
)
 
(41,585
)
 

 

Depreciation and amortization *
1,052,116

 
988,947

 
50,518

 
11,009

 
1,642

Adjusted EBITDA
$
(167,121
)
 
$
(364,538
)
 
$
216,959

 
$
37,886

 
$
(57,428
)
* - Includes Impairment impairment charges related to intangible assets.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2015
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating income
$
434,673

 
$
120,985

 
$
184,042

 
$
47,931

 
$
81,715

Legal settlement (gain), net
(134,693
)
 

 

 

 
(134,693
)
Amortization of acquired contract liabilities
(75,733
)
 
(38,719
)
 
(37,014
)
 

 

Depreciation and amortization
158,323

 
102,296

 
45,200

 
8,559

 
2,268

Adjusted EBITDA
$
382,570

 
$
184,562

 
$
192,228

 
$
56,490

 
$
(50,710
)
 
 
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2014
 
Total
 
Aerostructures
 
Aerospace
Systems
 
Aftermarket
Services
 
Corporate/
Eliminations
Operating income
$
400,004

 
$
248,637

 
$
149,721

 
$
42,265

 
$
(40,619
)
Curtailments, settlements and early retirement incentives
1,166

 

 

 

 
1,166

Amortization of acquired contract liabilities
(42,629
)
 
(25,207
)
 
(17,422
)
 

 

Depreciation and amortization
164,277

 
116,514

 
37,453

 
7,529

 
2,781

Adjusted EBITDA
$
522,818

 
$
339,944

 
$
169,752

 
$
49,794

 
$
(36,672
)

27



The fluctuations from period to period within the amounts of the components of the reconciliations above are discussed further below within Results of Operations.
Fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2015
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net sales
$
3,886,072

 
$
3,888,722

Segment operating (loss) income
$
(1,033,280
)
 
$
352,958

Corporate (expense) income
(57,826
)
 
81,715

Total operating (loss) income
(1,091,106
)
 
434,673

Interest expense and other
68,041

 
85,379

Income tax (benefit) expense
(111,187
)
 
110,597

Net (loss) income
$
(1,047,960
)
 
$
238,697


Net sales decreased by $2.7 million, or (0.1)%, to $3.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $3.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The acquisition of Fairchild and the fiscal 2015 acquisitions contributed $355.3 million. Organic sales decreased $352.7 million, or (9.8)%, due to production rate cuts by our customers on the 747-8, V-22, G450/G550 and C-17 programs. The prior fiscal year was negatively impacted by our customers' decreased production rates on existing programs and decreased military sales.
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, we recorded a $399.8 million forward loss charge for the Bombardier Global 7000/8000 wing program. Under our contract for this program, we have the right to design, develop and manufacture wing components over the initial 300 ship sets. The Global 7000/8000 contract provides for fixed pricing and requires us to fund certain up-front development expenses, with certain milestone payments made by Bombardier. The Global 7000/8000 program charge resulted in the impairment of previously capitalized pre-production costs due to the combination of cost recovery uncertainty, higher than anticipated non-recurring costs and increased forecasted costs on recurring production. The increases in costs were driven by several factors, including: changing technical requirements, increased spending on the design and engineering phase of the program and uncertainty regarding cost reduction and cost recovery initiatives with our customer and suppliers. Further cost increases or an inability to meet revised recurring cost forecasts on the Global 7000/8000 program may result in additional forward loss reserves in future periods, while improvements in future costs compared to current estimates may result in favorable adjustments if forward loss reserves are no longer required.
In January 2016, Boeing announced a rate reduction to the 747-8 program, which lowers production to one plane every two months. We have assessed the impact of the rate reduction and have recorded an additional $161.4 million forward loss. This announcement follows the September 2015 decision by Boeing to in-source production of the 747-8 program beginning in the second half of fiscal 2019, effectively terminating this program with us after our current contract. Additional costs associated with exiting the facilities where the 747-8 program is manufactured, such as asset impairment, supplier and lease termination charges, as well as severance and retention payments to employees and contractors have been included in the 2016 Restructuring Plan.
Recognition of additional forward losses in the future periods continues to be a risk and will depend upon several factors, including the impact of the above discussed production rate change, our ability to successfully perform under current design and manufacturing plans, achievement of forecasted cost reductions as we continue production, our ability to successfully resolve claims and assertions with our customers and suppliers and our customers' ability to sell their products.
Cost of sales increased by $455.8 million, or 14.5%, to $3.6 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $3.1 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The acquisition of Fairchild and the fiscal 2015 acquisitions contributed $274.5 million. The organic cost of sales included provisions for forward losses of $561.2 million on the Bombardier and 747-8 programs (as discussed above). Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, was 3.9% compared with 19.1% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The prior year was impacted by additional costs on the 747-8 program and disruption and accelerated depreciation associated with the relocation from our Jefferson Street Facilities.
Gross margin included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments on long-term contracts and provisions for forward losses as noted above ($596.2 million). The unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments to operating income included gross

