Tyson Foods 10-K 2009
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
[X] Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 3, 2009
[ ] Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ________________ to ________________
Commission File No. 001-14704
TYSON FOODS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: Not Applicable
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes [ ] No [X]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes [X] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months. Yes [ ] No [ ]
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. [ ]
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes [ ] No [X]
On March 28, 2009, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock, $0.10 par value (Class A stock), and Class B Common Stock, $0.10 par value (Class B stock), held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $2,902,509,297 and $208,165, respectively. Class B stock is not publicly listed for trade on any exchange or market system. However, Class B stock is convertible into Class A stock on a share-for-share basis, so the market value was calculated based on the market price of Class A stock.
On October 31, 2009, there were 306,647,117 shares of the registrant's Class A stock and 70,021,155 shares of its Class B stock outstanding.
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for the registrant's Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held February 5, 2010, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Founded in 1935, Tyson Foods, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) are the world’s largest meat protein company and the second-largest food production company in the Fortune 500 with one of the most recognized brand names in the food industry. We produce, distribute and market chicken, beef, pork, prepared foods and related allied products. Our operations are conducted in four segments: Chicken, Beef, Pork and Prepared Foods. Some of the key factors influencing our business are customer demand for our products; the ability to maintain and grow relationships with customers and introduce new and innovative products to the marketplace; accessibility of international markets; market prices for our products; the cost of live cattle and hogs, raw materials and grain; and operating efficiencies of our facilities.
We operate a fully vertically integrated poultry production process. Our integrated operations consist of breeding stock, contract growers, feed production, processing, further-processing, marketing and transportation of chicken and related allied products, including animal and pet food ingredients. Through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Cobb-Vantress, Inc. (Cobb), we are one of the leading poultry breeding stock suppliers in the world. Investing in breeding stock research and development allows us to breed into our flocks the characteristics found to be most desirable.
We also process live fed cattle and hogs and fabricate dressed beef and pork carcasses into primal and sub-primal meat cuts, case ready beef and pork and fully-cooked meats. In addition, we derive value from allied products such as hides and variety meats sold to further processors and others.
We produce a wide range of fresh, value-added, frozen and refrigerated food products. Our products are marketed and sold primarily by our sales staff to national and regional grocery retailers, regional grocery wholesalers, meat distributors, warehouse club stores, military commissaries, industrial food processing companies, national and regional chain restaurants or their distributors, international export companies and domestic distributors who serve restaurants, foodservice operations such as plant and school cafeterias, convenience stores, hospitals and other vendors. Additionally, sales to the military and a portion of sales to international markets are made through independent brokers and trading companies.
We have been exploring ways to commercialize our supply of poultry litter and animal fats. In June 2007, we announced a 50/50 joint venture with Syntroleum Corporation, called Dynamic Fuels LLC. Dynamic Fuels LLC will produce renewable synthetic fuels targeting the renewable diesel and jet fuel markets. Construction of production facilities is expected to continue through early 2010, with production targeted soon thereafter.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION OF SEGMENTS
We operate in four segments: Chicken, Beef, Pork and Prepared Foods. The contribution of each segment to net sales and operating income (loss), and the identifiable assets attributable to each segment, are set forth in Note 20, “Segment Reporting” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
DESCRIPTION OF SEGMENTS
Chicken:> Chicken operations include breeding and raising chickens, as well as processing live chickens into fresh, frozen and value-added chicken products and logistics operations to move products through the supply chain. Products are marketed domestically to food retailers, foodservice distributors, restaurant operators and noncommercial foodservice establishments such as schools, hotel chains, healthcare facilities, the military and other food processors, as well as to international markets. It also includes sales from allied products and our chicken breeding stock subsidiary.
Beef:> Beef operations include processing live fed cattle and fabricating dressed beef carcasses into primal and sub-primal meat cuts and case-ready products. This segment also includes sales from allied products such as hides and variety meats, as well as logistics operations to move products through the supply chain. Products are marketed domestically to food retailers, foodservice distributors, restaurant operators and noncommercial foodservice establishments such as schools, hotel chains, healthcare facilities, the military and other food processors, as well as to international markets. Allied products are marketed to manufacturers of pharmaceuticals and technical products.
Pork:> Pork operations include processing live market hogs and fabricating pork carcasses into primal and sub-primal cuts and case-ready products. This segment also includes our live swine group, related allied product processing activities and logistics operations to move products through the supply chain. Products are marketed domestically to food retailers, foodservice distributors, restaurant operators and noncommercial foodservice establishments such as schools, hotel chains, healthcare facilities, the military and other
food processors, as well as to international markets. We sell allied products to pharmaceutical and technical products manufacturers, as well as a limited number of live swine to pork processors.
Prepared Foods:> Prepared Foods operations include manufacturing and marketing frozen and refrigerated food products, as well as logistics operations to move products through the supply chain. Products include pepperoni, bacon, beef and pork pizza toppings, pizza crusts, flour and corn tortilla products, appetizers, prepared meals, ethnic foods, soups, sauces, side dishes, meat dishes and processed meats. Products are marketed domestically to food retailers, foodservice distributors, restaurant operators and noncommercial foodservice establishments such as schools, hotel chains, healthcare facilities, the military and other food processors, as well as to international markets.
RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY
Chicken:> The primary raw materials used in our chicken operations are corn and soybean meal used as feed and live chickens raised primarily by independent contract growers. Our vertically-integrated chicken process begins with the grandparent breeder flocks and ends with broilers for processing. Breeder flocks (i.e., grandparents) are raised to maturity in grandparent growing and laying farms where fertile eggs are produced. Fertile eggs are incubated at the grandparent hatchery and produce pullets (i.e., parents). Pullets are sent to breeder houses, and the resulting eggs are sent to our hatcheries. Once chicks have hatched, they are sent to broiler farms. There, contract growers care for and raise the chicks according to our standards, with advice from our technical service personnel, until the broilers reach the desired processing weight. Adult chickens are transported to processing plants, and finished products are sent to distribution centers, then delivered to customers.
We operate our own feed mills to produce scientifically-formulated feeds. In fiscal 2009, corn and soybean meal were major production costs, representing roughly 45% of our cost of growing a live chicken. In addition to feed ingredients to grow the chickens, we use cooking ingredients, packaging materials and cryogenic agents. We believe our sources of supply for these materials are adequate for our present needs, and we do not anticipate any difficulty in acquiring these materials in the future. While we produce nearly all our inventory of breeder chickens and live broilers, from time-to-time we purchase live, ice-packed or deboned chicken to meet production requirements.
Beef:> The primary raw materials used in our beef operations are live cattle. We do not have facilities of our own to raise cattle but have cattle buyers located throughout cattle producing areas who visit independent feed yards and buy live cattle on the open spot market. These buyers are trained to select high quality animals, and we continually measure their performance. We also enter into various risk-sharing and procurement arrangements with producers to secure a supply of livestock for our facilities. We believe the sources of supply of live cattle are adequate for our present needs.
Pork:> The primary raw materials used in our pork operations are live hogs. The majority of our live hog supply is obtained through various procurement relationships with independent producers. We also employ buyers who purchase hogs on a daily basis, generally a few days before the animals are processed. These buyers are trained to select high quality animals, and we continually measure their performance. We believe the sources of supply of live hogs are adequate for our present needs. Additionally, we raise a number of weanling swine to sell to independent finishers and supply a minimal amount of live swine for our own processing needs.
Prepared Foods:> The primary raw materials used in our prepared foods operations are commodity based raw materials, including chicken, beef, pork, corn, flour and vegetables. Some of these raw materials are provided by the Chicken, Beef and Pork segments, while others may be purchased from numerous suppliers and manufacturers. We believe the sources of supply of raw materials are adequate for our present needs.
Demand for chicken and beef products generally increases during the spring and summer months and generally decreases during the winter months. Pork and prepared foods products generally experience increased demand during the winter months, primarily due to the holiday season, while demand decreases during the spring and summer months.
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. accounted for 13.8% of our fiscal 2009 consolidated sales. Sales to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. were included in the Chicken, Beef, Pork and Prepared Foods segments. Any extended discontinuance of sales to this customer could, if not replaced, have a material impact on our operations. No other single customer or customer group represents more than 10% of fiscal 2009 consolidated sales.
Our food products compete with those of other national and regional food producers and processors and certain prepared food manufacturers. Additionally, our food products compete in markets around the world.
We seek to achieve a leading market position for our products via our principal marketing and competitive strategy, which includes:
Past efforts indicate customer demand can be increased and sustained through application of our marketing strategy, as supported by our distribution systems. The principal competitive elements are price, product safety and quality, brand identification, breadth and depth of the product offering, availability of products, customer service and credit terms.
We exported to more than 90 countries in fiscal 2009. Major export markets include Canada, Central America, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, the Middle East, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam.
We have the following international operations:
We continue to explore growth opportunities in foreign countries. Additional information regarding export sales, long-lived assets located in foreign countries and income (loss) from foreign operations is set forth in Note 20, “Segment Reporting” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
We conduct continuous research and development activities to improve product development, to automate manual processes in our processing plants and growout operations, and to improve chicken breeding stock. In 2007, we opened the Discovery Center, which includes 19 research kitchens and a USDA-inspected pilot plant. The Discovery Center brings new market-leading retail and foodservice products to the customer faster and more effectively.
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND FOOD SAFETY
Our facilities for processing chicken, beef, pork and prepared foods, milling feed and housing live chickens and swine are subject to a variety of federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, which include provisions relating to the discharge of materials into the environment and generally provide for protection of the environment. We believe we are in substantial compliance with such applicable laws and regulations and are not aware of any violations of such laws and regulations likely to result in material penalties or material increases in compliance costs. The cost of compliance with such laws and regulations has not had a material adverse effect on our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position, and except as described below, is not anticipated to have a material adverse effect in the future.
Congress and the United States Environmental Protection Agency are considering various options to control greenhouse gas emissions. It is unclear at this time when or if such options will be finalized, or what the final form may be. Due to the uncertainty surrounding this issue, it is premature to speculate on the specific nature of impacts that imposition of greenhouse gas emission controls would have on us, and whether such impacts would have a material adverse effect.
We work to ensure our products meet high standards of food safety and quality. In addition to our own internal Food Safety and Quality Assurance oversight and review, our chicken, beef, pork and prepared foods products are subject to inspection prior to distribution, primarily by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We are also participants in the United States Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) program and are subject to the Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures and the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.
EMPLOYEES AND LABOR RELATIONS
As of October 3, 2009, we employed approximately 117,000 employees. Approximately 100,000 employees were employed in the United States and 17,000 employees were in foreign countries, primarily China, Mexico and Brazil. Approximately 33,000 employees in the United States were subject to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions, with approximately 6% of those employees included under agreements expiring in fiscal 2010. These agreements expire over periods throughout the next several years. Approximately 7,000 employees in foreign countries were subject to collective bargaining agreements. We believe our overall relations with our workforce are good.
