Union Pacific 10-K 2006
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 1-6075
UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
1400 DOUGLAS STREET, OMAHA, NEBRASKA
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrants telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes X No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No X
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes X No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer ¨ Non-accelerated filer ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes No X
As of June 30, 2005, the aggregate market value of the registrants Common Stock held by non-affiliates (using the New York Stock Exchange closing price) was $16,786,219,745.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrants Common Stock as of January 31, 2005, was 267,584,487.
Documents Incorporated by Reference Portions of the registrants definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 4, 2006, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report. The registrants Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A.
UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION
Item 1. Business
Union Pacific Corporation operates primarily as a rail transportation provider through Union Pacific Railroad Company, its principal operating company. The largest railroad in North America, Union Pacific Railroad Company, serves 23 states across the western two-thirds of the United States. Union Pacific Corporation was incorporated in Utah in 1969 and maintains its principal executive offices at 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179. The telephone number at that address is (402) 544-5000. The common stock of Union Pacific Corporation is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol UNP.
For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to UPC, Corporation, we, us, and our shall mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which we separately refer to as UPRR or the Railroad.
Our operating results include Southern Pacific Rail Corporation, which we acquired in October 1996. During 1997, the Railroad acquired an ownership interest in a consortium that was granted a 50-year concession to operate the Pacific-North and Chihuahua Pacific lines in Mexico. The Railroad made an additional investment in the consortium in 1999 and currently holds a 26% ownership interest. In November 2003, we completed the sale of our entire trucking interest through an underwritten initial public offering of all the common stock of Overnite Corporation, leaving the Railroad as our only operating segment and the principal source of our revenues.
Available Information Our Internet website is www.up.com. We make available free of charge on our website (under the Investors caption link) our annual reports on Form 10-K; our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; our current reports on Form 8-K; our proxy statements; Forms 3, 4, and 5, filed on behalf of directors and executive officers; and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We also make available on our website previously filed SEC reports and exhibits via a link to EDGAR on the SECs Internet site at www.sec.gov. Additionally, our corporate governance materials, including Board Committee charters, governance guidelines and policies, and codes of conduct and ethics for directors, officers, and employees are on our website. From time to time, the corporate governance materials on our website may be updated as necessary to comply with rules issued by the SEC and the NYSE or as desirable to promote the effective and efficient governance of our company. Any security holder wishing to receive, without charge, a copy of any of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials should send a written request to: Secretary, Union Pacific Corporation, 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179.
We have included the CEO and CFO certifications regarding our public disclosure required by Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 as Exhibits 31(a) and (b) to this report. Additionally, we filed with the NYSE the CEOs certification regarding our compliance with the NYSEs Corporate Governance Listing Standards (Listing Standards) pursuant to Section 303A.12(a) of the Listing Standards, which was dated May 23, 2005, and indicated that the CEO was not aware of any violations of the Listing Standards by the Corporation.
References to our website address in this report, including references in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be deemed, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report.
The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable operating segment. Although revenue is analyzed by commodity, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the
integrated nature of the rail network. The Consolidated Financial Statements for 2003 also include our discontinued trucking operations, consisting of Overnite Transportation Company (OTC) and Motor Cargo Industries, Inc. (Motor Cargo). We reclassified our trucking segment as a discontinued operation in 2003, reflecting the disposition of these assets. Additional information regarding our operations is presented in Selected Financial Data, Item 6; Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7; and the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.
Agricultural Transporting agricultural products, including whole grains, commodities produced from these grains, and food and beverage products, provided 15% of the Railroads 2005 commodity revenue. With access to most major grain markets, the Railroad provides a critical link between the Midwest and western producing areas and export terminals in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and Gulf ports, as well as Mexico. Unit trains of grain efficiently shuttle between producers and export terminals or domestic markets. UPRR also serves significant domestic markets, including grain processors, animal feeders, and ethanol producers in the Midwest, West, South, and Rocky Mountain states. Primary food commodities consist of a variety of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and beverages, which are moved to major U.S. population centers for consumption. Express Lane, our premium perishables service that moves fruits and vegetables from the PNW and California with priority service to destinations in the East, competes with the trucking industry. We transport frozen meat and poultry to the West Coast ports for export, while beverages, primarily beer, enter the U.S. from Mexico.
Automotive UPRR is the largest automotive carrier west of the Mississippi River, serving seven vehicle assembly plants and distributing imported vehicles from six West Coast ports and Houston. The Railroad off-loads finished vehicles at 38 vehicle distribution centers for delivery by truck to all major western U.S. cities. In addition to transporting finished vehicles, UPRR provides expedited handling of automobile parts in both boxcars and intermodal containers to several assembly plants, some of which are in Mexico. The Railroad carries automobile materials bound for assembly plants in Mexico, the U.S., and Canada and transports finished vehicles from manufacturing facilities in Mexico. In 2005, transportation of finished vehicles and automobile materials accounted for 10% of the Railroads total commodity revenue.
Chemicals Transporting chemicals provided 14% of UPRRs 2005 commodity revenue. The Railroads franchise enables it to serve the chemical producing areas along the Gulf Coast, as well as the Rocky Mountain region. More than two-thirds of the chemicals business consists of liquid and dry chemicals, plastics, and liquid petroleum products. In addition to transporting plastics, customers also leverage UPRRs industry-leading storage-in-transit yards for intermediate storage of plastic resins. Soda ash shipments originate in southwestern Wyoming and California and are consumed primarily in glass producing markets in the East, the West, and abroad. Fertilizer movements originate primarily in the Gulf Coast region, as well as the West and Canada, bound for major agricultural users in the Midwest and the western U.S.
Energy Coal transportation accounted for 20% of UPRRs 2005 commodity revenue. The Railroads geographic network allows it to transport coal destined for utilities and industrial facilities in 27 states, as well as to the Gulf and rail/barge/ship facilities on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and the Great Lakes. UPRR serves mines located in the Southern Powder River Basin of Wyoming (SPRB), Colorado, Utah, southern Wyoming, and southern Illinois. SPRB coal represents the largest growth segment of the market, as utilities continue to favor its lower cost and low-sulfur content. The Railroad also carries high-BTU, low-sulfur coal from Colorado and Utah for export to Mexico.
Industrial Products The Railroads extensive network enables the industrial products group to move numerous commodities between thousands of origin and destination points throughout North America. Lumber shipments originate primarily in the PNW and Canada for destinations throughout the United States for new home construction and repair and remodeling markets. Commercial and highway construction drive shipments of steel and construction products, consisting of rock, cement, and roofing. Paper and consumer goods, including furniture and appliances, are shipped to major metropolitan areas for consumers. Nonferrous metals and industrial minerals are moved for industrial manufacturing. In addition, the Railroad provides efficient and safe transportation for government entities and waste companies. In 2005, transporting industrial products provided 22% of the Railroads total commodity revenue.
Intermodal UPRRs intermodal business, which represents 19% of the Railroads 2005 commodity revenue, comprises international, domestic, and premium shipments. International business consists of international container traffic that arrives at West Coast ports via steamship for destinations throughout the United States. Domestic business includes domestic container and trailer traffic for intermodal marketing companies (primarily shipper agents and consolidators) and truckload carriers. Less-than-truckload and package carriers with time-sensitive business requirements account for the majority of our premium service.
Working Capital We currently have, and historically have had, a working capital deficit, which is common in our industry and does not indicate a lack of liquidity or financial stability. We maintain adequate resources to meet our daily cash requirements, and we have sufficient financial capacity to satisfy our current liabilities.
Competition We are subject to competition from other railroads, motor carriers, and barge operators. Our main rail competitor is Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation. Its rail subsidiary, BNSF Railway Company, operates parallel routes in many of our main traffic corridors. In addition, we operate in corridors served by other railroads and motor carriers. Motor carrier competition is particularly strong for five of our six commodity groups. Because of the proximity of our routes to major inland and Gulf Coast waterways, barge competition can be particularly effective, especially for grain and bulk commodities. In addition to price competition, we face competition with respect to transit times and quality and reliability of service. While we must build or acquire and maintain our rail system, trucks and barges are able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities. Any future improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the costs of these alternative modes of transportation, or legislation releasing motor carriers from their size or weight limitations, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Equipment Suppliers We depend on two key domestic suppliers of locomotives. Due to the capital intensive nature and sophistication of this equipment, high barriers to entry face potential new suppliers. Therefore, if one
of these domestic suppliers discontinues manufacturing locomotives, we could experience a significant cost increase and risk reduced availability of the locomotives that are necessary to our operations.
Employees Approximately 87% of our 49,747 full-time-equivalent employees are represented by 14 major rail unions. Under the collective bargaining round that began on November 1, 1999, all unions reached new labor agreements with the railroads in 2005. In January 2005, we began the next round of negotiations with the unions. Existing agreements remain in effect and will continue to remain in effect until new agreements are reached or the Railway Labor Acts procedures (which include mediation, cooling-off periods, and the possibility of Presidential intervention) are exhausted. Contract negotiations with the various unions generally take place over an extended period of time, and we rarely experience work stoppages during negotiations. The current agreements provide for periodic cost of living wage increases until new agreements are reached.
Discontinued Operations In November 2003, we completed the sale of our entire trucking interest, and, as a result, included the operations of OTC and Motor Cargo in discontinued operations (see note 13 to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8).
GOVERNMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Governmental Regulation Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state, and local regulations, generally applicable to all businesses (see also the discussion of certain regulatory proceedings in Legal Proceedings, Item 3).
The operations of the Railroad are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board (STB) of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) and other federal and state agencies. The operations of the Railroad are also subject to the regulations of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) of the DOT. The STB has jurisdiction over rates charged on certain regulated rail traffic; freight car compensation; transfer, extension, or abandonment of rail lines; and acquisition of control of rail common carriers.
DOT and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, along with other federal agencies, have jurisdiction over certain aspects of safety, movement of hazardous materials, movement and disposal of hazardous waste, emissions requirements, and equipment standards. Various state and local agencies have jurisdiction over disposal of hazardous waste and seek to regulate movement of hazardous materials in areas not otherwise preempted by federal law.
Environmental Regulation We are subject to extensive federal and state environmental statutes and regulations pertaining to public health and the environment. The statutes and regulations are administered and monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by various state environmental agencies. The primary laws affecting our operations are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, regulating the management and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, regulating the cleanup of contaminated properties; the Clean Air Act, regulating air emissions; and the Clean Water Act, regulating waste water discharges.
Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Critical Accounting Policies Environmental, Item 7.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
We Must Manage Significant Demand for Our Services on Limited Network Capacity Due to continuing demand for rail service and capacity constraints, we may experience network difficulties, including congestion and reduced velocity, which may compromise the level of service we provide to our customers. This level of demand may compound the impact of weather and weather-related events on our operations and velocity. We recently experienced varying degrees of disruptions, congestion, and reduced velocity due to a variety of factors, including
significant demand and weather events, and the extensive maintenance and restoration program on the SPRB line that is jointly-owned with BNSF (SPRB Joint Line). The weather events affected both our operations and operations of certain of our customers. Although we have recovered from these events, further network improvement will be driven by the ongoing redesign of our transportation plan to better manage traffic on our system and adding more capacity. We cannot be sure that these measures will fully or adequately address any service shortcomings. We also cannot be sure that we will not experience other difficulties related to network capacity, dramatic and unplanned increases of demand for rail service in one or more of our commodity groups, or other events that could have a negative impact on our operational efficiency, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We May Be Subject to Various Claims and Lawsuits That Could Result in Significant Expenditures The nature of our business exposes us to the potential for various claims and litigation related to labor and employment, personal injury, property damage, environmental liability, and other matters. Any material changes to litigation trends or a catastrophic rail accident involving property damage, personal injury, or environmental liability could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Are Subject to Significant Governmental Regulation We are subject to governmental regulation by a significant number of federal, state, and local authorities covering a variety of health, safety, labor, environmental (as discussed below), and other matters. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on us. Governments may change the legislative or regulatory frameworks within which we operate without providing us with any recourse for any adverse effects on our business. Economic re-regulation of the rail industry would negatively impact our ability to determine prices for rail services and reduce capital spending on our rail network, resulting in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Also, some laws and regulations require us to obtain and maintain various licenses, permits, and other authorizations, and we cannot guarantee that we will continue to be able to do so. In addition, one or more consolidations of Class I railroads could lead to future re-regulation of the rail industry.
We Are Required to Transport Hazardous Materials Federal laws require railroads, including UPRR, to transport hazardous materials. Any rail accident involving the release of hazardous materials could involve significant costs and claims for personal injury, property damage, and environmental penalties and remediation, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Are Subject to Significant Environmental Laws and Regulations Our operations are subject to extensive federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other things, emissions to the air; discharges to waters; handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of waste and other materials; and hazardous material or petroleum releases. We generate and transport hazardous and non-hazardous waste in our operations, and we did so in our former operations. Environmental liability can extend to previously owned or operated properties, leased properties, and properties owned by third parties, as well as to properties we currently own. Environmental liabilities have arisen and may also arise from claims asserted by adjacent landowners or other third parties in toxic tort litigation. We have been and may be subject to allegations or findings that we have violated, or are strictly liable under, these laws or regulations. We could incur significant costs as a result of any of the foregoing, and we may be required to incur significant expenses to investigate and remediate known, unknown, or future environmental contamination, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Severe Weather Could Result in Significant Business Interruptions and Expenditures Severe weather conditions, events, and other natural phenomena, including earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods, extreme temperatures, and significant precipitation may cause business interruptions, including line outages on our rail network, that can adversely affect our entire rail network, and result in increased costs, increased liabilities, and decreased revenues, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Rising Fuel Costs Could Materially and Adversely Affect Our Business Fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our transportation expenses. Diesel fuel prices are subject to dramatic fluctuations. Significant price increases may
have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Additionally, international, political, and economic circumstances affect fuel prices and supplies. Weather can also affect fuel supplies and limit domestic refining capacity. If a fuel supply shortage were to arise from OPEC production curtailments, a disruption of oil imports, or other causes, higher fuel prices could, despite our fuel surcharge programs, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
The Majority of Our Employees Belong to Labor Unions, and Labor Agreements, Strikes, or Work Stoppages Could Adversely Affect Our Operations We are a party to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. Under the collective bargaining round that began on November 1, 1999, all unions reached new labor agreements with the railroads in 2005. In January 2005, we began the next round of negotiations with the unions. Disputes with regard to the terms of these agreements or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions could result in, among other things, strikes, work stoppages, or other slowdowns by the affected workers. If unionized workers were to engage in a strike, work stoppage, or other slowdown, or other employees were to become unionized, we could experience a significant disruption of our operations or higher ongoing labor costs, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Additionally, future national labor agreements, or renegotiation of labor agreements or provisions of labor agreements, could compromise our service reliability and significantly increase our costs for healthcare, wages, and other benefits, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
The Availability of Qualified Personnel Could Adversely Affect Our Operations Changes in demographics, training requirements, and the availability of qualified personnel, particularly engineers and trainmen, could negatively impact our ability to meet demand for rail service. Unpredictable increases in demand for rail services and a lack of network fluidity may exacerbate such risks, which could have a negative impact on our operational efficiency and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Face Competition from Other Railroads and Other Transportation Providers We face competition from other railroads, motor carriers and, to a lesser extent, ships, barges, and pipelines. In addition to price competition, we face competition with respect to transit times and quality and reliability of service. While we must build or acquire and maintain our rail system, trucks and barges are able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities. Any future improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the cost of alternative modes of transportation, or legislation releasing motor carriers from their size or weight limitations, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Additionally, any future consolidation of the rail industry could materially affect the competitive environment in which we operate.
We Utilize Capital Markets We rely on the capital markets to provide some of our capital requirements, including the issuance of commercial paper from time to time and the sale of certain of our receivables. Market instability or deterioration of our financial condition due to internal or external factors could restrict or prohibit our access to commercial paper and reduce our credit ratings below investment grade, which would prohibit us from utilizing our sale of receivables program and significantly increase the cost of issuing debt.
We May Be Affected by General Economic Conditions Prolonged negative changes in domestic and global economic conditions affecting the producers and consumers of the commodities carried by us may have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Are Dependent on Two Key Domestic Suppliers of Locomotives Due to the capital intensive nature and sophistication of locomotive equipment, high barriers to entry face potential new suppliers. Therefore, if one of these domestic suppliers discontinues manufacturing locomotives, we could experience a significant cost increase and risk reduced availability of the locomotives that are necessary to our operations.
We Rely on Technology and Technology Improvements in our Business Operations We rely on information technology in all aspects of our business. If we do not have sufficient capital to acquire new technology or if we are
unable to implement new technology, we may suffer a competitive disadvantage within the rail industry and with companies providing other modes of transportation service, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial position, and liquidity. Additionally, if we experience significant disruption or failure of one or more of our information technology systems, including computer hardware, software, and communications equipment, we could experience a service interruption, safety failure, or security breach, or other operational difficulties, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We May Be Affected by Acts of Terrorism, War, or Risk of War Our rail lines, facilities, and equipment, including rail cars carrying hazardous materials, could be direct targets or indirect casualties of terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks, or other similar events, any government response thereto, and war or risk of war may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, insurance premiums for some or all of our current coverages could increase dramatically, or certain coverages may not be available to us in the future.
Item 2. Properties
With operations in 23 states, we employ a variety of assets in the management and operation of our rail business. These assets include real estate, track and track structure, equipment, and facilities. We own and lease real estate that we use in our operations, and we also own real estate that is not required for our business, which we sell from time to time. Our equipment includes owned and leased locomotives and rail cars; heavy maintenance equipment and machinery; other equipment and tools in our shops, offices and facilities; and vehicles for maintenance, transportation of crews, and other activities. We operate numerous facilities, including terminals for intermodal and other freight; rail yards for train-building, switching, storage-in-transit (the temporary storage of customer goods in rail cars prior to shipment) and other activities; offices to administer and manage our operations; dispatch centers to direct traffic on our rail network; crew quarters to house train crews along our network; and shops and other facilities for fueling, maintenance, and repair of locomotives and repair and maintenance of rail cars and other equipment. We spent approximately $2.2 billion in cash capital during 2005 for, among other things, building and maintaining track, structures and infrastructure, upgrading and augmenting equipment, and implementing new technologies (see the capital expenditures table in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Liquidity and Capital Resources Financial Condition, Item 7).
Certain of our properties are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment (see discussion of environmental issues in Business Governmental and Environmental Regulation, Item 1, and Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Critical Accounting Policies Environmental, Item 7).
