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Union Pacific 10-Q 2011
Form 10-Q
Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

 

  [X]

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

  SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2011

OR

 

  [    ]

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

  SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                     to                     

Commission File Number 1-6075

UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

UTAH   13-2626465

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

1400 DOUGLAS STREET, OMAHA, NEBRASKA

(Address of principal executive offices)

68179

(Zip Code)

(402) 544-5000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

þ  Yes             ¨  No             

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

þ  Yes            ¨  No            

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer   þ        Accelerated filer   ¨        Non-accelerated filer   ¨        Smaller reporting company   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

¨  Yes             þ  No            

As of July 15, 2011, there were 488,088,696 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION

AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.

 

Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements:

  
 

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (Unaudited)
For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010

     3   
 

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (Unaudited)
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010

     4   
 

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION (Unaudited)
At June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010

     5   
 

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010

     6   
 

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN COMMON
SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Unaudited)
     For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2011 and 2010

     7   
 

NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Unaudited)

     8   

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     22   

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

     36   

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

     36   
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION   

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

     36   

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

     38   

Item 2.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

     38   

Item 3.

 

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

     38   

Item 5.

 

Other Information

     38   

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

     40   

Signatures

     41   

Certifications

  

 

2


Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income (Unaudited)

Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies

 

Millions, Except Per Share Amounts,

for the Three Months Ended June 30,

   2011      2010  

Operating revenues:

     

Freight revenues

   $         4,595       $         3,956   

Other revenues

     263         226   

 

Total operating revenues

     4,858         4,182   
                   

Operating expenses:

     

Compensation and benefits

     1,166         1,051   

Fuel

     904         608   

Purchased services and materials

     516         472   

Depreciation

     401         368   

Equipment and other rents

     283         282   

Other

     196         122   

 

Total operating expenses

     3,466         2,903   
                   

Operating income

     1,392         1,279   

Other income (Note 6)

     26         19   

Interest expense

     (148)         (152)   

Income before income taxes

     1,270         1,146   

Income taxes

     (485)         (435)   

 

Net income

   $ 785       $ 711   
                   

Share and Per Share (Note 8):

     

Earnings per share - basic

   $ 1.61       $ 1.42   

Earnings per share - diluted

   $ 1.59       $ 1.40   

Weighted average number of shares - basic

     488.4         501.8   

Weighted average number of shares - diluted

     492.4         506.5   

 

Dividends declared per share

   $ 0.475       $ 0.33   
                   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

3


Table of Contents

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income (Unaudited)

Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies

 

Millions, Except Per Share Amounts,

for the Six Months Ended June 30,

   2011     2010  

Operating revenues:

    

Freight revenues

   $         8,843      $         7,711   

Other revenues

     505        436   

 

Total operating revenues

     9,348        8,147   
                  

Operating expenses:

    

Compensation and benefits

     2,333        2,110   

Fuel

     1,730        1,191   

Purchased services and materials

     991        904   

Depreciation

     796        735   

Equipment and other rents

     585        572   

Other

     384        368   

 

Total operating expenses

     6,819        5,880   
                  

Operating income

     2,529        2,267   

Other income (Note 6)

     41        20   

Interest expense

     (289)        (307)   

Income before income taxes

     2,281        1,980   

Income taxes

     (857)        (753)   

 

Net income

   $ 1,424      $ 1,227   
                  

Share and Per Share (Note 8):

    

Earnings per share - basic

   $ 2.91      $ 2.44   

Earnings per share - diluted

   $ 2.89      $ 2.42   

Weighted average number of shares - basic

     489.0        503.1   

Weighted average number of shares - diluted

     493.3        507.6   

 

Dividends declared per share

   $ 0.855      $ 0.60   
                  

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

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Table of Contents

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Position (Unaudited)

Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies

 

Millions, Except Share and Per Share Amounts

   Jun. 30,
2011
    Dec. 31,
2010
 

Assets

    

Current assets:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $         1,055      $         1,086   

Accounts receivable, net (Note 10)

     1,427        1,184   

Materials and supplies

     630        534   

Current deferred income taxes (Note 7)

     315        261   

Other current assets

     272        367   

 

Total current assets

     3,699        3,432   
                  

Investments

     1,176        1,137   

Net properties (Note 11)

     38,908        38,253   

Other assets

     246        266   

 

Total assets

   $ 44,029      $ 43,088   
                  

Liabilities and Common Shareholders’ Equity

    

Current liabilities:

    

Accounts payable and other current liabilities (Note 12)

   $ 2,974      $ 2,713   

Debt due within one year (Note 14)

     179        239   

 

Total current liabilities

     3,153        2,952   
                  

Debt due after one year (Note 14)

     8,759        9,003   

Deferred income taxes (Note 7)

     12,016        11,557   

Other long-term liabilities

     1,795        1,813   

Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)

                

 

Total liabilities

     25,723        25,325   

 

Common shareholders’ equity:

    

Common shares, $2.50 par value, 800,000,000 authorized;

    

554,288,614 and 553,931,181 issued; 487,935,652 and 491,565,880 outstanding,

    

respectively

     1,386        1,385   

Paid-in-surplus

     3,999        3,985   

Retained earnings

     18,159        17,154   

Treasury stock

     (4,519)        (4,027)   

Accumulated other comprehensive loss (Note 9)

     (719)        (734)   

 

Total common shareholders’ equity

     18,306        17,763   

 

Total liabilities and common shareholders’ equity

   $ 44,029      $ 43,088   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

5


Table of Contents

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies

 

Millions,

for the Six Months Ended June 30,

   2011      2010  

Operating Activities

     

Net income

   $         1,424       $         1,227   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities:

     

Depreciation

     796         735   

Deferred income taxes and unrecognized tax benefits

     459         119   

Net gain on non-operating asset dispositions

     (5)         (8)   

Other operating activities, net

     (51)         (165)   

Changes in current assets and liabilities:

     

Accounts receivable, net (Note 10)

     (243)         (584)   

Materials and supplies

     (96)         (21)   

Other current assets

     95         75   

Accounts payable and other current liabilities

     261         317   

Cash provided by operating activities

     2,640         1,695   

Investing Activities

     

Capital investments

     (1,327)         (1,056)   

Proceeds from asset sales

     30         31   

Acquisition of equipment pending financing

     (85)          

Proceeds from sale of assets financed

     85          

Other investing activities, net

     (69)         (43)   

Cash used in investing activities

     (1,366)         (1,068)   

Financing Activities

     

Common share repurchases (Note 17)

     (608)         (422)   

Dividends paid

     (374)         (272)   

Debt exchange

     (272)          

Debt repaid

     (131)         (885)   

Debt issued (Note 14)

            400   

Other financing activities, net

     80         19   

Cash used in financing activities

     (1,305)         (1,160)   

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

     (31)         (533)   