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Our principal marketing objective is to be the primary provider of chicken, beef, pork and prepared foods products for our customers and consumers. As such, we utilize our national distribution system and customer support services to achieve the leading market position for our products. On an ongoing basis, we identify distinct markets and business opportunities through continuous consumer and market research. In addition to supporting strong regional brands across multiple protein lines, we build the Tyson brand primarily through well-defined product-specific advertising and public relations efforts focused toward key consumer targets with specific needs. These efforts are designed to present key Tyson products as everyday solutions to relevant consumer problems thereby gaining adoption into regular eating routines. Further, we use a coordinated mix of activities designed to connect with our customers and consumers on both rational and emotional levels. We utilize our national distribution system and customer support services to achieve the leading market position for our products.
We have the ability to produce and ship fresh, frozen and refrigerated products worldwide. Domestically, our distribution system extends to a broad network of food distributors and is supported by our owned or leased cold storage warehouses, public cold storage facilities and our transportation system. Our distribution centers accumulate fresh and frozen products so we can fill and consolidate less-than-truckload orders into full truckloads, thereby decreasing shipping costs while increasing customer service. In addition, we provide our customers a wide selection of products that do not require large volume orders. Our distribution system enables us to supply large or small quantities of products to meet customer requirements anywhere in the continental United States. Internationally, we utilize both rail and truck refrigerated transportation to domestic ports, where consolidations take place to transport to foreign destinations. We use ocean and air transportation to meet the delivery needs of our foreign customers.
PATENTS AND TRADEMARKS
We have filed a number of patents and trademarks relating to our processes and products that either have been approved or are in the process of application. Because we do a significant amount of brand name and product line advertising to promote our products, we consider the protection of our trademarks to be important to our marketing efforts. We also have developed non-public proprietary information regarding our production processes and other product-related matters. We utilize internal procedures and safeguards to protect the confidentiality of such information and, where appropriate, seek patent and/or trademark protection for the technology we utilize.
Our agreements with customers are generally short-term, primarily due to the nature of our products, industry practices and fluctuations in supply, demand and price for such products. In certain instances where we are selling further processed products to large customers, we may enter into written agreements whereby we will act as the exclusive or preferred supplier to the customer, with pricing terms that are either fixed or variable. Due to volatility of the cost of raw materials, fixed price contracts are generally limited to three months in duration.
AVAILABILITY OF SEC FILINGS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DOCUMENTS ON INTERNET WEBSITE
We maintain an internet website for investors at http://ir.tyson.com. On this website, we make available, free of charge, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to any of those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. Also available on the website for investors are the Corporate Governance Principles, Audit Committee charter, Compensation Committee charter, Governance Committee charter, Nominating Committee charter, Code of Conduct and Whistleblower Policy. Our corporate governance documents are available in print, free of charge to any shareholder who requests them.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS RELEVANT TO FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION FOR THE PURPOSE OF "SAFE HARBOR" PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995
Certain information in this report constitutes forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, current views and estimates of future economic circumstances, industry conditions in domestic and international markets, our performance and financial results, including, without limitation, debt-levels, return on invested capital, value-added product growth, capital expenditures, tax rates, access to foreign markets and dividend policy. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of factors and uncertainties that could cause our actual results and experiences to differ materially from anticipated results and expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements. We wish to caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Among the factors that may cause actual results and experiences to differ from anticipated results and expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are the following: (i) the effect of, or changes in, general economic conditions; (ii) fluctuations in the cost and availability of inputs and raw materials, such as live cattle, live swine, feed grains (including corn and soybean meal) and energy; (iii) market conditions for finished products, including competition from other global and domestic food processors, supply and pricing of competing products and alternative proteins and demand for alternative proteins; (iv) successful rationalization of existing facilities and operating efficiencies of the facilities; (v) risks associated with our commodity trading risk management activities; (vi) access to foreign markets together with foreign economic conditions, including currency fluctuations, import/export restrictions and foreign politics; (vii) outbreak of a livestock disease (such as avian influenza (AI) or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)), which could have an effect on livestock we own, the availability of livestock we purchase, consumer perception of certain protein products or our ability to access certain domestic and foreign markets; (viii) changes in availability and relative costs of labor and contract growers and our ability to maintain good relationships with employees, labor unions, contract growers and independent producers providing us livestock; (ix) issues related to food safety, including costs resulting from product recalls, regulatory compliance and any related claims or litigation; (x) changes in consumer preference and diets and our ability to identify and react to consumer trends; (xi) significant marketing plan changes by large customers or loss of one or more large customers; (xii) adverse results from litigation; (xiii) risks associated with leverage, including cost increases due to rising interest rates or changes in debt ratings or outlook; (xiv) compliance with and changes to regulations and laws (both domestic and foreign), including changes in accounting standards, tax laws, environmental laws and occupational, health and safety laws; (xv) our ability to make effective acquisitions or joint ventures and successfully integrate newly acquired businesses into existing operations; (xvi) effectiveness of advertising and marketing programs; and (xvii) those factors listed under Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
These risks, which should be considered carefully with the information provided elsewhere in this report, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Fluctuations in commodity prices and in the availability of raw materials, especially feed grains, live cattle, live swine and other inputs could negatively impact our earnings.
Our results of operations and financial condition are dependent upon the cost and supply of raw materials such as feed grains, live cattle, live swine, energy and ingredients, as well as the selling prices for our products, many of which are determined by constantly changing market forces of supply and demand over which we have limited or no control. Corn and soybean meal are major production costs in the poultry industry, representing roughly 45% of our cost of growing a chicken in fiscal 2009. As a result, fluctuations in prices for these feed ingredients, which include competing demand for corn and soybean meal for use in the manufacture of renewable energy, can adversely affect our earnings. Production of feed ingredients is affected by, among other things, weather patterns throughout the world, the global level of supply inventories and demand for grains and other feed ingredients, as well as agricultural and energy policies of domestic and foreign governments.