28


favorable adjustments of $33.0 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $629.2 million, of which $561.2 million was related to forward losses associated with the Bombardier and 747-8 programs. Excluding the aforementioned forward losses, the cumulative catch-up adjustments for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, reflected increased labor and supplier costs on other programs. Gross margins for fiscal 2015 included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $156.0 million, of which $152.0 million was related to the forward losses on the 747-8 program.
Segment operating (loss) income decreased by $1,386.2 million, or (392.7)%, to $(1,033.3) million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $353.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The decreased operating income is directly related to the provisions for forward losses and gross margin changes noted above and the previously mentioned goodwill and tradename impairment charges.
Corporate operations incurred expenses of $57.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as opposed to income of $81.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, included the legal settlement between the Company and Eaton, which resulted in a net gain of $134.7 million.
Interest expense and other decreased by $17.3 million, or 20.3%, to $68.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 compared to $85.4 million for the prior year. Interest expense and other for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, included foreign exchange losses of $2.4 million versus foreign exchange gains of $5.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Interest expense and other for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 included the redemption of the 2018 Notes, which included $22.6 million for pre-tax losses associated with the 4.79% redemption premium, and write-off of the remaining related unamortized discount and deferred financing fees.
The effective income tax rate was 9.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, and reflected the establishment of a valuation allowance of $155.8 million against net deferred tax assets. Based on an evaluation of both the positive and negative evidence available, we determined that it was necessary to establish a valuation allowance against substantially all of our net deferred tax assets for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016.
A valuation allowance, if needed, reduces deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. When determining the amount of net deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be realized, the Company assesses all available positive and negative evidence. This evidence includes, but is not limited to, prior earnings history, expected future earnings, carry-back and carry-forward periods and the feasibility of ongoing tax strategies that could potentially enhance the likelihood of the realization of a deferred tax asset. The weight given to the positive and negative evidence is commensurate with the extent the evidence may be objectively verified. As such, it is generally difficult for positive evidence regarding projected future taxable income exclusive of reversing taxable temporary differences to outweigh objective negative evidence of recent financial reporting losses.
Based on these criteria and the relative weighting of both the positive and negative evidence available, and in particular the activity surrounding the Company's prior earnings history, including the forward losses and intangible impairments previously recognized, management determined that it was necessary to establish a valuation allowance against principally all of its net deferred tax assets at March 31, 2016. Given the objectively verifiable negative evidence of a three-year cumulative loss and the weighting of all available positive evidence, the Company excluded projected taxable income (aside from reversing taxable temporary differences) from the assessment of income that could be used as a source of taxable income to realize the deferred tax assets.
The effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was 31.7% and included the release of previously reserved for unrecognized tax benefits of $1.1 million, the benefit of $2.8 million from a decrease of the state deferred tax rate and the benefit of $6.0 million from the retroactive reinstatement of the R&D tax credit to January 1, 2014.

29


Fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2014
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(in thousands)
Net sales
$
3,888,722