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year

     1,086         1,850   

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

   $ 1,055       $ 1,317   

Supplemental Cash Flow Information

     

Non-cash investing and financing activities:

     

Cash dividends declared but not yet paid

   $ 228       $ 163   

Capital lease financings

     120          

Capital investments accrued but not yet paid

     100         71   

Common shares repurchased but not yet paid

            44   

Cash paid for:

     

Interest, net of amounts capitalized

   $ (315)       $ (316)   

Income taxes, net of refunds

     (135)         (343)   
                   

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

6


Table of Contents

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Common Shareholders’ Equity (Unaudited)

Union Pacific Corporation and Subsidiary Companies

 

Millions

  

Common

Shares

    

Treasury

Shares

    Common
Shares
     Paid-in-Surplus      Retained
Earnings
     Treasury
Stock
   

AOCI

[a]

    Total  

Balance at January 1, 2010

     553.5          (48.5)      $   1,384        $   3,968        $   15,027        $   (2,924)      $   (654)      $   16,801    

Comprehensive income:

                      

Net income

                            1,227                       1,277   

Other comp. income

                                                  

Total comp. income (Note 9)

                                                       1,233    

Conversion, stock option

  exercises, forfeitures, and other

     0.4          0.9                10                  47               58   

Share repurchases (Note 17)

             (6.5)                                (466)               (466)   

Cash dividends declared

  ($0.60 per share)

                                    (303)                       (303)   

Balance at June 30, 2010

     553.9          (54.1)      $ 1,385        $ 3,978        $ 15,951        $ (3,343)      $ (648)      $ 17,323    
   
                                                                      

Balance at January 1, 2011

     553.9          (62.3)      $ 1,385        $ 3,985        $ 17,154        $ (4,027)      $ (734)      $ 17,763    

Comprehensive income:

                      

Net income

                            1,424                       1,424   

Other comp. income

                                           15        15   

Total comp. income (Note 9)

                                                       1,439    

Conversion, stock option

  exercises, forfeitures, and other

     0.4          2.1                14                  116               131   

Share repurchases (Note 17)

             (6.2)                                (608)               (608)   

Cash dividends declared

  ($0.855 per share)

                                    (419)                       (419)   

Balance at June 30, 2011

     554.3          (66.4)      $ 1,386        $ 3,999        $ 18,159        $ (4,519)      $ (719)      $ 18,306    

 

[a]

AOCI = Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income/(Loss) (See Note 9)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

7


Table of Contents

UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

NOTES TO THE CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to the “Corporation”, “UPC”, “we”, “us”, and “our” mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which will be separately referred to herein as “UPRR” or the “Railroad”.

1. Basis of Presentation

Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are unaudited and reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments) that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for their fair presentation in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). Our Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at December 31, 2010, is derived from audited financial statements. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto contained in our 2010 Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2011, are not necessarily indicative of the results for the entire year ending December 31, 2011.

The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America as codified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC).

2. Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income (ASU 2011-05). ASU 2011-05 will require companies to present the components of net income and other comprehensive income either as one continuous statement or as two consecutive statements. It eliminates the option to present components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity. The standard does not change the items which must be reported in other comprehensive income, how such items are measured or when they must be reclassified to net income. This standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2011. Because this ASU impacts presentation only, it will have no effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

3. Operations and Segmentation

The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable operating segment. Although revenue is analyzed by commodity group, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of our rail network. The following table provides freight revenue by commodity group:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Agricultural

   $ 849        $ 698        $ 1,656        $ 1,428    

Automotive

     381          334          723          639    

Chemicals

     703          592          1,367          1,179    

Energy

     950          836          1,902          1,680    

Industrial Products

     803          692          1,493          1,290    

Intermodal

     909          804          1,702          1,495    

Total freight revenues

     4,595          3,956          8,843          7,711    

Other revenues

     263          226          505          436    

 

Total operating revenues

   $     4,858        $ 4,182        $     9,348        $     8,147    
                                     

Although our revenues are principally derived from customers domiciled in the U.S., the ultimate points of origination or destination for some products transported are outside the U.S.

 

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Table of Contents

4. Stock-Based Compensation

We have several stock-based compensation plans under which employees and non-employee directors receive stock options, nonvested retention shares, and nonvested stock units. We refer to the nonvested shares and stock units collectively as “retention awards”. We have elected to issue treasury shares to cover option exercises and stock unit vestings, while new shares are issued when retention shares are granted. Information regarding stock-based compensation appears in the table below:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Stock-based compensation, before tax:

           

Stock options

   $       $       $       $   

Retention awards

     17          16          34          29    

 

Total stock-based compensation, before tax

   $ 21        $     21        $     43        $     38    

Excess tax benefits from equity compensation plans

   $     29        $       $ 67        $ 11    

Stock Options – We estimate the fair value of our stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The table below shows the year-to-date weighted-average assumptions used for valuation purposes:

 

Weighted-Average Assumptions

   2011      2010  

Risk-free interest rate

     2.3%         2.4%   

Dividend yield

     1.6%         1.8%   

Expected life (years)

     5.3            5.4      

Volatility

     35.9%         35.2%   

Weighted-average grant-date fair value of options granted

   $     28.45       $     18.26   
                   

The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant; the dividend yield is calculated as the ratio of dividends paid per share of common stock to the stock price on the date of grant; the expected life is based on historical and expected exercise behavior; and volatility is based on the historical volatility of our stock price over the expected life of the option.

A summary of stock option activity during the six months ended June 30, 2011 is presented below:

 

      Shares
(thous.)
     Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
     Weighted-Average
Remaining
Contractual Term
     Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(millions)
 

Outstanding at January 1, 2011

     9,815       $     44.77          5.2 yrs.        $     470    

Granted

     618         93.60          N/A          N/A    

Exercised

     (2,659)         37.98          N/A          N/A    

Forfeited or expired

     (40)         63.11          N/A          N/A    

Outstanding at June 30, 2011

     7,734       $ 50.91          5.7 yrs.        $ 414    
                                     

Vested or expected to vest at June 30, 2011

     7,645       $ 50.71          5.7 yrs.        $ 410    
                                     

Options exercisable at June 30, 2011

     6,077       $ 46.12          4.9 yrs.        $ 354    
                                     

Stock options are granted at the closing price on the date of grant, have ten-year contractual terms, and vest no later than three years from the date of grant. None of the stock options outstanding at June 30, 2011 are subject to performance or market-based vesting conditions.

 

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At June 30, 2011, there was $25 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to nonvested stock options, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.2 years. Additional information regarding stock option exercises appears in the table below:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Intrinsic value of stock options exercised

   $       76       $       8       $       165       $       26   

Cash received from option exercises

     44         11         106         34   

Treasury shares repurchased for employee payroll taxes

     (16)         (2)         (41)         (8)   

Tax benefit realized from option exercises

     29                63         10   

Aggregate grant-date fair value of stock options vested

                   19         19   

Retention Awards – The fair value of retention awards is based on the closing price of the stock on the grant date. Dividends and dividend equivalents are paid to participants during the vesting periods.