We have cattle under contract at feed yards owned by third parties; however, most of the cattle we process are purchased from independent producers. We have cattle buyers located throughout cattle producing areas who visit feed yards and buy live cattle on the
open spot market. We also enter into various risk-sharing and procurement arrangements with producers who help secure a supply of livestock for daily start-up operations at our facilities. The majority of our live swine supply is obtained through various procurement arrangements with independent producers. We also employ buyers who purchase hogs on a daily basis, generally a few days before the animals are required for processing. In addition, we raise live swine and sell feeder pigs to independent producers for feeding to processing weight and have contract growers feed a minimal amount of company-owned live swine for our own processing needs. Any decrease in the supply of cattle or swine on the spot market could increase the price of these raw materials and further increase per head cost of production due to lower capacity utilization, which could adversely affect our financial results.
Market demand and the prices we receive for our products may fluctuate due to competition from global and domestic food producers and processors.
We face competition from other global and domestic food producers and processors. Some of the factors on which we compete and which may drive demand for our products include:
Demand for our products also is affected by competitors’ promotional spending, the effectiveness of our advertising and marketing programs and the availability or price of competing proteins.
We attempt to obtain prices for our products that reflect, in part, the price we must pay for the raw materials that go into our products. If we are not able to obtain higher prices for our products when the price we pay for raw materials increases, we may be unable to maintain positive margins.
Outbreaks of livestock diseases can adversely impact our ability to conduct our operations and demand for our products.
Demand for our products can be adversely impacted by outbreaks of livestock diseases, which can have a significant impact on our financial results. Efforts are taken to control disease risks by adherence to good production practices and extensive precautionary measures designed to ensure the health of livestock. However, outbreaks of disease and other events, which may be beyond our control, either in our own livestock or cattle and hogs owned by independent producers who sell livestock to us, could significantly affect demand for our products, consumer perceptions of certain protein products, the availability of livestock for purchase by us and our ability to conduct our operations. Moreover, the outbreak of livestock diseases, particularly in our Chicken segment, could have a significant effect on the livestock we own by requiring us to, among other things, destroy any affected livestock. Furthermore, an outbreak of disease could result in governmental restrictions on the import and export of our products to or from our suppliers, facilities or customers. This could also result in negative publicity that may have an adverse effect on our ability to market our products successfully and on our financial results.
We are subject to risks associated with our international operations, which could negatively affect our sales to customers in foreign countries, as well as our operations and assets in such countries.
In fiscal 2009, we exported to more than 90 countries. Major export markets include Canada, Central America, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, the Middle East, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. Our export sales for fiscal 2009 totaled $2.7 billion. In addition, we had approximately $329 million of long-lived assets located in foreign countries, primarily Brazil, China and Mexico, at the end of fiscal 2009. In fiscal 2009, approximately 3% of the loss from continuing operations before income taxes and minority interest was from foreign operations.
As a result, we are subject to various risks and uncertainties relating to international sales and operations, including:
Negative consequences relating to these risks and uncertainties could jeopardize or limit our ability to transact business in one or more of those markets where we operate or in other developing markets and could adversely affect our financial results.
We depend on the availability of, and good relations with, our employees.
We have approximately 117,000 employees, of whom approximately 40,000 are covered by collective bargaining agreements or are members of labor unions. Our operations depend on the availability and relative costs of labor and maintaining good relations with employees and the labor unions. If we fail to maintain good relations with our employees or with the unions, we may experience labor strikes or work stoppages, which could adversely affect our financial results.
We depend on contract growers and independent producers to supply us with livestock.
We contract primarily with independent contract growers to raise the live chickens processed in our poultry operations. A majority of our cattle and hogs are purchased from independent producers who sell livestock to us under marketing contracts or on the open market. If we do not attract and maintain contracts with growers or maintain marketing relationships with independent producers, our production operations could be negatively affected.
If our products become contaminated, we may be subject to product liability claims and product recalls.
Our products may be subject to contamination by disease-producing organisms or pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and generic E. coli. These pathogens are found generally in the environment; therefore, there is a risk they, as a result of food processing, could be present in our products. These pathogens also can be introduced to our products as a result of improper handling at the further processing, foodservice or consumer level. These risks may be controlled, but may not be eliminated, by adherence to good manufacturing practices and finished product testing. We have little, if any, control over proper handling procedures once our products have been shipped for distribution. Even an inadvertent shipment of contaminated products may be a violation of law and may lead to increased risk of exposure to product liability claims, product recalls (which may not entirely mitigate the risk of product liability claims), increased scrutiny and penalties, including injunctive relief and plant closings, by federal and state regulatory agencies, and adverse publicity, which could exacerbate the associated negative consumer reaction. Any of these occurrences may have an adverse effect on our financial results.
Our operations are subject to general risks of litigation.
We are involved on an on-going basis in litigation arising in the ordinary course of business or otherwise. Trends in litigation may include class actions involving consumers, shareholders, employees or injured persons, and claims relating to commercial, labor, employment, antitrust, securities or environmental matters. Litigation trends and the outcome of litigation cannot be predicted with certainty and adverse litigation trends and outcomes could adversely affect our financial results.
Our level of indebtedness and the terms of our indebtedness could negatively impact our business and liquidity position.