Track The Railroad operates on 32,426 main line and branch line route miles in 23 states in the western two-thirds of the United States. We own 26,586 route miles, with the remainder of route miles operated pursuant to trackage rights or leases. Route miles as of December 31, 2005, are as follows:
Rail and ties installed and replaced during the year ended December 31, 2005 are as follows:
Equipment Our primary rail equipment consisted of the following as of December 31, 2005:
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
As we reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2003, the United States Attorney for the Central District of California notified the Railroad that the office intended to pursue criminal charges against us for alleged violations of federal environmental laws, including the federal Clean Water Act, in connection with releases of oil contaminated wastewater from our Taylor Yard in 2001 and 2003. In April 2004, the Railroad settled the State of Californias claims arising from these releases for $45,020.
As we reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2003, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) threatened civil prosecution against us in November 2003, after a series of protracted negotiations, relating to our failure to register as a hazardous waste transporter under California law from April 2000 to August 2001. We contend that we are exempt from the registration requirements due to federal preemption. The DTSC proposed civil penalties of $125,160 for the alleged violation. We settled this matter on September 14, 2005 for $55,000.
As we reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2001, on January 30, 2002, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) issued to the Railroad a notice of a proposed penalty assessment in the amount of $195,700. The proposed penalty relates to the derailment of one of our trains carrying hazardous materials near Eunice, Louisiana, on May 27, 2000. We met with the LDEQ regarding this matter to demonstrate that no penalty should be assessed. On December 28, 2005, the LDEQ amended the proposed penalty to $47,113.
As we reported in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2003, the San Joaquin County District Attorney filed an action against the Railroad on February 3, 2003, in the San Joaquin County Superior Court alleging claims under the California Business and Professions Code section 17200 (unfair business practices), Fish and Game Code section 5650 and 5650.1, California Health and Safety Code section 25189(d), and Public Nuisance, California Civil Code section 3480. The claims arise from a February 16, 2000, derailment in Stockton, California, in which a locomotive struck an object on the tracks, puncturing a fuel tank.
The District Attorney alleged that diesel fuel from this spill entered waters of the State of California. The complaint also asserted claims under the above referenced statutes for any other diesel spill that may have occurred in the State of California between 2000 and 2003, in which diesel may have passed into waters of the State of California. It sought injunctive relief and civil penalties of $25,000 for the alleged February 16, 2000, diesel spill and total penalties of not less than $250,000 for all diesel spills that may have occurred since 2000. The District Attorney filed an amended complaint on April 10, 2003, which narrowed the claims to the incident of February 16, 2000. The amended complaint seeks both injunctive relief and daily penalties for each day that fuel was in the affected waterway, which could exceed $100,000.
As we reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for 2003, the District Attorneys of Merced, Madera, and Stanislaus Counties in California filed a criminal case against the Railroad relating to a series of alleged releases of calcium oxide (lime). The criminal case was dismissed in the last quarter of 2003 and was subsequently refiled as a civil action by several counties in the San Joaquin County Superior Court. The refiled suit sought civil penalties against the Railroad in connection with the release of lime from an unidentified rail car between Chowchilla and Sacramento, California, on December 27, 2001, and another incident in which lime leaked from a rail car between Chowchilla and Stockton, California, on February 21, 2002. The suit contended that regulatory violations occurred by virtue of the Railroads alleged failure to timely report the release of a hazardous material, its alleged disposal of hazardous waste, and the alleged release of material into the waters of the State of California. On September 20, 2004, the Court dismissed the suit with prejudice. The State appealed this decision and the appeal remains pending.
As we reported in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2004, the Illinois Attorney Generals office filed an Agreed Order and Complaint and a Complaint for Injunctive and Other Relief on October 7, 2004, in the Circuit Court for the Twentieth Judicial Circuit (St. Clair County) against The Alton & Southern Railway Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Railroad, as a result of a collision and derailment on September 21, 2004. The state seeks to enjoin The Alton & Southern from further violations, as well as a monetary penalty. The amount of the proposed penalty is uncertain but could exceed $100,000.
In 2001 we received information indicating EPA considered the Railroad a potentially responsible party for the Omaha Lead Site. The Omaha Lead Site consists of approximately 12,800 acres of residential property in the eastern part of Omaha, Nebraska, allegedly impacted by air emissions from two former lead smelters/refineries. One refinery was operated by ASARCO. EPA identified the Railroad as a potentially responsible party, because more than 60 years ago, we owned land that was leased to ASARCO. The Railroad disputes both the legal and technical base for EPAs allegations. It has nonetheless engaged in extensive negotiations with EPA. These negotiations have reached an apparent impasse. EPA issued a Unilateral Administrative Order with an effective date of December 16, 2005, directing the Railroad to implement an interim remedy at the site at an estimated cost of $50 million. Failure to comply with the order without just cause could subject the Railroad to penalties of up to $32,500 per day and triple EPAs costs in performing the work. The Railroad believes it has just cause not to comply with the order, but it offered to perform some of the work specified in the order as a compromise. If EPA rejects the offer, the Railroad will vigorously contest liability and the imposition of any penalties.
On December 12, 2005, the Illinois Attorney Generals office filed a complaint in the Circuit Court for the Twenty-First Judicial Circuit (St. Clair County) seeking injunctive relief and civil penalties against the Railroad relating to a collision between UPRR and Norfolk Southern (NS) trains near Momence, Illinois, on November 24, 2005. The collision derailed approximately five locomotives and 30 railcars. Two of the UPRR locomotives and two of the NS locomotives caught fire and four of the locomotives released approximately 16,000 gallons of diesel fuel. Other cars carrying food products derailed and released an unknown amount of product. The Railroad promptly responded and remediation is ongoing. The State seeks a permanent injunction against the Railroad ordering UPRR to continue remediation. The State seeks to enjoin UPRR from further violations and a monetary penalty. The amount of the proposed penalty is uncertain.
The Illinois Attorney Generals office filed a complaint in the Circuit Court for the Twentieth Judicial Circuit (St. Clair County) for injunctive and other relief on November 28, 2005, against the Railroad, alleging a diesel fuel
spill from an above-ground storage tank for storm water with a secondary containment area in a railyard in Dupo, St. Clair County, Illinois. The State seeks to enjoin UPRR from further violations and a monetary penalty. The amount of the proposed penalty is uncertain.
On October 25, 2005, the State of Washington Department of Ecology notified us that it had assessed a $106,000 penalty against the Railroad as a result of a November 15, 2003, incident near Kelso, Washington. In that incident, one of our trains collided with a BNSF train, derailing three of our locomotives. The Department of Ecology contends that diesel fuel and lube oil from the derailed locomotives entered waters of the State of Washington. We have asked the state to reconsider the penalty amount.
The South Coast Air Quality Management District (the District) issued a Notice of Violation (NOV) to UPRR on or about August 20, 2003, and November 2, 2003, asserting that we violated our air permit relating to locomotive diesel fueling at our Dolores Yard in Carson, California, by dispensing fuel in excess of permit limits over the course of 21 months. The District proposed that we pay $105,000 to settle this NOV. We settled this matter and others in July 2005 for $78,000 as part of a group of alleged violations.
We received notices from EPA and state environmental agencies alleging that we are or may be liable under federal or state environmental laws for remediation costs at various sites throughout the United States, including sites on the Superfund National Priorities List or state superfund lists. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these proceedings and suits because of the number of potentially responsible parties involved, the degree of contamination by various wastes, the scarcity and quality of volumetric data related to many of the sites, and the speculative nature of remediation costs.
Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Critical Accounting Policies Environmental, Item 7.
As we reported in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2004, we were notified that a qui tam, or private citizen, complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the Central District of California against, among other parties, the City of Long Beach, City of Long Beach Harbor Department, Port of Long Beach (the Port), Union Pacific Corporation, Union Pacific Railroad Company, and Union Pacific Resources Company, also known as Union Pacific Resources Group Inc. (Resources), a former subsidiary of UPC. A private citizen filed the action because the federal government and the State of California elected not to pursue the claims. The complaint alleges that the defendants violated the Federal Civil False Claims Act and the California False Claims Act by conspiring to use public funds to (1) shift environmental cleanup liability to the Port when Resources sold its Terminal Island oil field property to the Port in 1994 and (2) effect the acquisition by the Port of the Terminal Island property in which the Port (or the State of California) allegedly already held certain incidents of title. The complaint, which has not been served on us, seeks damages of $2.405 billion, unspecified costs for remediating groundwater contamination, and triple damages and civil penalties of $10,000 per day. The plaintiffs extended time to serve the complaint expired on April 4, 2005, and the Corporation filed a motion to dismiss for plaintiffs failure to make timely service. However, the Court extended the plaintiffs time to provide service. On December 7, 2005, we learned that a summons for service of the Complaint had been issued, but we have not been sued. We dispute the factual and legal bases of the complaint. We notified Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko), as successor to Resources after its acquisition in 2000, that an indemnification agreement between Resources and the Corporation obligates Anadarko to indemnify us for all damages, costs, and expenses related to the complaint.