Changes in our retention awards during the six months ended June 30, 2011 were as follows:

 

      Shares
(thous.)
     Weighted-Average
Grant-Date Fair Value
 

Nonvested at January 1, 2011

     2,638         $    54.01    

Granted

     528         93.68    

Vested

     (527)         48.58    

Forfeited

     (54)         57.46    

Nonvested at June 30, 2011

     2,585         $    63.15    
                   

Retention awards are granted at no cost to the employee or non-employee director and vest over periods lasting up to four years. At June 30, 2011, there was $90 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to nonvested retention awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2 years.

Performance Retention Awards – In February 2011, our Board of Directors approved performance stock unit grants. Other than different performance targets, the basic terms of these performance stock units are identical to those granted in February 2009 and February 2010, including using annual return on invested capital (ROIC) as the performance measure. We define ROIC as net operating profit adjusted for interest expense (including interest on the present value of operating leases) and taxes on interest divided by average invested capital adjusted for the present value of operating leases.

Stock units awarded to selected employees under these grants are subject to continued employment for 37 months and the attainment of certain levels of ROIC. We expense the fair value of the units that are probable of being earned based on our forecasted ROIC over the 3-year performance period. We measure the fair value of these performance stock units based upon the closing price of the underlying common stock as of the date of grant, reduced by the present value of estimated future dividends. Dividend equivalents are paid to participants only after the units are earned.

The assumptions used to calculate the present value of estimated future dividends related to the February 2011 grant were as follows:

 

      2011    

Dividend per share for the quarter

   $     0.38      

Risk-free interest rate at date of grant

     1.2%     
          

 

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Changes in our performance retention awards during the six months ended June 30, 2011 were as follows:

 

      Shares
(thous.)
     Weighted-Average
Grant-Date Fair Value
 

Nonvested at January 1, 2011

     1,151         $    53.93    

Granted

     376         89.87    

Vested

     (194)         60.20    

Forfeited

     (116)         59.64    

 

Nonvested at June 30, 2011

     1,217         $    63.49    
                   

At June 30, 2011, there was $45 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to nonvested performance retention awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.6 years. A portion of this expense is subject to achievement of the ROIC levels established for the performance stock unit grants.

5. Retirement Plans

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits

Pension Plans – We provide defined benefit retirement income to eligible non-union employees through qualified and non-qualified (supplemental) pension plans. Qualified and non-qualified pension benefits are based on years of service and the highest compensation during the latest years of employment, with specific reductions made for early retirements.

Other Postretirement Benefits (OPEB) – We provide medical and life insurance benefits for eligible retirees. These benefits are funded as medical claims and life insurance premiums are paid.

Expense

Both pension and OPEB expense are determined based upon the annual service cost of benefits (the actuarial cost of benefits earned during a period) and the interest cost on those liabilities, less the expected return on plan assets. The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is applied to a calculated value of plan assets that recognizes changes in fair value over a five-year period. This practice is intended to reduce year-to-year volatility in pension expense, but it can have the effect of delaying the recognition of differences between actual returns on assets and expected returns based on long-term rate of return assumptions. Differences in actual experience in relation to assumptions are not recognized in net income immediately, but are deferred and, if necessary, amortized as pension or OPEB expense.

The components of our net periodic pension cost were as follows:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Service cost

   $         11       $         11       $         22       $         22   

Interest cost

     36         35         72         70   

Expected return on plan assets

     (45)         (44)         (90)         (89)   

Amortization of:

           

Prior service cost

                           

Actuarial loss

     18         10         35         21   

 

Net periodic pension cost

   $ 20       $ 13       $ 40       $ 26   
                                     

 

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The components of our net periodic OPEB cost/(benefit) were as follows:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Service cost

   $         -        $         -       $         1       $         1   

Interest cost

                           

Amortization of:

           

Prior service (credit)

     (9)         (11)         (18)         (22)   

Actuarial loss

                           

 

Net periodic OPEB benefit

   $ (1)       $ (3)        $ (2)       $ (6)   
                                     

Cash Contributions

For the six months ended June 30, 2011, we did not make any cash contributions to the qualified pension plan. Any additional contributions made in the second half of the year will be based on cash generated from operations and financial market considerations. Our policy with respect to funding the qualified plans is to fund at least the minimum required by law and not more than the maximum amount deductible for tax purposes. At June 30, 2011, we do not have minimum funding requirements for 2011.

6. Other Income

Other income included the following:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Rental income

   $         19       $         21       $         39       $         41   

Net gain on non-operating asset dispositions

                           

Interest income

                           

Early extinguishment of debt

                          (16)   

Non-operating environmental costs and other

            (5)         (5)         (15)   

 

Total

   $ 26       $ 19       $ 41       $ 20   
                                     

7. Income Taxes

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) examinations have been completed and settled for all years prior to 1999, and the statute of limitations bars any additional tax assessments. Interest calculations may remain open for years prior to 1999. The IRS has completed its examinations and issued notices of deficiency for tax years 1999 through 2006. We disagree with many of their proposed adjustments, and we are at IRS Appeals for these years. During the second quarter of 2011, the IRS completed its examination and issued a notice of deficiency for tax years 2007 and 2008. We disagree with many of their proposed adjustments, and will contest the adjustments through the IRS Appeals process and potentially through litigation. We anticipate a partial settlement of the tax years 1999 through 2004 in the next 12 months. Several state tax authorities are examining our state income tax returns for tax years 2003 through 2006.

Based on the IRS’s examination report for tax years 2007 and 2008, we increased our liability for uncertain tax benefits from $86 million at December 31, 2010, to $149 million at June 30, 2011. Most of this increase is a reclassification from our deferred income tax liability. Of the $149 million, we have classified $78 million as current in anticipation of a partial settlement in the next 12 months for tax years 1999 through 2004.

In February 2011, Arizona enacted legislation that will decrease the state’s corporate tax rate. This reduced our deferred tax expense by $14 million in the first quarter of 2011.

 

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8. Earnings Per Share

The following table provides a reconciliation between basic and diluted earnings per share:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions, Except Per Share Amounts

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Net income

   $       785        $       711        $       1,424        $       1,227    
                                     

Weighted-average number of shares outstanding:

           

Basic

     488.4          501.8          489.0          503.1    

Dilutive effect of stock options

     1.4          3.4          1.4          3.2    

Dilutive effect of retention shares and units

     2.6          1.3          2.9          1.3    

 

Diluted

     492.4          506.5          493.3          507.6    
                                     

Earnings per share – basic

   $       1.61        $ 1.42        $       2.91        $       2.44    

Earnings per share – diluted

   $       1.59        $ 1.40        $ 2.89        $ 2.42    

Stock options excluded as their inclusion would be antidilutive

     0.6          0.8          0.5          0.7    
                                     

9. Comprehensive Income

Comprehensive income was as follows:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     Six Months Ended
June 30,
 

Millions

   2011      2010      2011      2010  

Net income

   $       785       $       711       $       1,424       $       1,227   

Other comprehensive income/(loss):

           

Defined benefit plans

                           

Foreign currency translation

            (1)         14          

Derivatives

                           

 

Total other comprehensive income [a]

                   15          
                                     

Total comprehensive income

   $       794       $ 711       $ 1,439       $ 1,233   
                                     

 

[a]

Net of deferred taxes of $5 million and $9 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2011, respectively, and $0 million and $1 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2010, respectively.