Our indebtedness, including borrowings under our revolving credit facility, may increase from time to time for various reasons, including fluctuations in operating results, working capital needs, capital expenditures and possible acquisitions, joint ventures or other significant initiatives. Our consolidated indebtedness level could adversely affect our business because:
Our revolving credit facility contains affirmative and negative covenants that, among other things, may limit or restrict our ability to: create liens and encumbrances; incur debt; merge, dissolve, liquidate or consolidate; make acquisitions and investments; dispose of or transfer assets; pay dividends or make other payments in respect of our capital stock; amend material documents; change the nature of our business; make certain payments of debt; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; and enter into sale/leaseback or hedging transactions, in each case, subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. If availability under this facility is less than the greater of 15% of the commitments and $150 million, we will be required to maintain a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio.
Our 10.50% Senior notes due March 2014 also contain affirmative and negative covenants that, among other things, may limit or restrict our ability to: incur additional debt and issue preferred stock; make certain investments and restricted payments; create liens; create restrictions on distributions from restricted subsidiaries; engage in specified sales of assets and subsidiary stock; enter into transactions with affiliates; enter new lines of business; engage in consolidation, mergers and acquisitions; and engage in certain sale/leaseback transactions.
An impairment in the carrying value of goodwill could negatively impact our consolidated results of operations and net worth.
Goodwill is initially recorded at fair value and is not amortized, but is reviewed for impairment at least annually or more frequently if impairment indicators are present. In assessing the recoverability of goodwill, we make estimates and assumptions about sales, operating margin growth rates and discount rates based on our budgets, business plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows and marketplace data. There are inherent uncertainties related to these factors and management’s judgment in applying these factors. Goodwill valuations have been calculated using an income approach based on the present value of future cash flows of each reporting unit. Under the income approach, we are required to make various judgmental assumptions about appropriate discount rates. The recent disruptions in global credit and other financial markets and deterioration of economic conditions, could, among other things, cause us to increase the discount rate used in the goodwill valuations. We could be required to evaluate the recoverability of goodwill prior to the annual assessment if we experience disruptions to the business, unexpected significant declines in operating results, divestiture of a significant component of our business or sustained market capitalization declines. These types of events and the resulting analyses could result in goodwill impairment charges in the future. Impairment charges could substantially affect our financial results in the periods of such charges. In fiscal 2009, we recorded a non-cash partial impairment of $560 million of our beef reporting unit’s goodwill. As of October 3, 2009, we had $1.9 billion of goodwill, which represented approximately 18.1% of total assets.
Domestic and international government regulations could impose material costs.
Our operations are subject to extensive federal, state and foreign laws and regulations by authorities that oversee food safety standards and processing, packaging, storage, distribution, advertising, labeling and export of our products. Our facilities for processing chicken, beef, pork, prepared foods and milling feed and for housing live chickens and swine are subject to a variety of international, federal, state and local laws relating to the protection of the environment, including provisions relating to the discharge of materials into the environment, and to the health and safety of our employees. Our chicken, beef and pork processing facilities are participants in the HACCP program and are subject to the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. In addition, our products are subject to inspection prior to distribution, primarily by the USDA and the FDA. Loss of or failure to obtain necessary
permits and registrations could delay or prevent us from meeting current product demand, introducing new products, building new facilities or acquiring new businesses and could adversely affect operating results. Additionally, we are routinely subject to new or modified laws, regulations and accounting standards, such as country of origin labeling (COOL) requirements. If we are found to be out of compliance with applicable laws and regulations in these or other areas, we could be subject to civil remedies, including fines, injunctions, recalls or asset seizures, as well as potential criminal sanctions, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial results.
A material acquisition, joint venture or other significant initiative could affect our operations and financial condition.
We have recently completed acquisitions and entered into joint venture agreements and periodically evaluate potential acquisitions, joint ventures and other initiatives (collectively, “transactions”), and we may seek to expand our business through the acquisition of companies, processing plants, technologies, products and services, which could include material transactions. A material transaction may involve a number of risks, including:
We may not be able to address these risks and successfully develop these acquired companies or businesses into profitable units. If we are unable to do this, such expansion could adversely affect our financial results.
Market fluctuations could negatively impact our operating results as we hedge certain transactions.
Our business is exposed to fluctuating market conditions. We use derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to various market risks including changes in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign exchange rates. We hold certain positions, primarily in grain and livestock futures, that do not qualify as hedges for financial reporting purposes. These positions are marked to fair value, and the unrealized gains and losses are reported in earnings at each reporting date. Therefore, losses on these contracts will adversely affect our reported operating results. While these contracts reduce our exposure to changes in prices for commodity products, the use of such instruments may ultimately limit our ability to benefit from favorable commodity prices.
Deterioration of economic conditions could negatively impact our business.
Our business may be adversely affected by changes in national or global economic conditions, including inflation, interest rates, availability of capital markets, consumer spending rates, energy availability and costs (including fuel surcharges) and the effects of governmental initiatives to manage economic conditions. Any such changes could adversely affect the demand for our products, or the cost and availability of our needed raw materials, cooking ingredients and packaging materials, thereby negatively affecting our financial results.
The recent disruptions in global credit and other financial markets and deterioration of economic conditions, could, among other things:
Changes in consumer preference could negatively impact our business.
The food industry in general is subject to changing consumer trends, demands and preferences. Trends within the food industry change often, and failure to identify and react to changes in these trends could lead to, among other things, reduced demand and price reductions for our products, and could have an adverse effect on our financial results.
The loss of one or more of our largest customers could negatively impact our business.