As we reported in a report on Form 8-K filed on April 12, 2005, we received a complaint in a purported shareholder derivative lawsuit, which names as defendants all the current directors and one former director of the Corporation. The complaint, filed in state court in Salt Lake County, Utah, on April 4, 2005, alleges that the director defendants breached their fiduciary duty to the Corporation and its shareholders by, among other things,
disregarding problems relating to railroad safety; compliance with governmental regulations, including reporting requirements with respect to rail accidents; and the handling of evidence in rail accident cases. The complaint contends that, as a consequence of such alleged breach of duty, the Corporation suffered substantial monetary losses and other injuries and seeks, among other things, an award of compensatory damages, other non-monetary remedies and relief, and the plaintiffs reasonable expenses and attorneys fees.
Item 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of 2005.
Executive Officers of the Registrant and Principal Executive Officers of Subsidiaries
Our executive officers generally are elected and designated annually by the Board of Directors at our first meeting held after the Annual Meeting of Shareholders, and they hold office until their successors are elected. Executive officers also may be elected and designated throughout the year, as the Board of Directors considers appropriate. There are no family relationships among the officers, nor any arrangement or understanding between any officer and any other person pursuant to which the officer was selected. The following table sets forth certain information, as of February 17, 2006 relating to the executive officers.
Executive Officers of the Registrant and Principal Executive Officers of Subsidiaries
Item 5. Market for the Registrants Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol UNP. The following table presents the dividends declared and the high and low closing prices of our common stock for each of the indicated quarters.
At January 31, 2006, there were 267,584,487 shares of outstanding common stock and 29,173 common shareholders of record. At that date, the closing price of the common stock on the NYSE was $88.46. We have paid dividends to our common shareholders during each of the past 106 years. We declared dividends totaling $316 million in 2005 and $312 million in 2004, and we expect to continue paying comparable dividends in 2006. We are subject to certain restrictions regarding retained earnings with respect to the payment of cash dividends to our shareholders. The amount of retained earnings available for dividends increased to $6.2 billion at December 31, 2005, from $5.2 billion at December 31, 2004.
Purchases of Equity Securities We do not currently have a formal publicly announced plan or program to repurchase shares of our common stock. The purchased shares presented below relate solely to our equity compensation plans described in note 7 to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8. During the first nine months of 2005, 2,283,918 shares of our common stock were repurchased at an average price per share of $68.24. The following table presents common stock repurchases during each month for the fourth quarter:
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following table presents as of, and for the years ended, December 31, our selected financial data for each of the last five years. The selected financial data should be read in conjunction with Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, and with the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8. The information below is not necessarily indicative of the results of future operations. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2005 presentation. These reclassifications were not material, individually or in aggregate, with the exception of reclassifications made to appropriately reflect the discontinued operations as discussed in note 13 of Item 8.
Item 7. Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and applicable notes to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8, and other information in this report, including Risk Factors set forth in Item 1A and Critical Accounting Policies and Cautionary Information at the end of this Item 7.
The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable operating segment. Although revenue is analyzed by commodity, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of the rail network. The Consolidated Financial Statements in 2003 also include discontinued trucking operations, consisting of OTC and Motor Cargo, which were subsidiaries of Overnite, Inc., formerly an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of UPC. In 2003, we reclassified our trucking operations as discontinued operations.
Free cash flow is a non-GAAP financial measure under SEC Regulation G. We believe free cash flow is important in evaluating our financial performance and measures our ability to generate cash without additional external financings. Free cash flow should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, cash provided by operating activities. The following table reconciles cash provided by operating activities (GAAP measure) to free cash flow (non-GAAP measure):
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Operating revenue includes commodity revenue and other revenue. Other revenue consists primarily of revenue earned by our subsidiaries, revenue from our commuter rail operations, and accessorial revenue, which we earn when customers retain equipment owned or controlled by the Railroad. We recognize commodity revenue on a percentage-of-completion basis as freight moves from origin to destination. We allocate commodity revenue between reporting periods based on the relative transit time in each reporting period with expenses recognized as incurred. We recognize other revenue as service is performed or contractual obligations are met.
Commodity revenue improved in all six business groups during 2005, with double-digit growth in the agricultural, industrial products, and intermodal commodity groups. Fuel surcharges, price increases, and index-based contract escalators, which are formulas in our shipping contracts that correlate price adjustments to certain economic indexes, all contributed to higher average revenue per car (ARC). In 2005, our fuel surcharge programs generated $1 billion in commodity revenue, which represents approximately 74% of the additional expense incurred above the base fuel price for our fuel surcharge programs (currently, $0.75 per gallon). Although volume grew 1% for the year, the severe weather and maintenance and restoration on the SPRB Joint Line constrained volume growth.
The commodity revenue increase in 2004 was driven by growth in the industrial products, intermodal and chemical groups. Fuel surcharges, price increases, and index-based contract escalators contributed to the increase in ARC. In 2004, our fuel surcharge programs generated $330 million in commodity revenue, which represented 52% of the additional expense incurred above the base fuel price of $0.75 per gallon. ARC improved 3% to $1,236, while revenue carloads increased 2%.
Subsidiary and accessorial revenue increased other revenue in 2005, mainly driven by higher volumes. In addition, we generated higher subsidiary revenue due to the acquisition of our joint venture partners interest in Bay Pacific Financial L.L.C. (Bay Pacific), an intermodal equipment leasing entity. Passenger and subsidiary revenue increased other revenue in 2004, although accessorial revenue declined.
The following tables summarize the year-over-year changes in commodity revenue, revenue carloads, and average revenue per car by commodity type.
Mexico Business Each commodity group discussed above includes revenue from shipments to and from Mexico, which increased 15% to $1.1 billion in 2005 compared to 2004. Revenue growth resulted primarily from price increases and fuel surcharges. Carloads were flat versus 2004, as fewer auto parts, energy, and intermodal shipments offset higher agricultural and industrial shipments.
In 2004, revenue grew 9% to $970 million, resulting from increased volume in the industrial products, intermodal, chemical, and automotive business groups, particularly cement, newsprint and wood fiber, liquid and dry chemicals, soda ash, and automotive materials. Revenue generated from agricultural shipments also improved due to higher wheat exports and beer imports. Lower export shipments of corn and feed grains, as well as reduced energy carloads, partially offset the increases.
Salaries, Wages, and Employee Benefits Several factors drove higher employment expenses in 2005. General wage and benefit inflation continued to increase expenses, reflecting higher salaries and wages and the year-over-year impact of higher healthcare and other benefits costs. We also incurred higher expenses for management bonuses in 2005, as executive bonuses were not awarded for 2004 and bonuses for the professional workforce were significantly reduced. A 3% increase in our workforce and higher demand during the year also contributed to the increases. Additionally, labor expenses, in the form of higher train crew costs and labor incurred for repair and clean-up activities, increased due to the hurricanes in the third quarter and the West Coast storm in the first quarter. Reduced severance and relocation costs, increased network efficiency, and reduced training expenses
partially offset these increases. Transferring various support personnel to Omaha, Nebraska, resulted in higher severance and relocation costs in 2004.
The increase in 2004 also resulted from a number of factors, including higher wages and training expenses associated with hiring additional trainmen, increased crew costs due to slower network velocity, inflation, volume-related expenses, and severance and relocation costs. Because we did not award executive bonuses for 2004, lower performance-based compensation expense for management partially offset these increases. Lower protection costs also offset these increased expenses. Protection cost represents the differential payment when the wage earned for active employment is lower than an employees protected rate of pay. The STB mandates protected rates for employees adversely affected by a merger, and collective bargaining agreements with our labor unions also establish these rates. Finally, a smaller non-transportation workforce yielded cost savings during the year.
Fuel and Utilities
Fuel and utilities include locomotive fuel, utilities other than telephone, and gasoline and other fuels. Higher diesel fuel prices, which averaged $1.77 per gallon (including taxes and transportation costs) in 2005 compared to $1.22 per gallon in 2004, increased expenses by $740 million. A 1% increase in gross ton-miles resulted in $8 million of additional expenses. We offset $39 million of these increases with a 2% improvement in our consumption rate in 2005 versus 2004. The Railroad had no fuel hedges in place during 2005, and has none in place for 2006. Gasoline, utilities, and propane expenses increased $37 million in 2005 versus 2004 due to higher prices.
The increase in 2004 compared to 2003 was driven by higher diesel fuel prices, which averaged $1.22 per gallon and $0.92 per gallon in 2004 and 2003, respectively (including taxes and transportation costs), and higher gallons consumed. Higher fuel prices contributed $416 million to the increase; however, we recovered approximately 52% of these costs through our fuel surcharge programs, which were included in operating revenues. The increase in gross ton-miles in 2004 drove consumption higher, resulting in an additional $24 million in fuel expense for the year. The Railroad hedged approximately 9% of its fuel usage in 2004, which decreased fuel costs by $14 million. Gasoline, utilities, and propane expenses increased $13 million in 2004 due to higher prices.
Equipment and Other Rents Equipment and other rents includes primarily rental expense the Railroad pays for freight cars owned by other railroads or private companies; freight car, intermodal, and locomotive leases; other specialty equipment leases; and office and other rentals. In 2005, the number of leased locomotives and freight cars increased, resulting in additional lease expenses. Higher carloads also increased 2005 expenses. Improved car-cycle times partially offset these increases reflecting increased network efficiency, which lowered our short-term freight car rental expense.
Expenses increased in 2004 due to carload volume growth and longer car cycle times, resulting in higher expenses for locomotive and car rentals. Higher locomotive expense included additional costs associated with leasing short-term, or surge, locomotive power, which is more costly than long-term locomotive leases, and the increased leasing of new locomotives.