The after-tax components of accumulated other comprehensive loss were as follows:

 

Millions

   Jun. 30,
2011
     Dec. 31,
2010
 

Defined benefit plans

   $       (702)       $ (703)   

Foreign currency translation

     (14)         (28)   

Derivatives

     (3)         (3)   

Total

   $       (719)       $       (734)   
                   

10. Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable includes freight and other receivables reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance is based upon historical losses, credit worthiness of customers, and current economic conditions. At June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, our accounts receivable were reduced by $6 million and $5 million, respectively. Receivables not expected to be collected in one year and the associated allowances are classified as other assets in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Position. At June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, receivables classified as other assets were reduced by allowances of $49 million and $51 million, respectively.

 

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Receivables Securitization Facility – Under the receivables securitization facility, the Railroad sells most of its accounts receivable to Union Pacific Receivables, Inc. (UPRI), a bankruptcy-remote subsidiary. UPRI may subsequently transfer, without recourse on a 364-day revolving basis, an undivided interest in eligible accounts receivable to investors. The total capacity to transfer undivided interests to investors under the facility was $600 million at June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010. The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors under the facility was $100 million at June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, and is included in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Position as debt due after one year. The value of the undivided interest held by investors was supported by $1.1 billion and $960 million of accounts receivable at June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010, respectively. At June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010, the value of the interest retained by UPRI was $1.1 billion and $960 million, respectively. This retained interest is included in accounts receivable, net in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Position.

The value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors could fluctuate based upon the availability of eligible receivables and is directly affected by changing business volumes and credit risks, including default and dilution. If default or dilution ratios increase one percent, the value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors would not change as of June 30, 2011. Should our credit rating fall below investment grade, the value of the outstanding undivided interest held by investors would be reduced, and, in certain cases, the investors would have the right to discontinue the facility.

The Railroad collected approximately $4.6 billion and $4.0 billion during the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and $8.9 billion and $7.7 billion during the six months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, respectively. UPRI used certain of these proceeds to purchase new receivables under the facility.

The costs of the receivables securitization facility include interest, which will vary based on prevailing commercial paper rates, program fees paid to banks, commercial paper issuing costs, and fees for unused commitment availability. The costs of the receivables securitization facility are included in interest expense and were $1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2011 and 2010, and $2 million and $3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2011, and 2010, respectively.

The investors have no recourse to the Railroad’s other assets except for customary warranty and indemnity claims. Creditors of the Railroad do not have recourse to the assets of UPRI.

We are currently in process of renewing the receivables securitization facility for an additional 364-day period at comparable terms and conditions.

 

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11. Properties

The following tables list the major categories of property and equipment, as well as the weighted average composite depreciation rate for each category:

 

Millions, Except Percentages

As of June 30, 2011

   Cost      Accumulated
Depreciation
     Net Book
Value
     Depreciation
Rate for 2011
 

Land

   $ 5,008        $ N/A        $ 5,008          N/A    
                                     

Road:

           

Rail and other track material [a]

     12,221          4,506          7,715          3.3%    

Ties

     7,814          1,944          5,870          2.9%    

Ballast

     4,081          969          3,112          3.0%    

Other [b]

     13,783          2,437          11,346          2.6%    

Total road

     37,899          9,856          28,043          2.9%    
                                     

Equipment:

           

Locomotives

     6,198          2,817          3,381          5.7%    

Freight cars

     1,926          1,059          867          3.5%    

Work equipment and other

     443          42          401          5.6%    

Total equipment

     8,567          3,918          4,649          5.2%    
                                     

Technology and other

     571          253          318          12.7%    

Construction in progress

     890                  890          N/A    

Total

   $   52,935        $   14,027        $   38,908          N/A    
                                     

 

[a]

Includes a weighted-average composite depreciation rate for rail in high-density traffic corridors.

 

[b]

Other includes grading, bridges and tunnels, signals, buildings, and other road assets.

 

Millions, Except Percentages

As of December 31, 2010

   Cost      Accumulated
Depreciation
     Net Book
Value
     Depreciation
Rate for 2010
 

Land

   $ 4,984        $ N/A        $ 4,984          N/A    
                                     

Road:

           

Rail and other track material [a]

     11,992          4,458          7,534          3.1%    

Ties

     7,631          1,858          5,773          2.8%    

Ballast

     4,011          944          3,067          3.0%    

Other [b]

     13,634          2,376          11,258          2.5%    

Total road

     37,268          9,636          27,632          2.8%    
                                     

Equipment:

           

Locomotives

     6,136          2,699          3,437          5.6%    

Freight cars

     1,886          1,040          846          3.6%    

Work equipment and other

     305          39          266          4.0%    

Total equipment

     8,327          3,778          4,549          5.1%    
                                     

Technology and other

     565          241          324          13.2%    

Construction in progress

     764                  764          N/A    

Total

   $   51,908        $   13,655        $   38,253          N/A    
                                     

 

[a]

Includes a weighted-average composite depreciation rate for rail in high-density traffic corridors.

 

[b]

Other includes grading, bridges and tunnels, signals, buildings, and other road assets.

 

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12. Accounts Payable and Other Current Liabilities

 

Millions

   Jun. 30,
2011
     Dec. 31,
2010
 

Accounts payable

   $ 816        $ 677    

Income and other taxes

     418          337    

Dividends and interest

     400          383    

Accrued wages and vacation

     360          357    

Accrued casualty costs

     337          325    

Equipment rents payable

     92          86    

Other

     551          548    

 

Total accounts payable and other current liabilities

   $     2,974        $ 2,713    
                   

13. Financial Instruments

Strategy and Risk – We may use derivative financial instruments in limited instances for other than trading purposes to assist in managing our overall exposure to fluctuations in interest rates and fuel prices. We are not a party to leveraged derivatives and, by policy, do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Derivative financial instruments qualifying for hedge accounting must maintain a specified level of effectiveness between the hedging instrument and the item being hedged, both at inception and throughout the hedged period. We formally document the nature and relationships between the hedging instruments and hedged items at inception, as well as our risk-management objectives, strategies for undertaking the various hedge transactions, and method of assessing hedge effectiveness. Changes in the fair market value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are charged to earnings. We may use swaps, collars, futures, and/or forward contracts to mitigate the risk of adverse movements in interest rates and fuel prices; however, the use of these derivative financial instruments may limit future benefits from favorable price movements.