Our business could suffer significant set backs in sales and operating income if our customers’ plans and/or markets should change significantly, or if we lost one or more of our largest customers, including, for example, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., which accounted for 13.8% of our sales in fiscal 2009. Many of our agreements with our customers are generally short-term, primarily due to the nature of our products, industry practice and the fluctuation in demand and price for our products.
The consolidation of customers could negatively impact our business.
Our customers, such as supermarkets, warehouse clubs and food distributors, have consolidated in recent years, and consolidation is expected to continue throughout the United States and in other major markets. These consolidations have produced large, sophisticated customers with increased buying power who are more capable of operating with reduced inventories, opposing price increases, and demanding lower pricing, increased promotional programs and specifically tailored products. These customers also may use shelf space currently used for our products for their own private label products. Because of these trends, our volume growth could slow or we may need to lower prices or increase promotional spending for our products, any of which would adversely affect our financial results.
Extreme factors or forces beyond our control could negatively impact our business.
Natural disasters, fire, bioterrorism, pandemic or extreme weather, including droughts, floods, excessive cold or heat, hurricanes or other storms, could impair the health or growth of livestock or interfere with our operations due to power outages, fuel shortages, damage to our production and processing facilities or disruption of transportation channels, among other things. Any of these factors, as well as disruptions in our information systems, could have an adverse effect on our financial results.
Our renewable energy ventures and other initiatives might not be as successful as we expect.
We have been exploring ways to commercialize animal fats and other by-products from our operations, as well as the poultry litter of our contract growers, to generate energy and other value-added products. For example, in fiscal 2007, we announced the formation of Dynamic Fuels LLC, a joint venture with Syntroleum Corporation. We will continue to explore other ways to commercialize opportunities outside our core business, such as renewable energy and other technologically-advanced platforms. These initiatives might not be as financially successful as we initially announced or would expect due to factors that include, but are not limited to, possible discontinuance of tax credits, competing energy prices, failure to operate at the volumes anticipated, abilities of our joint venture partners and our limited experience in some of these new areas.
Members of the Tyson family can exercise significant control.
Members of the Tyson family beneficially own, in the aggregate, 99.97% of our outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, $0.10 par value (Class B stock) and 2.36% of our outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock, $0.10 par value (Class A stock), giving them control of approximately 70% of the total voting power of our outstanding voting stock. In addition, three members of the Tyson family serve on our Board of Directors. As a result, members of the Tyson family have the ability to exert substantial influence or actual control over our management and affairs and over substantially all matters requiring action by our stockholders, including amendments to our restated certificate of incorporation and by-laws, the election and removal of directors, any proposed merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and other corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership may also delay or prevent a change in control otherwise favored by our other stockholders and could depress our stock price. Additionally, as a result of the Tyson family’s significant ownership of our outstanding voting stock, we have relied on the “controlled company” exemption from certain corporate governance requirements of the New York Stock Exchange. Pursuant to these exemptions, our compensation committee, which is made up of independent directors, does not have sole authority to determine the compensation of our executive officers, including our chief executive officer.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We have sales offices and production and distribution operations in the following states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin. Additionally, we, either directly or through our subsidiaries, have sales offices, facilities or participate in joint venture operations in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and Venezuela.
Chicken:> Chicken processing plants include various phases of slaughtering, dressing, cutting, packaging, deboning and further-processing. We also have 17 pet food operations, which are part of the Chicken processing plants. The blending mills, feed mills and broiler hatcheries have sufficient capacity to meet the needs of the chicken growout operations.
Beef:> Beef plants include various phases of slaughtering live cattle and fabricating beef products. Some also treat and tan hides. The Beef segment includes three case-ready operations that share facilities with the Pork segment. One of the beef facilities contains a tallow refinery. Carcass facilities reduce live cattle to dressed carcass form. Processing facilities conduct fabricating operations to produce boxed beef and allied products.
Pork:> Pork plants include various phases of slaughtering live hogs and fabricating pork products and allied products. The Pork segment includes three case-ready operations that share facilities with the Beef segment.
Prepared Foods:> Prepared Foods plants process fresh and frozen chicken, beef, pork and other raw materials into pizza toppings, branded and processed meats, appetizers, prepared meals, ethnic foods, soups, sauces, side dishes, pizza crusts, flour and corn tortilla products and meat dishes.
We believe our present facilities are generally adequate and suitable for our current purposes; however, seasonal fluctuations in inventories and production may occur as a reaction to market demands for certain products. We regularly engage in construction and other capital improvement projects intended to expand capacity and improve the efficiency of our processing and support facilities.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Refer to the discussion of our certain legal proceedings pending against us under Part II, Item 8, Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 22: “Contingencies,” which discussion is incorporated herein by reference. Listed below are certain additional legal proceedings for which we are involved.
On October 23, 2001, a putative class action lawsuit styled R. Lynn Thompson, et al. vs. Tyson Foods, Inc. was filed in the District Court for Mayes County, Oklahoma by three property owners on behalf of all owners of lakefront property on Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. Simmons Foods, Inc. and Peterson Farms, Inc. also are defendants. The plaintiffs allege the defendants’ operations diminished the water quality in the lake thereby interfering with the plaintiffs’ use and enjoyment of their properties. The plaintiffs
sought injunctive relief and an unspecified amount of compensatory damages, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees and costs. While the District Court certified a class, on October 4, 2005, the Court of Civil Appeals of the State of Oklahoma reversed, holding the plaintiffs’ claims were not suitable for disposition as a class action. This decision was upheld by the Oklahoma Supreme Court and the case was remanded to the District Court with instructions that the matter proceed only on behalf of the three named plaintiffs. Plaintiffs seek injunctive relief, restitution and compensatory and punitive damages in an unspecified amount in excess of $10,000. We and the other defendants have denied liability and asserted various defenses. Defendants have requested a trial date, but the court has not yet scheduled the matter for trial.