Depreciation The majority of depreciation relates to track structure, including rail, ties, and other track material. A higher depreciable asset base, reflecting higher capital spending in recent years, increased our depreciation expense in 2005 and 2004.
Materials and Supplies Materials used to maintain the Railroads lines, structures, and equipment are the principal components of materials and supplies expense. This expense item also includes small tools, office supplies, other materials, and the costs of freight services to ship Railroad supplies and materials. During 2005, materials and supplies expense increased, primarily due to locomotive and freight car maintenance. We used more repair materials to maintain a larger fleet of locomotives, including a growing number of units not covered by warranties. Additionally, we incurred higher costs for car wheel sets, traction motors, and lube oil. Conversely, we incurred lower freight charges for shipping Railroad materials and stationary and office supplies.
We incurred higher expenses in 2004 due to increased use of locomotive repair materials required to maintain a larger fleet that includes older units not covered by warranties. We also performed more freight car repairs, incurred higher materials costs, and experienced increased freight charges for shipment of Railroad material.
Casualty Costs Personal injury expense, freight and property damage, insurance, and environmental costs are the primary components of casualty costs. Casualty costs in 2005 were lower than the previous year primarily due to higher expenses incurred in 2004 for an asbestos charge, a costly derailment near San Antonio, and a large jury verdict affirmed in 2004 for a 1998 crossing accident. Lower freight and property damage expense and lower costs for destruction of foreign or leased equipment also reduced casualty costs. Conversely, we incurred higher insurance costs and increased costs for third-party personal injuries related to long-term environmental exposures.
In 2004, costs rose due to the asbestos charge of $247 million (pre-tax), a costly derailment near San Antonio, and a large jury verdict affirmed in 2004 for a 1998 crossing accident. Partially offsetting these increases were lower insurance expenses and reduced personal injury expense, which resulted from lower than anticipated settlement costs and fewer employee injuries in 2004 than previously assumed.
Purchased Services and Other Costs Purchased services and other costs include the costs of services purchased from outside contractors, state and local taxes, net costs of operating facilities jointly used by UPRR and other railroads, transportation and lodging for train crew employees, trucking and contracting costs for intermodal containers, leased automobile maintenance expenses, telephone and cellular phone expense, employee travel expense, and computer and other general expenses. Expenses decreased in 2005 versus 2004 because we incurred higher relocation costs associated with moving support personnel to Omaha, Nebraska during 2004. In 2005, we experienced higher volume-related costs for freight car and locomotive contract maintenance and crew transportation and lodging. Although our intermodal carloadings increased over 4% in 2005, costs for trucking services provided by intermodal carriers remained flat as we substantially reduced expenses associated with network inefficiencies. Higher diesel fuel prices increased sales and use taxes in 2005, which resulted in higher state and local taxes. Other contract services increased in 2005. The 2005 January West Coast storm and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also contributed to higher expenses in 2005 (net of insurance reimbursements received).
In 2004, higher locomotive contract maintenance services, state and local taxes, and relocation costs drove expenses higher. In addition, we incurred increased trucking expenses for intermodal carriers and crew transportation costs due to slower network velocity and additional volume.
Other Income Other income increased in 2005 largely as a result of higher gains from real estate sales partially offset by higher expenses due to rising interest rates associated with our sale of receivables program. In addition, other income in 2004 included income recognized from the sale of a technology subsidiarys assets.
Other income improved in 2004 due to higher costs in 2003 associated with premium payments for early retirement of $1.5 billion of Convertible Preferred Securities (CPS) and income recognized in 2004 from the sale of assets of a technology subsidiary. These were partially offset by lower gains from real estate sales in 2004 compared to 2003.
Interest Expense Lower interest expense in 2005 and 2004 was primarily due to declining weighted-average debt levels of $7.8 billion, $8.1 billion, and $8.9 billion in 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. Our effective interest rate was 6.5% in both 2005 and 2004, compared to 6.4% in 2003.
Income Taxes Income taxes were greater in 2005 due to higher 2005 pre-tax income, which was partially offset by a previously reported reduction in income tax expense. In our quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2005, we reported that the Corporation had undertaken an analysis of the impact that final settlements of tax liabilities for pre-1995 tax years with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) had on previously recorded estimates of deferred tax assets and liabilities. The completed analysis of the final settlements for pre-1995 tax years, along with IRS Examination Reports for tax years 1995 through 2002 were considered, among other things, in a review and re-evaluation of the Corporations estimated deferred tax assets and liabilities as of September 30, 2005, resulting in an income tax expense reduction of $118 million in 2005.
Income tax expense decreased in 2004, driven by lower pre-tax income, a reduction in the deferred state income tax liability primarily attributable to relocating support operations to Omaha, Nebraska, state income tax credits earned in connection with the new headquarters building in Omaha, and an increase in foreign tax credits resulting from the passage of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004.
On November 5, 2003, we completed the sale of our entire trucking interest. In 2003, revenue and income from discontinued operations were $1.2 billion and $255 million, respectively. Income from discontinued operations in 2003 included the net gain from the sale of our trucking interest of $211 million, including an income tax benefit of $126 million.
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL STATISTICS
Railroad Performance Measures
We report key Railroad performance measures weekly to the American Association of Railroads, including carloads, average daily inventory of rail cars on our system, average train speed, and average terminal dwell time. This operating data is available on our website at www.up.com/investors/reports/index.shtml.
Average Train Speed Average train speed is calculated by dividing train miles by hours operated on our main lines between terminals. In 2005, the West Coast storm, disruptions on the SPRB Joint Line, business interruptions caused by Hurricane Rita, and the Kansas washouts in October hampered efforts to improve our average train speed. In 2004, unprecedented demand for our services and crew and locomotive shortages negatively impacted operational efficiency and average train speed.
Average Terminal Dwell Time Average terminal dwell time is the average time that a rail car spends at our terminals. Lower average terminal dwell time is favorable. The 6% improvement in dwell time in 2005 resulted from strategic network management initiatives and efforts to more timely deliver rail cars to our interchange partners and customers. Record demand levels and operational challenges experienced in 2004 affected network performance including average terminal dwell time.
Gross and Revenue Ton-Miles Gross ton-miles are calculated by multiplying the weight of loaded or empty freight cars by the number of miles hauled. Revenue ton-miles are based on tariff miles and do not include the weight of freight cars. In 2005, gross and revenue ton-miles grew 1% and 0.5%, in relation to a 1% increase of carloadings. Gross and revenue ton-miles increased 2% and 3% respectively in 2004, with 2% growth of carloadings during the same period. The increase in gross and revenue ton-miles was also positively impacted by volume growth experienced in the higher density commodity groups of industrial products and chemicals, combined with a minimal increase in automotive carloads, which is a lower density commodity.
Average Full-Time Equivalent Employees The 2005 increase includes the addition of employees needed to complete increased track repair and replacement programs, more train crew personnel both to handle the increased demand and to improve service, and the hiring of operations management personnel, including an expanded management training program. The 2004 average number of full-time equivalent employees increased as we added train crew personnel, who were hired to handle increased customer demand and improve service. These additions were partially offset by increased productivity in the non-transportation functions, employee attrition, and fewer employees at our technology subsidiaries.
Other Financial Statistics
Debt to Capital/Lease Adjusted Debt to Capital Debt to capital is computed by dividing total debt by total debt plus equity. Lease adjusted debt to capital is derived by dividing total debt plus the net present value of operating leases by total debt plus equity plus the net present value of operating leases. We believe these measures are important in managing our capital structure to allow efficient access to the debt market while minimizing our cost of capital. In 2005, our debt to capital ratio improved due to a $715 million reduction in our debt level and an increase in equity resulting from earnings. Our lease adjusted debt to capital improved to a lesser extent due to an increase in the present value of operating leases, which were approximately $3.2 billion and $2.3 billion at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively, using a discount rate of 8%.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
As of December 31, 2005, our principal sources of liquidity included cash, cash equivalents, the sale of receivables, and our revolving credit facilities, as well as the availability of commercial paper and other sources of financing through the capital markets. We had $2 billion of credit facilities available, of which there were no borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2005. The sale of receivables program is subject to certain requirements, including the maintenance of an investment grade bond rating. If our bond rating were to deteriorate, it could have an adverse impact on our liquidity. The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors under the
program was $600 million as of December 31, 2005. Access to commercial paper is dependent on market conditions. Deterioration of our operating results or financial condition due to internal or external factors could negatively impact our ability to utilize commercial paper as a source of liquidity. Liquidity through the capital markets is also dependent on our financial stability.
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had a working capital deficit of $1,059 million and $226 million, respectively. A working capital deficit is common in our industry and does not indicate a lack of liquidity. We maintain adequate resources to meet our daily cash requirements, and we have sufficient financial capacity to satisfy our current liabilities.
Cash Provided by Operating Activities Higher income, lower management incentive payments in 2005 (executive bonuses, which would have been paid to individuals in 2005, were not awarded based on company performance in 2004 and bonuses for the professional workforce were significantly reduced), and working capital performance generated higher cash from operating activities in 2005. A voluntary pension contribution of $100 million in 2004 also augmented the positive year-over-year variance. This improvement was partially offset by cash received in 2004 for income tax refunds. Cash provided by operating activities decreased in 2004 driven by lower income from continuing operations, the pension contribution, and cash from discontinued operations recognized in 2003, which were partially offset by working capital performance.