Determination of Fair Value – We determine the fair values of our derivative financial instrument positions based upon current fair values as quoted by recognized dealers or the present value of expected future cash flows.

Interest Rate Cash Flow Hedges – We report changes in the fair value of cash flow hedges in accumulated other comprehensive loss until the hedged item affects earnings. At June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, we had reductions of $2 million and $3 million, respectively, recorded as an accumulated other comprehensive loss that is being amortized on a straight-line basis through September 30, 2014. As of June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, we had no interest rate cash flow hedges outstanding.

Earnings Impact – Our use of derivative financial instruments had the following impact on pre-tax income for the six months ended June 30:

 

Millions

   2011      2010  

Decrease in interest expense from interest rate hedging

   $         -        $         2    

Increase in pre-tax income

   $         -        $         2    

Fair Value of Financial Instruments – The fair value of our short- and long-term debt was estimated using quoted market prices, where available, or current borrowing rates. At June 30, 2011, the fair value of total debt was $9.9 billion, approximately $1.0 billion more than the carrying value. At December 31, 2010, the fair value of total debt was $10.4 billion, approximately $1.2 billion more than the carrying value. At June 30, 2011 and December 31, 2010, approximately $303 million of fixed-rate debt securities contained call provisions that allow us to retire the debt instruments prior to final maturity, with the payment of fixed call premiums, or in certain cases, at par. The fair value of our cash equivalents approximates their carrying value due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.

 

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14. Debt

Credit Facilities – During the second quarter of 2011, we replaced our $1.9 billion revolving credit facility, which would have expired in April 2012, with a new $1.8 billion facility that expires in May 2015 (the facility). The facility is based on substantially similar terms as those in the previous credit facility. On June 30, 2011, we had $1.8 billion of credit available under the facility, which is designated for general corporate purposes and supports the issuance of commercial paper. We did not draw on the facility during the six months ended June 30, 2011. Commitment fees and interest rates payable under the facility are similar to fees and rates available to comparably rated, investment-grade borrowers. The facility allows for borrowings at floating rates based on London Interbank Offered Rates, plus a spread, depending upon our senior unsecured debt ratings. The facility requires Union Pacific Corporation to maintain a debt-to-net-worth coverage ratio as a condition to making a borrowing. At June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010 (and at all times during the first and second quarters), we were in compliance with this covenant.

The definition of debt used for purposes of calculating the debt-to-net-worth coverage ratio includes, among other things, certain credit arrangements, capital leases, guarantees and unfunded and vested pension benefits under Title IV of ERISA. At June 30, 2011, the debt-to-net-worth coverage ratio allowed us to carry up to $36.6 billion of debt (as defined in the facility), and we had $9.3 billion of debt (as defined in the facility) outstanding at that date. Under our current capital plans, we expect to continue to satisfy the debt-to-net-worth coverage ratio; however, many factors beyond our reasonable control could affect our ability to comply with this provision in the future. The facility does not include any other financial restrictions, credit rating triggers (other than rating-dependent pricing), or any other provision that could require us to post collateral. The facility also includes a $75 million cross-default provision and a change-of-control provision.

During the six months ended June 30, 2011, we did not issue or repay any commercial paper, and at June 30, 2011, we had no commercial paper outstanding. Outstanding commercial paper balances are supported by our revolving credit facility but do not reduce the amount of borrowings available under the facility.

Shelf Registration Statement and Significant New Borrowings – Under our current shelf registration, we may issue, from time to time, any combination of debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or warrants for debt securities or preferred stock in one or more offerings. We have no immediate plans to issue equity securities; however, we will continue to explore opportunities to replace existing debt or access capital through issuances of debt securities under our shelf registration, and, therefore, we may issue additional debt securities at any time.

As of June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010, we reclassified as long-term debt approximately $574 million and $100 million, respectively, of debt due within one year that we intend to refinance. This reclassification reflects our ability and intent to refinance any short-term borrowings and certain current maturities of long-term debt on a long-term basis.

Debt Exchange – On May 23, 2011, we announced the commencement of a private offer to exchange various outstanding notes and debentures due between 2013 and 2019 (Existing Notes). The exchange transaction closed on June 23, 2011, at which time $857 million of Existing Notes were exchanged for $750 million of 4.163% notes (New Notes) due July 15, 2022, plus cash consideration of approximately $267 million and $17 million for accrued and unpaid interest on the Existing Notes. The cash consideration, which will be recorded as an adjustment to the carrying value of debt, and the balance of the unamortized discount and issue costs from the Existing Notes will be amortized as an adjustment of interest expense over the term of the New Notes. No gain or loss will be recognized as a result of the exchange. Costs related to the debt exchange that are payable to parties other than the debt holders total approximately $6 million and are included in interest expense during the second quarter.

 

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The following table lists the outstanding notes and debentures that were exchanged:

 

Millions

   Principal amount
exchanged
 

7.875% Notes due 2019

   $         196    

5.450% Notes due 2013

     50    

5.125% Notes due 2014

     45    

5.375% Notes due 2014

     55    

5.700% Notes due 2018

     277    

5.750% Notes due 2017

     178    

7.000% Debentures due 2016

     38    

5.650% Notes due 2017

     18    

Total

   $         857    
          

Debt Redemption – On March 22, 2010, we redeemed $175 million of our 6.5% notes due April 15, 2012. The redemption resulted in an early extinguishment charge of $16 million in the first quarter of 2010.

15. Variable Interest Entities

We have entered into various lease transactions in which the structure of the leases contain variable interest entities (VIEs). These VIEs were created solely for the purpose of doing lease transactions (principally involving railroad equipment and facilities) and have no other activities, assets or liabilities outside of the lease transactions. Within these lease arrangements, we have the right to purchase some or all of the assets at fixed prices. Depending on market conditions, fixed-price purchase options available in the leases could potentially provide benefits to us; however, these benefits are not expected to be significant.

We maintain and operate the assets based on contractual obligations within the lease arrangements, which set specific guidelines consistent within the railroad industry. As such, we have no control over activities that could materially impact the fair value of the leased assets. We do not hold the power to direct the activities of the VIEs and, therefore, do not control the ongoing activities that have a significant impact on the economic performance of the VIEs. Additionally, we do not have the obligation to absorb losses of the VIEs or the right to receive benefits of the VIEs that could potentially be significant to the VIEs.

We are not considered to be the primary beneficiary and do not consolidate these VIEs because our actions and decisions do not have the most significant effect on the VIE’s performance and our fixed-price purchase price options are not considered to be potentially significant to the VIE’s. The future minimum lease payments associated with the VIE leases totaled $4.1 billion as of June 30, 2011.