 
$
3,763,254

Segment operating income
$
352,958

 
$
440,623

Corporate income (expenses)
81,715

 
(40,619
)
Total operating income
434,673

 
400,004

Interest expense and other
85,379

 
87,771

Income tax expense
110,597

 
105,977

Net income
$
238,697

 
$
206,256


Net sales increased by $125.5 million, or 3.3%, to $3.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $3.8 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014 acquisitions, net of prior year divestitures, contributed $306.1 million. Organic sales decreased $180.6 million, or 4.6%, due to production rate cuts by our customers on the 747-8, V-22, G450/G550 and C-17 programs. The prior fiscal year was negatively impacted by our customers' decreased production rates on existing programs and decreased military sales.
Cost of sales increased by $229.7 million, or 7.9%, to $3.1 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $2.9 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014 acquisitions, net of prior year divestitures, contributed $264.2 million. Despite the decrease in organic cost of sales, the organic cost of sales included a provision for forward losses of $152.0 million on the 747-8 program in addition to losses as a result of losing NADCAP certification at one of our facilities. Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was 20.1% compared with 23.1% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The prior year was impacted by additional programs costs on the 747-8 program and disruption and accelerated depreciation associated with the relocation from our Jefferson Street facilities. Excluding these charges, the comparable gross margin would have been 25.4% and 26.5%, respectively.
Gross margin included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments on long-term contracts and a provision for forward losses as noted above ($156.0 million). The unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments to operating income included gross favorable adjustments of $4.7 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $160.7 million, of which $152.0 million was related to forward losses associated with the 747-8 program. The cumulative catch-up adjustments for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, were due primarily to labor cost growth, partially offset by other minor improvements. Gross margins for fiscal 2014 included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments of $53.2 million, which $29.8 million was related to the additional 747-8 program costs from reductions to profitability estimates on the 747-8 production lots that were completed during fiscal 2014 and $15.6 million of disruption and accelerated depreciation costs related to our exit from the Jefferson Street facilities which reduced profitability estimates on production lots completed during fiscal 2014. These decreases were partially offset by lower pension and other postretirement benefit expense of $12.7 million.
Segment operating income decreased by $87.7 million, or 19.9%, to $353.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 from $440.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The organic operating income decreased $100.9 million, or 22.6%, and was a result of the decreased organic sales, the provision for forward losses and gross margin changes noted above, partially offset by decreased moving costs related to the relocation from our Jefferson Street facilities ($28.1 million), and legal fees ($4.5 million).
Corporate operations yielded income of $81.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, as opposed to expenses of $40.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. This result is due to the legal settlement between the Company and Eaton, which created a net gain of $134.7 million, partially offset by increased due diligence and acquisition related expenses ($9.8 million).
Interest expense and other decreased by $2.4 million, or 2.7%, to $85.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 compared to $87.8 million for the prior year. Interest expense and other for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 decreased due to lower average debt outstanding during the period as compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Interest expense and other for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, included the redemption of the 2018 Notes, which included $22.6 million for pre-tax losses associated with the 4.79% redemption premium, and write-off of the remaining related unamortized discount and deferred financing fees. The fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, included the redemption of the 2017 Notes, which included

30


$11.0 million of pre-tax losses associated with the 4% redemption premium, and the write-off of the remaining related unamortized discount and deferred financing fees.
The effective income tax rate was 31.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, and 33.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The income tax provision for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was reduced to reflect the release of previously reserved for unrecognized tax benefits of $1.1 million, the benefit of $2.8 million from a decrease of the state deferred tax rate and the benefit of $6.0 million from the retroactive reinstatement of the R&D tax credit to January 1, 2014. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, the income tax provision was reduced to reflect the release of previously reserved for unrecognized tax benefits of $0.7 million and additional research and development tax credit carryforward and NOL carryforward of $2.3 million.
In January 2014, the Company sold all of its shares of Triumph Aerospace Systems-Wichita, Inc. for total cash proceeds of $23.0 million, which resulted in no gain or loss from the sale.
In April 2013, the Company sold the assets and liabilities of Triumph Instruments-Burbank and Triumph Instruments-Ft. Lauderdale for total proceeds of $11.2 million, resulting in a loss of $1.5 million.
The Company expects to have significant continuing involvement in the businesses and markets of the disposed entities and therefore the disposal groups did not meet the criteria to be classified as discontinued operations.
Business Segment Performance
We report our financial performance based on the following three reportable segments: the Aerostructures Group, the Aerospace Systems Group and the Aftermarket Services Group. The Company's Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM") utilizes Adjusted EBITDA as a primary measure of profitability to evaluate performance of its segments and allocate resources.
The results of operations among our reportable segments vary due to differences in competitors, customers, extent of proprietary deliverables and performance. For example, our Aerostructures segment generally includes long-term sole-source or preferred supplier contracts and the success of these programs provides a strong foundation for our business and positions us well for future growth on new programs and new derivatives. This compares to our Aerospace Systems segment which generally includes proprietary products and/or arrangements where we become the primary source or one of a few primary sources to our customers, where our unique manufacturing capabilities command a higher margin. Also, OEMs are increasingly focusing on assembly activities while outsourcing more manufacturing and repair to third parties, and as a result, are less of a competitive force than in previous years. In contrast, our Aftermarket Services segment provides MRO services on components and accessories manufactured by third parties, with more diverse competition, including airlines, OEMs and other third-party service providers. In addition, variability in the timing and extent of customer requests performed in the Aftermarket Services segment can provide for greater volatility and less predictability in revenue and earnings than that experienced in the Aerostructures and Aerospace Systems segments.
The Aerostructures segment consists of the Company's operations that manufacture products primarily for the aerospace OEM market. The Aerostructures segment's revenues are derived from the design, manufacture, assembly and integration of both build-to-print and proprietary metallic and composite aerostructures and structural components, including aircraft wings, fuselage sections, tail assemblies, engine nacelles, flight control surfaces as well as helicopter cabins. Further, the segment's operations also design and manufacture composite assemblies for floor panels and environmental control system ducts. These products are sold to various aerospace OEMs on a global basis.
The Aerospace Systems segment consists of the Company's operations that also manufacture products primarily for the aerospace OEM market. The segment's operations design a wide range of proprietary and build-to-print components and engineer mechanical and electromechanical controls, such as hydraulic systems, main engine gearbox assemblies, engine control systems, accumulators, mechanical control cables, non-structural cockpit components and metal processing. These products are sold to various aerospace OEMs on a global basis.
The Aftermarket Services segment consists of the Company's operations that provide maintenance, repair and overhaul services to both commercial and military markets on components and accessories manufactured by third parties. Maintenance, repair and overhaul revenues are derived from services on auxiliary power units, airframe and engine accessories, including constant-speed drives, cabin compressors, starters and generators, and pneumatic drive units. In addition, the segment's operations repair and overhaul thrust reversers, nacelle components and flight control surfaces. The segment's operations also perform repair and overhaul services and supply spare parts for various types of gauges for a broad range of commercial airlines on a worldwide basis.
We currently generate a majority of our revenue from clients in the commercial aerospace industry, the military, the business jet industry and the regional airline industry. Our growth and financial results are largely dependent on continued