Cash Used in Investing Activities Increased capital spending, partially offset by higher proceeds from asset sales, increased the amount of cash used in investing activities in 2005. The comparative increase in 2004 primarily resulted from the beneficial impact of the $620 million received in 2003 for the sale of our trucking interest, which reduced cash used in investing activities in 2003. The permanent financing of locomotives and freight cars under long-term operating leases (as referenced in the Operating Lease Activities section in this Item 7) had no impact on investing cash flows during the period as all financings were completed in 2005.
Cash Used in Financing Activities The increase in cash used in financing activities results from no cash inflows from the issuance of debt in 2005 (compared to $745 million in 2004) and higher debt repayments ($699 million in 2005 compared to $588 million in 2004), partially offset by higher net proceeds from equity compensation plans ($262 million in 2005 compared to $80 million in 2004). The decrease in 2004 resulted from lower debt repayments of $588 million in 2004 compared to $2.1 billion in 2003 (including $1.5 billion of CPS), partially offset by a decrease in net proceeds from equity compensation plans ($80 million in 2004 compared to $216 million in 2003) and higher dividend payments ($310 million in 2004 compared to $234 million in 2003) due to the increase of our dividend rate from $0.99 per share in 2003 to $1.20 per share in 2004.
The table below details cash capital expenditures for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004, and 2003, including non-cash capital lease financings of $188 million in 2003. There were no non-cash capital lease financings in 2005 or 2004.
In 2006, we expect our cash capital expenditures to be approximately $2.2 billion. Additionally, we expect to enter into long-term operating leases for equipment with a net present value of approximately $500 million. These expenditures will be used to maintain track and structures, continue capacity expansions on our main lines in constrained corridors, remove bottlenecks, upgrade and augment equipment to better meet customer needs, build and improve facilities and terminals, and develop and implement new technologies. We expect to fund our 2006 cash capital expenditures through cash generated from operations, the sale or lease of various operating and non-operating properties, and cash on hand at December 31, 2005. We expect that these sources will continue to provide sufficient funds to meet our expected capital requirements for 2006.
For the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004, and 2003, our ratio of earnings to fixed charges was 2.9, 2.1, and 3.2, respectively. The ratio of earnings to fixed charges was computed on a consolidated basis. Earnings represent income from continuing operations, less equity earnings net of distributions, plus fixed charges and income taxes. Fixed charges represent interest charges, amortization of debt discount, and the estimated amount representing the interest portion of rental charges.
Credit Facilities On December 31, 2005, we had $2 billion in revolving credit facilities available, including $1 billion under a five-year facility expiring in March 2010 and $1 billion under a five-year facility expiring in March 2009 (collectively, the facilities). The facilities are designated for general corporate purposes and support the issuance of commercial paper. Neither of the facilities were drawn as of December 31, 2005. The five-year facility expiring in March 2010 replaced a $1 billion 364-day revolving credit facility that expired in March 2005, while the five-year facility expiring in March 2009 was put in place in 2004 to replace a five-year revolving credit facility that was due to expire in March 2005. Commitment fees and interest rates payable under the facilities are similar to fees and rates available to comparably rated investment-grade borrowers. These facilities allow for borrowings at floating London Interbank Offered Rates (LIBOR)-based rates, plus a spread, depending upon our senior unsecured debt ratings. The facilities require the maintenance of a minimum net worth and a debt to net worth coverage ratio. At December 31, 2005, we were in compliance with these covenants. The facilities do not include any other financial restrictions, credit rating triggers (other than rating-dependent pricing), or any other provision that could require the posting of collateral. In addition to our revolving credit facilities, we also had $150 million in uncommitted lines of credit that were unused at December 31, 2005. We established two $75 million uncommitted lines of credit in May and July 2005, which will expire in May and July 2006, respectively.
At December 31, 2004, approximately $440 million of short-term borrowings that we intended to refinance were reclassified as long-term debt. This reclassification reflected our ability and intent to refinance these short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt on a long-term basis. At December 31, 2005, we did not reclassify any short-term debt to a long-term basis.
Dividend Restrictions We are subject to certain restrictions related to the payment of cash dividends to our shareholders due to minimum net worth requirements under our credit facilities. Retained earnings available for
dividends increased to $6.2 billion at December 31, 2005, from $5.2 billion at December 31, 2004. We do not expect that these restrictions will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Shelf Registration Statement Under a current shelf registration statement, we may issue any combination of debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or warrants for debt securities or preferred stock in one or more offerings. At December 31, 2005, we had $500 million remaining for issuance under the current shelf registration statement. We have no immediate plans to issue any securities; however, we routinely consider and evaluate opportunities to replace existing debt or access capital through issuances of debt securities under this shelf registration, and, therefore, we may issue debt securities at any time.
Operating Lease Activities
As of December 31, 2005, our contractual obligations for operating leases totaled approximately $4.9 billion. Discounted at 8%, the present value of this obligation was approximately $3.2 billion. The Railroad entered into lease arrangements during 2005 to finance its new equipment acquisition program. In 2005, the Railroad, as lessee, entered into long-term operating lease arrangements covering 317 locomotives and approximately 2,900 freight cars. The lessors under these lease arrangements purchased the locomotives and freight cars from the Corporation through various financing transactions that totaled approximately $838 million, with a present value of $690 million. These new lease arrangements provide for minimum total rental payments of approximately $1.2 billion, which are reflected in the contractual obligations table as of December 31, 2005.
The lessors financed the purchase of the locomotives and freight cars, in part, by the issuance of equipment notes that are non-recourse to the Railroad and are secured by an assignment of the underlying leases and a security interest in the equipment. Neither the Railroad nor UPC guarantees payment of the equipment notes. The Railroads obligations to make operating lease payments under the leases are recourse obligations and are not recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Financial Position.
The Railroad has certain renewal and purchase options with respect to the locomotives and freight cars. If the Railroad elects not to exercise any such options, the equipment will be returned to the lessors at the end of the lease term.
On July 8, 2005, the Railroad completed the acquisition of its partners interest in Bay Pacific Financial L.L.C., a joint venture established to assist in the acquisition of containers and chassis for use by the Railroad in intermodal service, for a purchase price of $51 million. As a result of the acquisition, the Railroad owns 100% of the joint venture. Total minimum rental payments for operating leases acquired in the acquisition were $202 million at the time of acquisition.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements, Contractual Obligations, and Commitments
As described in the notes to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8, and as referenced in the tables below, we have contractual obligations and commercial commitments that may affect our financial condition. However, based on our assessment of the underlying provisions and circumstances of our material contractual obligations and commercial commitments, including material sources of off-balance sheet and structured finance arrangements, there is no known trend, demand, commitment, event, or uncertainty that is reasonably likely to occur that would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity. In addition, the commercial obligations, financings, and commitments made by us are customary transactions that are similar to those of other comparable corporations, particularly within the transportation industry.
The following tables identify material obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2005:
Sale of Receivables The Railroad transfers most of its accounts receivable to Union Pacific Receivables, Inc. (UPRI), a bankruptcy-remote subsidiary, as part of a sale of receivables facility. UPRI sells, without recourse on a 364-day revolving basis, an undivided interest in such accounts receivable to investors. The total capacity to sell undivided interests to investors under the facility was $600 million at December 31, 2005. The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors under the facility was $600 million and $590 million at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors is not included in our Consolidated Financial Statements. The value of the undivided interest held by investors was supported by $1,226 million and $1,089 million of accounts receivable held by UPRI at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. At December 31, 2005 and 2004, the value of the interest retained by UPRI was $626 million and $499 million, respectively. This retained interest is included in accounts receivable in our Consolidated Financial Statements. The interest sold to investors is sold at carrying value, which approximates fair value, and there is no gain or loss recognized from the transaction.
The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors could fluctuate based upon the availability of eligible receivables and is directly affected by changing business volumes and credit risks, including default and
dilution. If default or dilution percentages were to increase one percentage point, the amount of eligible receivables would decrease by $6 million. Should our credit rating fall below investment grade, the value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors would be reduced, and, in certain cases, the investors would have the right to discontinue the facility.
The Railroad services the sold receivables; however, the Railroad does not recognize any servicing asset or liability as the servicing fees adequately compensate the Railroad for its responsibilities. The Railroad collected approximately $13.4 billion and $12.2 billion during the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively. UPRI used certain of these proceeds to purchase new receivables under the facility.
The costs of the sale of receivables program are included in other income and were $23 million, $11 million, and $10 million for 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. The costs include interest, program fees paid to banks, commercial paper issuing costs, and fees for unused commitment availability.
The investors have no recourse to the Railroads other assets except for customary warranty and indemnity claims. Creditors of the Railroad have no recourse to the assets of UPRI. On August 11, 2005, the sale of receivables program was renewed for an additional 364-day period without any significant changes in terms.
Guarantees At December 31, 2005, we were contingently liable for $486 million in guarantees. We recorded a liability of $7 million for the fair value of these obligations as of December 31, 2005. We entered into these contingent guarantees in the normal course of business, and they include guaranteed obligations related to our headquarters building, equipment financings, and affiliated operations. The final guarantee expires in 2022. We are not aware of any existing event of default that would require us to satisfy these guarantees. We do not expect that these guarantees will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Inflation The cumulative effect of long periods of inflation significantly increases asset replacement costs for capital-intensive companies. As a result, assuming that we replace all operating assets at current price levels, depreciation charges (on an inflation-adjusted basis) would be substantially greater than historically reported amounts.