In 2004, representatives of our subsidiary, Tyson Fresh Meats, Inc. (“TFM”), met with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“USEPA”) staff to discuss alleged wastewater and late report filing violations under the Clean Water Act relating to the 2002 Second and Final Consent Decree that governed compliance requirements for TFM’s Dakota City, Nebraska, facility. TFM vigorously disputed these allegations. The U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), on behalf of USEPA, recently requested that TFM enter into a tolling agreement concerning possible civil penalties and injunctive relief for Clean Water Act violations, which was executed in July 2008, and enter into negotiations with DOJ and USEPA regarding a potential settlement of this matter. Pursuant to negotiations with DOJ and USEPA, a settlement in principal was reached on December 30, 2008, which would require the payment of $2,026,500 in penalties. On August 20, 2009 a Joint Stipulation Motion was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Nebraska documenting the settlement agreement. The Court approved the settlement on August 31, 2009. The penalties were paid by TFM on September 15, 2009, and the matter was resolved.
On January 9, 2003, we received a notice of liability letter from Union Pacific Railroad Company (“Union Pacific”) relating to our alleged contributions of waste oil to the Double Eagle Refinery Superfund Site in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. On August 22, 2006, the United States and the State of Oklahoma filed a lawsuit styled United States of America, et al. v. Union Pacific Railroad Co. in the United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma seeking more than $22 million (the amount sought has subsequently increased to more than $30 million) to remediate the Double Eagle site. Certain Tyson entities joined a “potentially responsible parties” group on October 31, 2006. A settlement between the “potentially responsible parties” group, the United States, and the State of Oklahoma was reached and the Tyson entities paid $625,586 (for 135,997 alleged gallons of waste oil) into escrow towards the settlement of the matter. In furtherance of finalizing the settlement, on June 20, 2008 the DOJ filed a complaint styled United States of America, et al. v. Albert Investment Co., Inc. et al. against numerous alleged responsible parties, including various Tyson entities (the “Litigation”). A proposed Consent Decree addressing all alleged liability of Tyson for the site was lodged on June 27, 2008. On August 15, 2008, Union Pacific submitted to the United States its Comments and Objections to the proposed Consent Decree. In its Comments and Objections, Union Pacific claimed that the Tyson entities' alleged gallons of waste oil should be 160,819 rather than the 135,997 gallons set forth in the proposed Consent Decree. On October 10, 2008, Union Pacific initiated litigation to challenge the proposed Consent Decree by filing a motion to intervene in the Litigation, which the court denied. Union Pacific appealed this decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. The "potentially responsible parties" group and other parties filed briefs in the Tenth Circuit, and oral arguments occurred on September 21, 2009. If the proposed Consent Decree is entered, the escrowed amount will be paid to the United States and the State of Oklahoma.
In November 2006, the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors engaged outside counsel to conduct a review of certain payments that had been made by one of our subsidiaries in Mexico, including payments to individuals employed by Mexican governmental bodies. The payments were discontinued in November 2006. Although the review process is ongoing, we believe the amount of these payments is immaterial, and we do not expect any material impact to our financial statements. We have contacted the Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice to inform them of our review and preliminary findings and are cooperating fully with these governmental authorities.
Since 2003, nine lawsuits have been brought against Tyson and several other poultry companies by approximately 150 plaintiffs in Washington County, Arkansas Circuit Court (Green v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., Bible v. Tyson Foods, Inc., Beal v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., McWhorter v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., McConnell v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., Carroll v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., Belew v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., Gonzalez v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al., and Rasco v. Tyson Foods, Inc., et al.) alleging that the land application of poultry litter caused arsenic and pathogenic mold and fungi contamination of the air, soil and water in and around Prairie Grove, Arkansas. In addition to the poultry company defendants, plaintiffs sued Alpharma, the manufacturer of a feed ingredient containing an organic arsenic compound that has been used in the broiler industry. Plaintiffs are seeking recovery for several types of personal injuries, including several forms of cancer. On August 2, 2006, the Court granted summary judgment in favor of Tyson and the other poultry company defendants in the first case to go to trial and denied summary judgment as to Alpharma. The case was tried against Alpharma and the jury returned a verdict in favor of Alpharma. Plaintiffs appealed the summary judgment in favor of the poultry company defendants and the Court stayed the remaining eight lawsuits pending the appeal. On May 8, 2008, the Arkansas Supreme Court reversed the summary judgment in favor of the poultry company defendants. The remanded trial in this case against the poultry company defendants began on April 30, 2009 and on May 14, 2009, the jury returned a verdict in favor of us and the other poultry company defendants. On July 13, 2009, plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal to the Arkansas Supreme Court.
Other Matters:> We have approximately 117,000 employees and, at any time, have various employment practices matters outstanding. In the aggregate, these matters are significant to the Company, and we devote significant resources to managing employment issues. Additionally, we are subject to other lawsuits, investigations and claims (some of which involve substantial amounts) arising out of the conduct of our business. While the ultimate results of these matters cannot be determined, they are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations or financial position.
ITEM 4. SUBMISSION OF MATTERS TO A VOTE OF SECURITY HOLDERS
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE COMPANY
Our Officers serve one year terms from the date of their election, or until their successors are appointed and qualified. No family relationships exist among these officers. The name, title, age and year of initial election to executive office of our executive officers are listed below:
Richard A. Greubel, Jr. was appointed Group Vice President and International President in May 2007, after serving as Group Vice President, International since August 2006, and President and Managing Director for Monsanto’s Brazil business since 2001.