31


demand for our products and services from clients in these industries. If any of these industries experiences a downturn, our clients in these sectors may conduct less business with us. The following table summarizes our net sales by end market by business segment. The loss of one or more of our major customers or an economic downturn in the commercial airline or the military and defense markets could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 
Year Ended March 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Aerostructures
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
35.6
%
 
38.5
%
 
42.4
%
Military
10.5

 
14.0

 
16.1

Business Jets
15.6

 
11.0

 
10.0

Regional
0.4

 
0.4

 
0.4

Non-aviation
0.1

 
0.4

 
0.5

Total Aerostructures net sales
62.2
%
 
64.3
%
 
69.4
%
Aerospace Systems
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
14.6
%
 
13.2
%
 
8.4
%
Military
11.1

 
10.6

 
11.4

Business Jets
2.0

 
1.4

 
1.0

Regional
0.9

 
1.0

 
1.0

Non-aviation
1.3

 
1.7

 
1.3

Total Aerospace Systems net sales
29.9
%
 
27.9
%
 
23.1
%
Aftermarket Services
 
 
 
 
 
Commercial aerospace
6.0
%
 
6.3
%
 
6.3
%
Military
1.4

 
1.0

 
0.7

Regional
0.5

 
0.5

 
0.2

Non-aviation

 

 
0.3

Total Aftermarket Services net sales
7.9
%
 
7.8
%
 
7.5
%
Total Consolidated net sales
100.0
%
 
100.0
%
 
100.0
%

We continue to experience a higher proportion of our sales mix in the commercial aerospace end market. We recently have experienced an increase in our business jet end market due to the acquisition of the Tulsa Programs and a decrease in our military end market due to the wind-down of the C-17 program.
Business Segment Performance—Fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2015
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total Sales
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
NET SALES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
2,427,809

 
$
2,510,371

 
(3.3
)%
 
62.5
 %
 
64.6
 %
Aerospace Systems
 
1,166,795

 
1,089,117

 
7.1
 %
 
30.0
 %
 
28.0
 %
Aftermarket Services
 
311,394

 
304,013

 
2.4
 %
 
8.0
 %
 
7.8
 %
Elimination of inter-segment sales
 
(19,926
)
 
(14,779
)
 
34.8
 %
 
(0.5
)%
 
(0.4
)%
Total net sales
 
$
3,886,072

 
$
3,888,722

 
(0.1
)%
 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %


32


 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEGMENT OPERATING INCOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
(1,274,777
)
 
$
120,985

 
(1,153.7
)%
 
(52.5
)%
 
4.8
%
Aerospace Systems
 
216,520

 
184,042

 
17.6
 %
 
18.6
 %
 
16.9
%
Aftermarket Services
 
24,977

 
47,931

 
(47.9
)%
 
8.0
 %
 
15.8
%
Corporate
 
(57,826
)
 
81,715

 
(170.8
)%
 
n/a

 
n/a

Total segment operating income
 
$
(1,091,106
)
 