Derivative Financial Instruments We use derivative financial instruments in limited instances for other than trading purposes to manage risk related to changes in fuel prices and to achieve our interest rate objectives. We are not a party to leveraged derivatives and, by policy, do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Financial instruments qualifying for hedge accounting must maintain a specified level of effectiveness between the hedging instrument and the item being hedged, both at inception and throughout the hedged period. We formally document the nature and relationships between the hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as our risk-management objectives, strategies for undertaking the various hedge transactions, and method of assessing hedge effectiveness. We may use swaps, collars, futures, and/or forward contracts to mitigate the downside risk of adverse price movements and to hedge the exposure to variable cash flows. The use of these instruments also limits future benefits from favorable movements. The purpose of these programs is to protect our operating margins and overall profitability from adverse fuel price changes or interest rate fluctuations.
Market and Credit Risk We address market risk related to derivative financial instruments by selecting instruments with value fluctuations that highly correlate with the underlying hedged item. Credit risk related to derivative financial instruments, which is minimal, is managed by requiring high credit standards for counterparties and periodic settlements. At December 31, 2005 and 2004, we were not required to provide collateral, nor had we received collateral, relating to our hedging activities.
In addition, we enter into secured financings in which the debtor pledges collateral. The nature of the financing and the credit risk of the debtor determine the collateral. These arrangements generally prohibit us from selling or repledging the collateral unless the debtor defaults.
Determination of Fair Value We determined the fair values of our derivative financial instrument positions at December 31, 2005 and 2004 based upon current fair values as quoted by recognized dealers or developed based upon the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the applicable U.S. Treasury rate, LIBOR, or swap spread.
Sensitivity Analyses The sensitivity analyses that follow illustrate the economic effect that hypothetical changes in interest rates could have on our results of operations and financial condition. These hypothetical changes do not consider other factors that could impact actual results.
Interest Rate Fair Value Hedges We manage our overall exposure to fluctuations in interest rates by adjusting the proportion of fixed and floating rate debt instruments within our debt portfolio over a given period. We generally manage the mix of fixed and floating rate debt through the issuance of targeted amounts of each as debt matures or as we require incremental borrowings. We employ derivatives as one of the tools to obtain the targeted mix. In addition, we also obtain flexibility in managing interest costs and the interest rate mix within our debt portfolio by evaluating the issuance of and managing outstanding callable fixed-rate debt securities.
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had variable-rate debt representing approximately 10% and 9%, respectively, of our total debt. If variable interest rates average one percentage point higher in 2006 than our December 31, 2005 variable rate, which was approximately 7%, our interest expense would increase by approximately $7 million. If variable interest rates averaged one percentage point higher in 2005 than our December 31, 2004 variable rate, which was approximately 5%, our interest expense would have increased by approximately $8 million. These amounts were determined by considering the impact of the hypothetical interest rates on the balances of our variable-rate debt at December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
Swaps allow us to convert debt from fixed rates to variable rates and thereby hedge the risk of changes in the debts fair value attributable to the changes in the benchmark interest rate (LIBOR). We accounted for the swaps as fair value hedges using the short-cut method pursuant to FASB Statement No. 133, Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities; therefore, we did not record any ineffectiveness within our Consolidated Financial Statements. As of December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had interest rate swaps hedging debt of $750 million.
Market risk for fixed-rate debt is estimated as the potential increase in fair value resulting from a hypothetical one percentage point decrease in interest rates as of December 31, 2005, and amounts to approximately $535 million at December 31, 2005. Market risk resulting from a hypothetical one percentage point decrease in interest rates as of December 31, 2004, amounted to approximately $599 million at December 31, 2004. We estimated the fair values of our fixed-rate debt by considering the impact of the hypothetical interest rates on quoted market prices and current borrowing rates.
Interest Rate Cash Flow Hedges We report changes in the fair value of cash flow hedges in accumulated other comprehensive income until the hedged item affects earnings.
In 2004, we entered into treasury lock transactions, which are accounted for as cash flow hedges. These treasury lock transactions resulted in a payment of $11 million that is being amortized on a straight-line basis over 10 years, ending September 30, 2014. The unamortized portion of the payment is recorded as a $6 million after-tax reduction to common shareholders equity as part of accumulated other comprehensive loss at December 31, 2005. As of December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had no interest rate cash flow hedges outstanding.
Fuel Cash Flow Hedges Fuel costs are a significant portion of our total operating expenses. In 2005 and 2004, our primary means of mitigating the impact of adverse fuel price changes was our fuel surcharge programs. However, we may use swaps, collars, futures and/or forward contracts to further mitigate the impact of adverse fuel price changes. We hedged 120 million gallons of fuel during 2004 using collars with average cap, floor, and ceiling prices of $0.74, $0.64, and $0.86 per gallon, respectively. At December 31, 2004, there were no fuel hedges outstanding, and we did not have any fuel hedges in place during 2005.
Accounting Pronouncements In December 2004, the FASB issued Statement No. 123(R), Share-Based Payment. The statement requires that we recognize compensation expense equal to the fair value of stock options or other share-based payments starting January 1, 2006. We adopted the statement on a modified prospective basis, using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to calculate the fair value of stock options. We expect that the incremental, full-year compensation expense in 2006 related to the adoption of the statement will be approximately $13 million for new awards granted after January 1, 2006 and an additional $2 million for the unvested portion of awards granted in prior years. The expense for awards granted after implementation of the statement will be based upon their grant-date fair value. The expense for those awards will be based on the estimated number of awards that are expected to vest. That estimate will be revised if subsequent information indicates that the actual number of awards to vest will differ from the estimate. The estimate does not materially impact our calculation of compensation expense.
In March 2005, the FASB issued FASB Interpretation No. 47, Accounting for Conditional Asset Retirement Obligations an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 143 (FIN 47). This interpretation clarifies that the term conditional asset retirement obligations, as used in FASB Statement No. 143, refers to a legal obligation to perform an asset retirement activity in which the timing or method of settlement, or both, are conditional on a future event that may or may not be within the control of the entity. An entity must recognize a liability for the fair value of a conditional asset retirement obligation if the fair value of the liability can be reasonably estimated. We assessed the impact of the interpretation on our financial statements, determined that we have a legal obligation to properly dispose of asbestos-containing materials, and recorded a $5 million liability at December 31, 2005, for the fair value of this obligation.
In May 2005, the FASB issued FAS 154, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections, a Replacement of APB Opinion No. 20 and FASB Statement No. 3. This statement requires retrospective application to prior periods financial statements of changes in accounting principle, unless it is impracticable to determine either the period-specific effects or the cumulative effect of the change. It carries forward without change the previous guidance for reporting the correction of an error and a change in accounting estimate. FAS 154 is effective for accounting changes and corrections of errors made in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2005.
In July 2005, the FASB issued an exposure draft, Accounting for Uncertain Tax Positions, an Interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109. As drafted, the interpretation would require companies to recognize the best estimate of the impact of a tax position only if that position is probable of being sustained during a tax audit. However, in November 2005 the FASB voted to replace the probable threshold with a more-likely-than-not criterion when determining if the impact of a tax position should be recorded. The FASB expects to issue a final interpretation in the first quarter of 2006. When it is available, we will review the final interpretation to determine the impact it may have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In September 2005, the FASB issued an exposure draft, Earnings per Share, an Amendment of FASB Statement No. 128. The draft clarifies guidance for the treasury stock method, contracts that may be settled in cash or shares, and contingently issuable shares. The FASB expects to issue a final statement in the first quarter of 2006. We are currently reviewing this proposed exposure draft to determine the impact it may have on our calculation of earnings per share.
In December 2005, the FASB deliberated issues relating to the limited-scope, first phase of its project to reconsider the accounting for postretirement benefits, including pensions. The FASB decided that the objectives and scope of this phase include, among other items, recognizing the overfunded or underfunded status of defined benefit postretirement plans as an asset or a liability in the statement of financial position. The FASB expects to issue an exposure draft for the initial phase in the first quarter of 2006. In the second multi-year phase of the project, the FASB expects to comprehensively consider a variety of issues related to the accounting for postretirement benefits, including expense recognition, obligation measurement, and whether postretirement benefit trusts should be consolidated by the plan sponsor. We will review the proposed standards when they are available to determine the impact they may have on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Commitments and Contingencies Various claims and lawsuits are pending against us and certain of our subsidiaries. We are also subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, pursuant to which we are currently participating in the investigation and remediation of various sites. We do not expect that any known lawsuits, claims, environmental costs, commitments, contingent liabilities, or guarantees will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity after taking into account liabilities previously recorded for these matters.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Our Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires estimation and judgment that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The following critical accounting policies are a subset of our significant accounting policies described in the notes to the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8. These critical accounting policies affect significant areas of our financial statements and involve judgment and estimates. If these estimates differ significantly from actual results, the impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements may be material.
Asbestos We are a defendant in a number of lawsuits in which current and former employees allege exposure to asbestos. Additionally, we have received claims for asbestos exposure that have not been litigated. A liability for resolving both asserted and unasserted asbestos-related claims through 2034 has been estimated and recorded. During 2004, we engaged a third-party with extensive experience in estimating resolution costs for asbestos-related claims to assist us in assessing our potential liability. The liability for resolving both asserted and unasserted claims was based on the following assumptions:
At December 31, 2005 and 2004, $311 million and $324 million, respectively, was classified as liabilities on the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position, of which $16 million and $17 million, respectively, was classified as current accrued casualty costs. Approximately 16% of the recorded liability related to asserted claims and approximately 84% related to unasserted claims. These claims are expected to be paid out over the next 29 years. We have insurance coverage for a portion of the costs incurred to resolve asbestos-related claims, and we have recognized an asset for estimated insurance recoveries.