16. Commitments and Contingencies

Asserted and Unasserted Claims – Various claims and lawsuits are pending against us and certain of our subsidiaries. We cannot fully determine the effect of all asserted and unasserted claims on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity; however, to the extent possible, where asserted and unasserted claims are considered probable and where such claims can be reasonably estimated, we have recorded a liability. We do not expect that any known lawsuits, claims, environmental costs, commitments, contingent liabilities, or guarantees will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity after taking into account liabilities and insurance recoveries previously recorded for these matters.

 

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Personal Injury – The cost of personal injuries to employees and others related to our activities is charged to expense based on estimates of the ultimate cost and number of incidents each year. We use an actuarial analysis to measure the expense and liability, including unasserted claims. The Federal Employers’ Liability Act (FELA) governs compensation for work-related accidents. Under FELA, damages are assessed based on a finding of fault through litigation or out-of-court settlements. We offer a comprehensive variety of services and rehabilitation programs for employees who are injured at work.

Our personal injury liability is discounted to present value using applicable U.S. Treasury rates. Approximately 88% of the recorded liability is related to asserted claims, and approximately 12% is related to unasserted claims at June 30, 2011. Estimates can vary over time due to evolving trends in litigation.

Our personal injury liability activity was as follows:

 

Millions,

for the Six Months Ended June 30,

   2011      2010  

Beginning balance

   $     426       $     545   

Current year accruals

     67         82   

Changes in estimates for prior years

     (39)         (56)   

Payments

     (53)         (109)   

 

Ending balance at June 30

   $ 401       $ 462   
                   

 

Current portion, ending balance at June 30

   $ 140       $ 157   
                   

Asbestos – We are a defendant in a number of lawsuits in which current and former employees and other parties allege exposure to asbestos. We assess our potential liability using a statistical analysis of resolution costs for asbestos-related claims. This liability is updated annually and excludes future defense and processing costs. The liability for resolving both asserted and unasserted claims was based on the following assumptions:

 

   

The ratio of future claims by alleged disease would be consistent with historical averages.

   

The number of claims filed against us will decline each year.

   

The average settlement values for asserted and unasserted claims will be equivalent to historical averages.

   

The percentage of claims dismissed in the future will be equivalent to historical averages.

Our liability for asbestos-related claims is not discounted to present value due to the uncertainty surrounding the timing of future payments. Approximately 20% of the recorded liability related to asserted claims and approximately 80% related to unasserted claims at June 30, 2011.

Our asbestos-related liability activity was as follows:

 

Millions,

for the Six Months Ended June 30,

   2011      2010  

Beginning balance

   $     162       $     174   

Accruals

             

Payments

     (5)         (6)   

 

Ending balance at June 30

   $ 157       $ 168   
                   

 

Current portion, ending balance at June 30

   $ 11       $ 13   
                   

We have insurance coverage for a portion of the costs incurred to resolve asbestos-related claims, and we have recognized an asset for estimated insurance recoveries at June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010.

 

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We believe that our estimates of liability for asbestos-related claims and insurance recoveries are reasonable and probable. The amounts recorded for asbestos-related liabilities and related insurance recoveries were based on currently known facts. However, future events, such as the number of new claims filed each year, average settlement costs, and insurance coverage issues, could cause the actual costs and insurance recoveries to be higher or lower than the projected amounts. Estimates also may vary in the future if strategies, activities, and outcomes of asbestos litigation materially change; federal and state laws governing asbestos litigation increase or decrease the probability or amount of compensation of claimants; and there are material changes with respect to payments made to claimants by other defendants.

Environmental Costs – We are subject to federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations. We have identified 294 sites at which we are or may be liable for remediation costs associated with alleged contamination or for violations of environmental requirements. This includes 33 sites that are the subject of actions taken by the U.S. government, 17 of which are currently on the Superfund National Priorities List. Certain federal legislation imposes joint and several liability for the remediation of identified sites; consequently, our ultimate environmental liability may include costs relating to activities of other parties, in addition to costs relating to our own activities at each site.

When we identify an environmental issue with respect to property owned, leased, or otherwise used in our business, we and our consultants perform environmental assessments on the property. We expense the cost of the assessments as incurred. We accrue the cost of remediation where our obligation is probable and such costs can be reasonably estimated. We do not discount our environmental liabilities when the timing of the anticipated cash payments is not fixed or readily determinable. At June 30, 2011, less than 1% of our environmental liability was discounted at 3.2%, while approximately 5% of our environmental liability was discounted at 2.8% at December 31, 2010.

Our environmental liability activity was as follows:

 

Millions,

for the Six Months Ended June 30,

   2011      2010  

Beginning balance

   $     213       $     217   

Accruals

     17         20   

Payments

     (22)         (18)   

 

Ending balance at June 30

   $ 208       $ 219   
                   

 

Current portion, ending balance at June 30

   $ 74       $ 82   
                   

The environmental liability includes future costs for remediation and restoration of sites, as well as ongoing monitoring costs, but excludes any anticipated recoveries from third parties. Cost estimates are based on information available for each site, financial viability of other potentially responsible parties, and existing technology, laws, and regulations. The ultimate liability for remediation is difficult to determine because of the number of potentially responsible parties, site-specific cost sharing arrangements with other potentially responsible parties, the degree of contamination by various wastes, the scarcity and quality of volumetric data related to many of the sites, and the speculative nature of remediation costs. Estimates of liability may vary over time due to changes in federal, state, and local laws governing environmental remediation. Current obligations are not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.

Guarantees – At June 30, 2011, we were contingently liable for $358 million in guarantees. We have recorded a liability of $2 million and $3 million for the fair value of these obligations as of June 30, 2011, and December 31, 2010, respectively. We entered into these contingent guarantees in the normal course of business, and they include guaranteed obligations related to our headquarters building, equipment financings, and affiliated operations. The final guarantee expires in 2022. We are not aware of any existing event of default that would require us to satisfy these guarantees. We do not expect that these guarantees will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

 

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Indemnities – Our maximum potential exposure under indemnification arrangements, including certain tax indemnifications, can range from a specified dollar amount to an unlimited amount, depending on the nature of the transactions and the agreements. Due to uncertainty as to whether claims will be made or how they will be resolved, we cannot reasonably determine the probability of an adverse claim or reasonably estimate any adverse liability or the total maximum exposure under these indemnification arrangements. We do not have any reason to believe that we will be required to make any material payments under these indemnity provisions.

Operating Leases – At June 30, 2011, we had commitments for future minimum lease payments under operating leases with initial or remaining non-cancelable lease terms in excess of one year of approximately $4.7 billion.

17. Share Repurchase Program

The shares repurchased in the first quarter, shown in the table below, were repurchased under our authorized share repurchase program that expired on March 31, 2011. Effective April 1, 2011, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of 40 million common shares of UPC by March 31, 2014, replacing our previous repurchase program. The shares repurchased in the second quarter, shown in the table below, were purchased under the new program. As of June 30, 2011, we had repurchased a total of $4.8 billion of UPC common stock since the commencement of purchases under our repurchase programs.