Craig J. Hart was appointed Senior Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer in September 2004 after serving as Vice President of Special Projects since 2001. Mr. Hart was initially employed by IBP in 1978.
Kenneth J. Kimbro was appointed Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer in 2001. Mr. Kimbro was initially employed by IBP in 1995.
Dennis Leatherby was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in June 2008 after serving as Senior Vice President, Finance and Treasurer since 1998. He also served as Interim Chief Financial Officer from July 2004 to June 2006. Mr. Leatherby was initially employed by the Company in 1990.
James V. Lochner was appointed Chief Operating Officer on November 19, 2009, after serving as Senior Group Vice President, Fresh Meats and Margin Optimization since May 2006, Senior Group Vice President, Margin Optimization, Purchasing and Logistics since October 2005, Group Vice President, Purchasing, Travel, and Aviation since November 2004 and Group Vice President, Fresh Meats since 2001. Mr. Lochner was initially employed by IBP in 1983.
Donnie Smith was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer on November 19, 2009, after serving as Senior Group Vice President, Poultry and Prepared Foods since January 2009, Group Vice President of Consumer Products since January 2008, Group Vice President of Logistics and Operations Services since April 2007, Senior Vice President Information Systems, Purchasing and Distribution since May 2006, Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer since November 2005, and Senior Vice President, Supply Chain Management since October 2001. Mr. Smith was initially employed by the Company in 1980.
David L. Van Bebber was appointed Executive Vice President and General Counsel in May 2008, after serving as Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel since September 2004 and Senior Vice President, Legal Services since November 2000. Mr. Van Bebber was initially employed by Lane Processing in 1982. Lane Processing was acquired by the Company in 1986.
Jeffrey D. Webster was appointed Group Vice President, Renewable Products in November 2008, after serving as Senior Vice President, Renewable Products since April 2006, Senior Vice President, Strategy and Development since June 2005 and Vice President, Strategy since January 2004. Mr. Webster was initially employed by the Company in 2004.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
We have issued and outstanding two classes of capital stock, Class A stock and Class B stock. Holders of Class B stock may convert such stock into Class A stock on a share-for-share basis. Holders of Class B stock are entitled to 10 votes per share while holders of Class A stock are entitled to one vote per share on matters submitted to shareholders for approval. As of October 31, 2009, there were approximately 34,000 holders of record of our Class A stock and 10 holders of record of our Class B stock, excluding holders in the security position listings held by nominees.
Cash dividends cannot be paid to holders of Class B stock unless they are simultaneously paid to holders of Class A stock. The per share amount of the cash dividend paid to holders of Class B stock cannot exceed 90% of the cash dividend simultaneously paid to holders of Class A stock. We have paid uninterrupted quarterly dividends on common stock each year since 1977 and expect to continue our cash dividend policy during fiscal 2010. In both fiscal 2009 and 2008, the annual dividend rate for Class A stock was $0.16 per share and the annual dividend rate for Class B stock was $0.144 per share.
The Class A stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TSN.” No public trading market currently exists for the Class B stock. The high and low closing sales prices of our Class A stock for each quarter of fiscal 2009 and 2008 are represented in the table below.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The table below provides information regarding our purchases of Class A stock during the periods indicated.
The following graph shows a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns for our Class A stock, the S&P 500 Index and a group of peer companies described below.
The total cumulative return on investment (change in the year-end stock price plus reinvested dividends), which is based on the stock price or composite index at the end of fiscal 2004, is presented for each of the periods for the Company, the S&P 500 Index and a peer group. The peer group includes: Campbell Soup Company, ConAgra Foods, Inc., General Mills, Inc., H.J. Heinz Co., Hershey Foods Corp., Hormel Foods Corp., Kellogg Co., McCormick & Co., Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation, Sara Lee Corp. and Smithfield Foods, Inc. The graph compares the performance of the Company with that of the S&P 500 Index and peer group, with the investment weighted on market capitalization.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
FIVE-YEAR FINANCIAL SUMMARY
Notes to Five-Year Financial Summary
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY
We are the world’s largest meat protein company and the second-largest food production company in the Fortune 500 with one of the most recognized brand names in the food industry. We produce, distribute and market chicken, beef, pork, prepared foods and related allied products. Our operations are conducted in four segments: Chicken, Beef, Pork and Prepared Foods. Some of the key factors influencing our business are customer demand for our products; the ability to maintain and grow relationships with customers and introduce new and innovative products to the marketplace; accessibility of international markets; market prices for our products; the cost of live cattle and hogs, raw materials and grain; and operating efficiencies of our facilities.
FISCAL 2010 OUTLOOK
SUMMARY OF RESULTS – CONTINUING OPERATIONS
We operate in four segments: Chicken, Beef, Pork and Prepared Foods. The following table is a summary of sales and operating income (loss), which is how we measure segment income (loss). Segment results exclude the results of our discontinued operation, Lakeside.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Our cash needs for working capital, capital expenditures and growth opportunities are expected to be met with current cash on hand, cash flows provided by operating activities, or short-term borrowings. Based on our current expectations, we believe our liquidity and capital resources will be sufficient to operate our business. However, we may take advantage of opportunities to generate additional liquidity or refinance through capital market transactions. The amount, nature and timing of any capital market transactions will depend on our operating performance and other circumstances, our then-current commitments and obligations; the amount, nature and timing of our capital requirements; any limitations imposed by our current credit arrangements; and overall market conditions.