$
434,673

 
(351.0
)%
 
(28.1
)%
 
11.2
%

 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
(364,538
)
 
$
184,562

 
(297.5
)%
 
(15.0
)%
 
7.4
%
Aerospace Systems
 
216,959

 
192,228

 
12.9
 %
 
18.6
 %
 
17.6
%
Aftermarket Services
 
37,886

 
56,490

 
(32.9
)%
 
12.2
 %
 
18.6
%
Corporate
 
(57,428
)
 
(50,710
)
 
13.2
 %
 
n/a

 
n/a

 
 
$
(167,121
)
 
$
382,570

 
(143.7
)%
 
(4.3
)%
 
9.8
%

Aerostructures:    The Aerostructures segment net sales decreased by $82.6 million, or 3.3%, to $2.4 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $2.5 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Organic sales decreased by $326.7 million or 13.5%, due to decreased production rate cuts by our customers on the 747-8, Gulfstream G450/G550, A330 and C-17 programs. The acquisition of the Tulsa Programs contributed $244.1 million to net sales.
Aerostructures cost of sales increased by $382.5 million, or 17.4%, to $2.6 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $2.2 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The acquisition of the Tulsa Programs contributed $200.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016 and organic cost of sales increased by $200.6 million, or 9.5%. The organic cost of sales included provisions for forward losses of $561.2 million on the Bombardier and 747-8 programs (as discussed above). Excluding the aforementioned forward losses, the cumulative catch-up adjustments for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, included increased labor and supplier costs on other programs. The fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, included a provision for forward losses of $152.0 million on the 747-8 program and losses as a result of losing NADCAP certification at one of our facilities.
Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, was (10.8)% compared with 12.4% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The organic gross margin included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments and provisions for forward losses of $561.2 million. The net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments included gross favorable adjustments of $33.0 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $629.2 million, which includes forward losses of $561.2 million associated with the Bombardier and 747-8 programs. The net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustment for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was $156.0 million, which included $152.0 million of forward losses related to the 747-8 program.
Aerostructures segment operating (loss) income decreased by $1,395.8 million, or 1,153.7%, to $(1,274.8) million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $121.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The decreased operating income is directly related to the provision for forward losses and gross margin changes noted above and the previously mentioned goodwill and tradename impairment charges and included restructuring charges ($62.7 million). Additionally, the provision for forward losses and gross margin changes noted above contributed to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aerostructures segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales decreased to (52.5)% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as compared with 4.8% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, due to the decrease in gross margin as discussed above, which also caused the decline in the Adjusted EBITDA margin.

33


Aerospace Systems:    The Aerospace Systems segment net sales increased by $77.7 million, or 7.1%, to $1.17 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $1.09 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The acquisitions of Fairchild and GE contributed $93.5 million of net sales. Organic net sales decreased by $15.8 million, or 1.8%, primarily due to slower commercial rotocraft demand and lower aftermarket revenue.
Aerospace Systems cost of sales increased by $53.7 million, or 7.3%, to $792.2 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $738.5 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Organic cost of sales decreased by $8.4 million, or 1.5%, while the acquisitions of Fairchild and GE contributed $62.7 million in cost of sales. Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, was 34.2% compared with 34.4% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income increased by $32.5 million, or 17.6%, to $216.5 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $184.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Operating income increased primarily due to the acquisitions of Fairchild and GE ($22.5 million) and the net favorable settlement of a contingent liability ($8.5 million), partially offset by restructuring charges ($4.6 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 18.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as compared with 16.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, due to the effects of the acquisitions of Fairchild and GE. The same factors contributed to the increase in Adjusted EBITDA margin year over year.
Aftermarket Services:    The Aftermarket Services segment net sales increased by $7.4 million, or 2.4%, to $311.4 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $304.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Organic sales decreased $10.3 million, or 3.5%, and the acquisition of NAAS contributed $17.7 million. Organic sales decreased due to a decreased demand from commercial customers.
Aftermarket Services cost of sales increased by $23.6 million, or 10.7%, to $243.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $220.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The organic cost of sales increased $12.5 million, or 5.9%, and the acquisition of NAAS contributed $11.1 million to cost of sales. Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, was 20.2% compared with 27.3% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. The decrease in gross margin was impacted by the impairment of excess and obsolete inventory associated with certain slow moving programs we have decided to no longer support ($21.1 million).
Aftermarket Services segment operating income decreased by $23.0 million, or 47.9%, to $25.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, from $47.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Operating income decreased primarily due to the decreased organic sales and the decline in gross margins noted above. These same factors contributed to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales decreased to 8.0% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, as compared with 15.8% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, due to the decreased organic sales and the decline in gross margins noted above. The same factors contributed to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA margin year over year.
Business Segment Performance—Fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 compared to fiscal year ended March 31, 2014
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total Sales
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
NET SALES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
2,510,371