 

     Number of Shares Purchased      Average Price Paid  
     2011                  2010      2011      2010  

First quarter [a]

    2,636,178                $     94.10        $   

Second quarter

    3,576,399          6,496,400          100.75          71.74    

Total

    6,212,577          6,496,400        $     97.92        $ 71.74    

Remaining number of shares that may yet be repurchased

             36,423,601    
                                    

 

[a]

Shares repurchased in the first quarter were authorized by a prior share repurchase program, which expired March 31, 2011.

Management’s assessments of market conditions and other pertinent facts guide the timing and volume of all repurchases. We expect to fund any share repurchases under this program through cash generated from operations, the sale or lease of various operating and non-operating properties, debt issuances, and cash on hand. Repurchased shares are recorded in treasury stock at cost, which includes any applicable commissions and fees.

 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2011, Compared to

Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2010

For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to “UPC”, “Corporation”, “we”, “us”, and “our” shall mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which we separately refer to as “UPRR” or the “Railroad”.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and applicable notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Item 1, and other information included in this report. Our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are unaudited and reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal and recurring adjustments) that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for their fair presentation in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP).

The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable business segment. Although revenue is analyzed by commodity, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of the rail network.

Available Information

Our Internet website is www.up.com. We make available free of charge on our website (under the “Investors” caption link) our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) documents; our current reports on Form 8-K; our proxy statements; Forms 3, 4, and 5, filed on behalf of directors and executive officers; and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We also make available on our website previously filed SEC reports and exhibits via a link to EDGAR on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov. Additionally, our corporate governance materials, including By-Laws, Board Committee charters, governance guidelines and policies, and codes of conduct and ethics for directors, officers, and employees are available on our website. From time to time, the corporate governance materials on our website may be updated as necessary to comply with rules issued by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange or as desirable to promote the effective and efficient governance of our company. Any security holder wishing to receive, without charge, a copy of any of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials should send a written request to: Secretary, Union Pacific Corporation, 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179.

References to our website address in this report, including references in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 2, are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be deemed, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

We base our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations upon our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. The preparation of these financial statements requires estimation and judgment that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. If these estimates differ materially from actual results, the impact on the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements may be material. Our critical accounting policies are available in Item 7 of our 2010 Annual Report on Form 10-K. There have not been any significant changes with respect to these policies during the first six months of 2011.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Quarterly Summary

We reported record earnings of $1.59 per diluted share on net income of $785 million in the second quarter of 2011 compared to earnings of $1.40 per diluted share on net income of $711 million for the second quarter of 2010. Year-to-date, net income was $1.4 billion versus $1.2 billion for the same period in 2010. Freight revenues increased $639 million in the second quarter compared to the same period in 2010 driven by higher fuel surcharges, core pricing gains, and volume growth of 3%. Improved economic conditions increased demand for our services across five of the six commodity groups compared to the second quarter of 2010 and all six for the year-to-date period. Consistent with the first quarter, we leveraged additional traffic volumes by effectively utilizing our assets and minimizing operational cost increases. These efforts, coupled with improved pricing and volume growth, increased earnings in the second quarter and year-to-date period of 2011 versus 2010.

During the quarter, historic flooding occurred in a large area of the Midwest, affecting the Missouri River from north of Sioux City, Iowa, to east of Jefferson City, Missouri, and the Platte River in Nebraska. For portions of our network at risk, we raised track and built protective berms, as well as positioned sandbags to secure signals and other buildings, facilities and equipment. In areas where flooding affected our track, we implemented a rerouting strategy to maintain service to most of our customers. In the second quarter, Midwest flooding increased operating expenses by $14 million, or $0.02 per diluted share and resulted in missed coal revenue of approximately $20 million, or $0.02 per diluted share net of estimated cost savings in the second quarter. Flood conditions are continuing in the third quarter and could continue into the fourth quarter of this year. In other areas, our main lines are operating normally.

Although weather generally can affect our operations, we experienced more significant impacts this year compared to 2010. We have been able to mitigate the effects to maintain a reliable network. As reported to the Association of American Railroads (AAR), average train speed decreased 1% in the second quarter of 2011 versus 2010 due to a 3% increase in carloads coupled with Midwest flooding. Average rail car inventory decreased 1% as we continued to adjust our freight car fleet to match performance and demand. Over time, faster cycle times and improved service reliability enabled us to handle freight with fewer cars. Average terminal dwell time increased 4% during the second quarter of 2011 compared to 2010. The Midwest flooding, track maintenance and replacement work, and a shift in mix to more manifest traffic, which requires additional terminal processing, all contributed to the increase in terminal dwell time.

Operating Revenues

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     %      Six Months Ended
June 30,
     %  

Millions

   2011      2010      Change      2011      2010      Change  

Freight revenues

   $     4,595       $     3,956         16%        $     8,843       $     7,711         15%    

Other revenues

     263         226         16            505         436         16      

Total

   $ 4,858       $ 4,182         16%        $ 9,348       $ 8,147         15%    
                                                       

We generate freight revenues by transporting freight or other materials from our six commodity groups. Freight revenues vary with volume (carloads) and average revenue per car (ARC). Changes in price, traffic mix and fuel surcharges drive ARC. We provide some of our customers with contractual incentives for meeting or exceeding specified cumulative volumes or shipping to and from specific locations, which we record as reductions to freight revenues based on the actual or projected future shipments. We recognize freight revenues as shipments move from origin to destination. We allocate freight revenues between reporting periods based on the relative transit time in each reporting period and recognize expenses as we incur them.

Other revenues include revenues earned by our subsidiaries, revenues from our commuter rail operations, and accessorial revenues, which we earn when customers retain equipment owned or controlled by us or when we perform additional services such as switching or storage. We recognize other revenues as we perform services or meet contractual obligations.

 

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Freight revenues for all six commodity groups increased during the second quarter and year-to-date period of 2011 compared to 2010, as a result of economic improvements in many market sectors, with particularly strong growth in agricultural and chemicals shipments. ARC increased 13% and 10% during the second quarter and year-to-date period, respectively, driven by higher fuel cost recoveries and core pricing gains. Fuel cost recoveries include fuel surcharge revenue and the impact of resetting the base fuel price for certain traffic, which is described below in more detail. Higher fuel prices, volume growth, and new fuel surcharge provisions in renegotiated contracts all combined to increase revenues from fuel surcharges.