Our asbestos-related claims activity was as follows:
We believe that our liability for asbestos-related claims and the estimated insurance recoveries reflect reasonable and probable estimates. The amounts recorded for asbestos-related liabilities and related insurance recoveries were based on currently known facts. However, future events, such as the number of new claims to be filed each year, average settlement costs, and insurance coverage issues could cause the actual costs and insurance recoveries to be higher or lower than the projected amounts. Estimates may also vary due to changes in the litigation environment, federal and state law governing compensation of asbestos claimants, and the level of payments made to claimants by other defendants.
Additionally, we have a legal obligation to properly dispose of asbestos-containing materials. The estimated fair value of this obligation is $5 million at December 31, 2005, which is recorded as a liability on the Consolidated Statements of Financial Position pursuant to FIN 47.
Environmental We are subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. We identified 370 sites at which we are or may be liable for remediation costs associated with alleged contamination or for violations of environmental requirements. This includes 43 sites that are the subject of actions taken by the U.S. government, 23 of which are currently on the Superfund National Priorities List. Certain federal legislation imposes joint and several liability for the remediation of identified sites; consequently, our ultimate environmental liability may include costs relating to activities of other parties, in addition to costs relating to our own activities at each site.
When we identify an environmental issue with respect to property owned, leased, or otherwise used in the conduct of our business, we and our consultants perform environmental assessments on the property. We expense the cost of the assessments as incurred. We accrue the cost of remediation where our obligation is probable and we can reasonably estimate such costs. We do not discount our environmental liabilities when the timing of the anticipated cash payments is not fixed or readily determinable.
Environmental expenses for the years ended December 31, 2005, 2004, and 2003 were $45 million, $46 million, and $26 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had a liability of $213 million and $201 million, respectively, accrued for future environmental costs, of which $46 million and $50 million, respectively, were recorded in current liabilities as accrued casualty costs. The liability includes future costs for remediation and restoration of sites, as well as ongoing monitoring costs, but excludes any anticipated recoveries from third parties. Cost estimates are based on information available for each site, financial viability of other potentially responsible parties, and existing technology, laws, and regulations. The ultimate liability for remediation is difficult to determine because of the number of potentially responsible parties involved, site-specific cost sharing arrangements with other potentially responsible parties, the degree of contamination by various wastes, the scarcity and quality of volumetric data related to many of the sites, and the speculative nature of remediation costs. Current obligations are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
Personal Injury The cost of personal injuries to employees and others related to our activities is charged to expense based on estimates of the ultimate cost and number of incidents each year. We use third-party actuaries to assist us with measuring the expense and liability, including unasserted claims. The Federal Employers Liability Act (FELA) governs compensation for work-related accidents. Under FELA, damages are assessed based on a finding of fault through litigation or out-of-court settlements. We offer a comprehensive variety of services and rehabilitation programs for employees who are injured at work. Annual expenses for personal injury-related events were $247 million in 2005, $288 million in 2004, and $250 million in 2003. As of December 31, 2005 and 2004, we had accrued liabilities of $619 million and $639 million for future personal injury costs, respectively, of which $274 million was recorded in current liabilities as accrued casualty costs in both years. Estimates can vary over time due to evolving trends in litigation.
Our personal injury claims activity was as follows:
Depreciation The railroad industry is capital intensive. Properties are carried at cost. Provisions for depreciation are computed principally on the straight-line method based on estimated service lives of depreciable property. The lives are calculated using a separate composite annual percentage rate for each depreciable property group, based on the results of a depreciation study. We are required to submit a report on depreciation studies and proposed depreciation rates every three years for equipment property and every six years for road property to the STB for review and approval. The cost (net of salvage) of depreciable railroad property retired or replaced in the ordinary course of business is charged to accumulated depreciation, and no gain or loss is recognized. A gain or loss is recognized in other income for all other property upon disposition because the gain or loss is not part of rail operations. The cost of internally developed software is capitalized and amortized over a five-year period. An obsolescence review of capitalized software is performed on a periodic basis.
Capital spending in recent years has increased the total value of our depreciable assets. Cash capital spending totaled $2.2 billion for the year ended December 31, 2005. In 2003, we implemented depreciation studies, approved by the STB, resulting in lower depreciation expense of $50 million for the year ended December 31, 2003, due to a reduction in depreciation rates for certain track assets (effective January 1, 2003), partially offset by increased rates for locomotives and other assets (effective July 1, 2003). For the year ended December 31, 2005, depreciation expense was $1.2 billion. Various methods are used to estimate useful lives for each group of depreciable property. Due to the capital intensive nature of the business and the large base of depreciable assets, variances to those estimates could have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements. If the estimated useful lives of all depreciable assets were increased by one year, annual depreciation expense would decrease by approximately $40 million. If the estimated useful lives of all assets to be depreciated were decreased by one year, annual depreciation expense would increase by approximately $43 million.
Income Taxes As required under Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement No. 109, Accounting for Income Taxes, we account for income taxes by recording taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. These expected future tax consequences are measured based on provisions of tax law as currently enacted; the effects of future changes in tax laws are not anticipated. Future tax law changes, such as a change in the corporate tax rate, could have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. For example, a 1% increase in the federal income tax rate would increase our deferred tax liability by approximately $240 million.
When appropriate, we record a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets to offset future tax benefits that may not be realized. In determining whether a valuation allowance is appropriate, we consider whether it is more likely than not that all or some portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized, based in part on managements judgments regarding the best available evidence about future events. Based on that analysis, we have recorded a valuation allowance of $5 million and $11 million against certain deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, respectively.
Insurance Subsidiaries We have two consolidated, wholly-owned subsidiaries that provide insurance coverage for certain risks, including physical loss or property damage and certain other claims that are subject to reinsurance. At December 31, 2005, current accounts receivable and current accrued casualty costs included $65 million for reinsurance receivables and reinsured liability, respectively, held by one of our insurance subsidiaries
related to losses sustained during the West Coast storm in January 2005. This amount may change in the future as facts and circumstances surrounding the claim and the reinsurance are finalized and settled. We collected a partial recovery of our claim from reinsurance of $25 million during the fourth quarter of 2005.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits We use third-party actuaries to assist us in properly measuring the liabilities and expenses associated with providing pension and defined contribution medical and life insurance benefits (OPEB) to eligible employees. In order to use actuarial methods to value the liabilities and expenses we must make several assumptions. The critical assumptions used to measure pension obligations and expenses are the discount rate and expected rate of return on pension assets. For other postretirement benefits, the critical assumptions are the discount rate and healthcare cost trend rate.
We evaluate our critical assumptions at least annually, and selected assumptions are based on the following factors:
The following tables present the key assumptions used to measure pension and OPEB expense for 2005 and the estimated impact on 2005 pension and OPEB expense relative to a change in those assumptions:
Certain statements in this report, and statements in other material filed or to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us), are, or will be, forward-looking statements as defined by the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements regarding: expectations as to operational or service improvements; statements concerning expectations of the effectiveness of steps taken or to be taken to improve operations, service, or to stabilize the rail system, infrastructure improvements, transportation plan modifications, and management of customer traffic on the system to meet demand; expectations as to cost savings, revenue growth, and earnings; the time by which certain objectives will be achieved; statements or information concerning projections, predictions, expectations,
estimates, or forecasts as to our business, financial and operational results, future economic performance, and general economic conditions; statements of managements goals and objectives; proposed new products and services; estimates of costs relating to environmental remediation and restoration; expectations that claims, lawsuits, environmental costs, commitments, contingent liabilities, labor negotiations or agreements, or other matters will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity and any other similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts.
Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times that, or by which, such performance or results will be achieved, including expectations as to improvement of operational, service, and network fluidity improvements. Forward-looking information is subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in the statements.
The following important factors, in addition to those discussed in Risk Factors in Item 1A, could affect our future results and could cause those results or other outcomes to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements:
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statement was made. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking information to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect thereto or with respect to other forward-looking statements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Information concerning market risk sensitive instruments is set forth under Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Other Matters, Item 7.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Union Pacific Corporation, its Directors, and Shareholders:
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies (the Corporation) as of December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the related consolidated statements of income, changes in common shareholders equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2005. Our audits also included the consolidated financial statement schedule listed in the Table of Contents at Part IV, Item 15. These consolidated financial statements and consolidated financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Corporations management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the consolidated financial statements and consolidated financial statement schedule based on our audits.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies at December 31, 2005 and 2004, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2005, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, such consolidated financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.
As discussed in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements, the Corporation changed its method of accounting for asset retirement obligations in 2003.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the effectiveness of the Corporations internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2005, based on the criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 17, 2006 expressed an unqualified opinion on managements assessment of the effectiveness of the Corporations internal control over financial reporting and an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Corporations internal control over financial reporting.
February 17, 2006
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN COMMON SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY
Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies
For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to the Corporation, UPC, we, us, and our mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which will be separately referred to herein as UPRR&