 
$
2,622,917

 
(4.3
)%
 
64.6
 %
 
69.7
 %
Aerospace Systems
 
1,089,117

 
871,750

 
24.9
 %
 
28.0
 %
 
23.2
 %
Aftermarket Services
 
304,013

 
287,343

 
5.8
 %
 
7.8
 %
 
7.6
 %
Elimination of inter-segment sales
 
(14,779
)
 
(18,756
)
 
(21.2
)%
 
(0.4
)%
 
(0.5
)%
Total net sales
 
$
3,888,722

 
$
3,763,254

 
3.3
 %
 
100.0
 %
 
100.0
 %


34


 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Segment
Sales
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
SEGMENT OPERATING INCOME
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
120,985

 
$
248,637

 
(51.3)%
 
4.8%
 
9.5%
Aerospace Systems
 
184,042

 
149,721

 
22.9%
 
16.9%
 
17.2%
Aftermarket Services
 
47,931

 
42,265

 
13.4%
 
15.8%
 
14.7%
Corporate
 
81,715

 
(40,619
)
 
(301.2)%
 
n/a
 
n/a
Total segment operating income
 
$
434,673

 
$
400,004

 
8.7%
 
11.2%
 
10.6%

 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
%
Change
 
% of Total
Sales
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerostructures
 
$
184,562

 
$
339,944

 
(45.7
)%
 
7.4
%
 
13.0
%
Aerospace Systems
 
192,228

 
169,752

 
13.2
 %
 
17.6
%
 
19.5
%
Aftermarket Services
 
56,490

 
49,794

 
13.4
 %
 
18.6
%
 
17.3
%
Corporate
 
(50,710
)
 
(36,672
)
 
38.3
 %
 
n/a

 
n/a

 
 
$
382,570

 
$
522,818

 
(26.8
)%
 
9.8
%
 
13.9
%
Aerostructures:    The Aerostructures segment net sales decreased by $112.6 million, or 4.3%, to $2.5 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $2.6 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Organic sales decreased by $181.2 million, or 6.9%, and the acquisitions of the Tulsa Programs and Primus, net of prior year divestiture contributed $68.6 million in net sales. Organic sales decreased due to production rate cuts by our customers on the 747-8, V-22, G450/G550 and C-17 programs.
Aerostructures cost of sales increased by $60.9 million, or 2.9%, to $2.2 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $2.1 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014 acquisitions, net of prior year divestiture, contributed $79.9 million. Despite the decrease in organic cost of sales, the organic cost of sales included a provision for forward losses of $152.0 million on the 747-8 program and losses as a result of losing NADCAP certification at one of our facilities, as discussed above. Excluding the aforementioned forward losses, the organic cost of sales decreased due to the decrease in net sales noted above. The cost of sales for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, included reductions in profitability estimates on the 747-8 programs, driven largely by the identification of additional program costs ($85.0 million) identified during the year and additional program costs resulting from disruption and accelerated depreciation associated with the relocation from our Jefferson Street facilities ($38.4 million).
Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was 13.7% compared with 18.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The organic gross margin included net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments and a provision for forward losses of $152.0 million. The net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustments included gross favorable adjustments of $4.7 million and gross unfavorable adjustments of $160.7 million, which includes forward losses of $152.0 million associated with the 747-8 program. The cumulative catch-up adjustments for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, excluding the effects of the forward losses, were due primarily to labor cost growths, partially offset by other minor improvements. The net unfavorable cumulative catch-up adjustment for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, was $53.2 million, which included $29.8 million related to additional 747-8 program costs from reductions to profitability estimates on the 747-8 production lots that were completed during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, and $15.6 million of disruption and accelerated depreciation costs related to our exit from the Jefferson Street facilities which reduced profitability estimates on production lots completed during fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Excluding these charges, the comparable gross margin would have been 21.0% and 23.8%, respectively.
Aerostructures segment operating income decreased by $127.7 million, or 51.3%, to $121.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $248.6 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Operating income was directly affected by the decrease in organic sales, the decreased organic gross margins noted above, offset by decreased moving costs related to

35


the relocation from our Jefferson Street facilities ($28.1 million). Additionally, these same factors contributed to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aerostructures segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales decreased to 4.8% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, as compared with 9.5% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, due to the decrease in sales and gross margin as discussed above, which also caused the decline in the Adjusted EBITDA margin.
Aerospace Systems:    The Aerospace Systems segment net sales increased by $217.4 million, or 24.9%, to $1.09 billion for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $871.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The GE and General Donlee acquisitions contributed $225.4 million of net sales. Organic net sales decreased by $8.0 million, or 0.9%, primarily due to decreased production associated with the V-22 program.
Aerospace Systems cost of sales increased by $166.7 million, or 29.2%, to $738.5 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $571.8 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Organic cost of sales decreased by $9.7 million, or 1.8%, while the acquisitions of GE and General Donlee contributed $176.5 million in cost of sales. Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was 35.3% compared with 34.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014 due to changes in sales mix.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income increased by $34.3 million, or 22.9%, to $184.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $149.7 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Operating income increased primarily due to the acquisitions of GE and General Donlee and by decreased legal fees ($7.1 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aerospace Systems segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales decreased to 16.9% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, as compared with 17.2% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, due to the effects of the acquisitions of GE and General Donlee. The same factors contributed to the decrease in Adjusted EBITDA margin year over year.
Aftermarket Services:    The Aftermarket Services segment net sales increased by $16.7 million, or 5.8%, to $304.0 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $287.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Organic sales increased by $4.6 million, or 1.6%, and the acquisition of NAAS offset by the previously divested Triumph Instruments companies contributed $12.1 million.
Aftermarket Services cost of sales increased by $6.2 million, or 2.9%, to $220.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $213.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The organic cost of sales decreased by $1.7 million, or 0.8%, and the acquisition of NAAS net of the previously divested Triumph Instruments companies contributed $7.9 million to cost of sales. Organic gross margin for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, was 27.3% compared with 25.6% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. The increase in gross margin was impacted by the increase in efficiencies in production associated with the higher volume of work.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income increased by $5.7 million, or 13.4%, to $47.9 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, from $42.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. Operating income increased primarily due to the increased sales and gross margin noted above and the acquisition of NAAS net of the previously divested Triumph Instruments companies ($1.6 million). These same factors contributed to the increase in Adjusted EBITDA year over year.
Aftermarket Services segment operating income as a percentage of segment sales increased to 15.8% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, as compared with 14.7% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014, due to the improved gross margin noted above.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our working capital needs are generally funded through cash flow from operations and borrowings under our credit arrangements. During the year ended March 31, 2016, we generated approximately $83.9 million of cash flow from operating activities, used approximately $128.0 million in investing activities and received approximately $32.5 million in financing activities. In fiscal 2015, cash flows from operating activities included pension contributions of $112.3 million.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, we had a net cash inflow of $83.9 million from operating activities, a decrease of $383.5 million, compared to a net cash inflow of $467.3 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. During fiscal 2016, the net cash provided by operating activities was primarily attributable to the timing of payments on accounts payable and other accrued expenses ($251.5 million) driven by pre-production costs and net spending on the Tulsa Programs discussed below, offset by increased receipts from customers and others related to increased collection efforts ($40.9 million). During fiscal 2015, the net increase in cash provided by operating activities was primarily due to the cash received from a legal settlement ($134.7 million), and an income tax refund ($26.0 million).

36


We continue to invest in inventory for new programs which impacts our cash flows operating activities. During fiscal 2016 expenditures for inventory costs on new programs, excluding progress payments, including the Bombardier Global 7000/8000 and the Embraer E-Jet programs, were $146.1 million and $83.8 million, respectively. Net spend on the Tulsa Programs during fiscal 2016 was approximately $57.3 million. Additionally, inventory for mature programs declined due to decreased production rates, by approximately $67.8 million. Unliquidated progress payments netted against inventory decreased $66.8 million due to timing of receipts.
Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, decreased $60.1 million from the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015. Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, included the acquisition of Fairchild ($57.1 million), and a payment to settle a working capital adjustment related to the acquisition of GE ($6.0 million) and capital expenditures ($80.0 million). Cash flows used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015 included the cash received from the acquisition of the Tulsa Programs ($160.0 million) offset by the acquisitions of GE ($65.0 million) and NAAS ($43.7 million) and the working capital finalization of the acquisition of Primus ($13.0 million).
Cash flows provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, were $32.5 million, compared to cash flows used in financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, of $395.2 million. Cash flows provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, included additional borrowings on our Credit Facility (as defined below) to fund the acquisition of Fairchild and to fund operations. Cash flows used in financing activities for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, included the redemption of the 2018 Notes, settlement of the Convertible Senior Subordinated Notes ("Convertible Notes") redemptions and the purchase of our common stock ($184.4 million), offset by the issuance of the 2022 Notes.
As of March 31, 2016, $834.3 million was available under the Company's existing credit agreement ("Credit Facility").  On March 31, 2016, an aggregate amount of approximately $140.0 million in outstanding borrowing and approximately $25.7 million in letters of credit were outstanding under the Credit Facility, all of which were accruing interest at LIBOR plus applicable basis points totaling 2.00% per annum. Amounts repaid under the Credit Facility may be reborrowed.
On March 28, 2016, we entered into a Purchase Agreement ("Receivables Purchase Agreement") to sell certain accounts receivables to a financial institution without recourse. We are the servicer of the accounts receivable under the Receivables Purchase Agreement. As of March 31, 2016, the maximum amount available under the Receivables Purchase Agreement was $90.0 million. Interest rates are based on LIBOR plus 0.65% -0.70%. As of March 31, 2016, we sold $89.9 million worth of eligible accounts receivable.
In November 2014, the Company amended its receivable securitization facility (the “Securitization Facility”), increasing the purchase limit from $175.0 million to $225.0 million and extending the term through November 2017.
In May 2014, the Company amended its existing Credit Facility with its lenders to (i) to increase the maximum amount allowed for the Securitization Facility and (ii) amend certain other terms and covenants.
In November 2013, the Company amended the Credit Facility with its lenders to (i) provide for a $375.0 million Term Loan with a maturity date of May 14, 2019, (ii) maintain a Revolving Line of Credit under the Credit Facility to $1,000.0 million and increase the accordion feature to $250.0 million, and (iii) amend certain other terms and covenants. The amendment resulted in a more favorable pricing grid and a more streamlined package of covenants and restrictions.
The level of unused borrowing capacity under the Company's Revolving Credit Facility varies from time to time depending in part upon its compliance with financial and other covenants set forth in the related agreement. The Credit Facility contains certain affirmative and negative covenants, including limitations on specified levels of indebtedness to earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, and interest coverage requirements, and includes limitations on, among other things, liens, mergers, consolidations, sales of assets, payment of dividends and incurrence of debt. As of March 31, 2016, the Company was in compliance with all such covenants.
In June 2014, the Company issued the 2022 Notes for $300.0 million in principal amount. The 2022 Notes were sold at 100% of principal amount and have an effective yield of 5.25%. Interest on the 2022 Notes is payable semiannually in cash in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year. We used the net proceeds to redeem the 2018 Notes and pay related fees and expenses. In connection with the issuance of the 2022 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $5.0 million of costs, which were deferred and are being amortized on the effective interest method over the term of the notes.
In February 2013, the Company issued the 2021 Notes for $375.0 million in principal amount. The 2021 Notes were sold at 100% of principal amount and have an effective interest yield of 4.875%. Interest on the 2021 Notes is payable semiannually in cash in arrears on April 1 and October 1 of each year. We used the net proceeds to repay borrowings under our

37


Credit Facility and pay related fees and expenses, and for general corporate purposes. In connection with the issuance of the 2021 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $6.3 million of costs, which were deferred and are being amortized on the effective interest method over the term of the notes.
For further information on the Company's long-term debt, see Note 10 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements".
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2015, we had a net cash inflow of $467.3 million from operating activities, an inflow increase of $332.2 million, compared to a net cash inflow of $135.1 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2014. During fiscal 2015, the increase in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily due to the cash received from legal settlement ($134.7 million), increased receipts from customers and others relating to additional sales from fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014 acquisitions ($110.4 million), an income tax refund ($26.0 million), and decreased disbursements to employees, suppliers and others ($114.9 million) due to timing, offset by increased pension contributions ($66.0 million).
We invested in inventory for new programs and additional production costs for ramp-up activities in support of increasing build rates on several programs and build ahead for the relocation from our largest facilities. During fiscal 2015, inventory build for capitalized pre-production costs on new programs, including the Bombardier Global 7000/8000 and the Embraer E-Jet programs, were $127.0 million and $48.7 million, respectively. Offsetting this inventory build was a provision for forward losses on our long-term contract on the 747-8 program of $152.0 million. Unliquidated progress payments netted against inventory increased $24.9 million due to timing of receipts. Capitalized pre-production costs are expected to continue to increase, while our production is expected to remain consistent over the next few quarters.
Cash flows used in investing ac