Our fuel surcharge programs (excluding index-based contract escalators that contain some provision for fuel) generated $580 million and $992 million in freight revenues in the second quarter and year-to-date period of 2011, compared to $309 million and $565 million in the same periods of 2010, respectively. Increases in both fuel prices and volume levels drove the higher fuel surcharge amounts in both periods. Additionally, fuel surcharge revenue is not entirely comparable to prior periods due to implementation of new mileage-based fuel surcharge programs. In April 2007, we converted regulated traffic, which represents approximately 18% of our current revenue base, to mileage-based fuel surcharge programs. In addition, we continue to convert portions of our non-regulated traffic to mileage-based fuel surcharge programs. At the time of the conversion, we also reset the base fuel price at which the new mileage-based fuel surcharges take effect. Resetting the fuel price at which the fuel surcharge begins, in conjunction with rebasing the affected transportation rates to include a portion of what had been in the fuel surcharge, does not materially change our freight revenue as higher base rates offset lower fuel surcharge revenue.

The following tables summarize the year-over-year changes in freight revenues, revenue carloads (each intermodal container or trailer equals one carload), and ARC by commodity type:

 

Freight Revenues

   Three Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

     Six Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

 

Millions

   2011      2010         2011      2010     

Agricultural

   $ 849        $ 698          22%        $ 1,656        $ 1,428          16%    

Automotive

     381          334          14            723          639          13      

Chemicals

     703          592          19            1,367          1,179          16      

Energy

     950          836          14            1,902          1,680          13      

Industrial Products

     803          692          16            1,493          1,290          16      

Intermodal

     909          804          13            1,702          1,495          14      

 

Total

   $ 4,595        $ 3,956          16%        $ 8,843        $ 7,711          15%    
                                                       
                 

Revenue Carloads

   Three Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

     Six Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

 

Thousands

   2011      2010         2011      2010     

Agricultural

     237          213          11%          475          441          8%    

Automotive

     165          159          4            322          310          4      

Chemicals

     233          209          11            456          412          11      

Energy

     496          486          2            1,034          1,002          3      

Industrial Products

     297          286          4            560          528          6      

Intermodal

     819          827          (1)           1,589          1,569          1      

 

Total

     2,247          2,180          3%          4,436          4,262          4%    
                                                       

 

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Table of Contents
      Three Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

     Six Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

 

Average Revenue per Car

   2011      2010         2011      2010     

Agricultural

   $ 3,580        $ 3,277          9%        $ 3,483        $ 3,238          8%    

Automotive

     2,321          2,094          11            2,250          2,059          9      

Chemicals

     3,024          2,826          7            3,000          2,859          5      

Energy

     1,916          1,722          11            1,840          1,677          10      

Industrial Products

     2,697          2,420          11            2,665          2,444          9      

Intermodal

     1,108          974          14            1,071          953          12      

 

Average

   $ 2,045        $ 1,815          13%        $ 1,993        $ 1,809          10%    
                                                       

Agricultural Products – Higher volume, fuel surcharges, and price improvements increased agricultural freight revenue in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010. Strong export demand for U.S. wheat via Gulf ports primarily drove a 40% increase in shipments of wheat and food grains during both periods. Lower shipments of feed for both domestic use and shipments to the Pacific Northwest for export reduced shipments of corn and feed grain in the first quarter. More corn shipments to Gulf ports in the second quarter offset the lower volumes in the first quarter.

Automotive – Core pricing gains and fuel surcharges, combined with increased shipments of finished vehicles and automotive parts in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011, improved automotive freight revenue from 2010 levels. Although higher production and sales levels during the first half of the year contributed to volume growth, the disaster in Japan, which reduced shipments of international vehicles in the second quarter, partially offset this growth.

Chemicals – Higher volume, price improvements and fuel surcharges increased freight revenue from chemicals in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010. In mid-2010, we began moving crude oil shipments from the Bakken formation in North Dakota to facilities in Louisiana. This new business, along with shipments from the Eagle Ford shale formation in south Texas, contributed to 31% and 32% increases in shipments of petroleum products during the second quarter and year-to-date. Strong export demand and robust spring planting activity increased fertilizer shipments by 22% and 19% in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 versus 2010. Additionally, improving market conditions increased demand for industrial chemicals during the second quarter and six-month period of 2011, driving volume levels up versus 2010.

Energy – Higher fuel surcharges, core pricing gains and volume growth increased freight revenue from energy shipments in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 versus 2010. Shipments of coal from the Southern Powder River Basin (SPRB) were up 2% and 3% in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010, respectively, reflecting new business from existing Wisconsin customers and deliveries to a new coal unit in San Antonio, Texas. Conversely, shipments from Colorado and Utah mines declined 4% in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010 due to lower mine production, increased competition from low cost natural gas and weaker eastern utility demand, which were partially offset by increased exports. In addition, the Midwest flooding reduced energy volumes in the second quarter.

Industrial Products – Volume gains, core pricing improvement, and fuel surcharges increased freight revenue from industrial products in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010. Shipments of non-metallic minerals (primarily frac sand) grew in response to a dramatic rise in horizontal drilling activity for natural gas and oil, while steel shipments increased due to higher demand for steel coils and plate for pipe and automotive production in both periods. In addition, higher demand in China for iron ore also drove volume growth. Inventory replenishments and conversions from truck to rail increased paper shipments. Conversely, lower commercial construction activity negatively impacted stone, sand and gravel shipments in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010.

 

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Intermodal – Fuel surcharge gains (including improved fuel recovery provisions) and pricing improvements drove an increase in freight revenue from intermodal shipments in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010. Volume from international traffic decreased in the second quarter of 2011 versus 2010 driven by the loss of a customer contract, while domestic traffic remained flat against strong volumes in 2010. Year-to-date, volume from international and domestic traffic increased from 2010 levels; however, reduced international traffic, reflecting softer economic conditions, and increasing competition for domestic traffic in the second quarter offset most of the year-over-year gains.

Mexico Business – Each of our commodity groups includes revenue from shipments to and from Mexico. Revenue from Mexico business increased 18% to $460 million in the second quarter of 2011 versus the same period in 2010. Volume levels for five of the six commodity groups increased (energy shipments declined), up 9% in aggregate versus 2010, with particularly strong growth in chemicals, industrial products, and intermodal shipments. Year-to-date, revenue grew 17% versus 2010 to $878 million, driven by volume growth of 10% versus 2010.

Operating Expenses

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
     %      Six Months Ended
June 30,
     %  

Millions

   2011      2010      Change      2011      2010      Change  

Compensation and benefits

   $ 1,166        $ 1,051          11%        $ 2,333        $ 2,110          11%    

Fuel

     904          608          49            1,730          1,191          45      

Purchased services and materials

     516          472          9            991          904          10      

Depreciation

     401          368          9            796          735          8      

Equipment and other rents

     283          282          -            585          572          2      

Other

     196          122          61            384          368          4      

Total

   $       3,466        $       2,903          19%        $       6,819        $       5,880          16%    
                                                       

Operating expenses increased $563 million and $939 million in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus the comparable periods in 2010. Our fuel price per gallon increased 44% and 39% during the second quarter and year-to-date, accounting for $263 million and $463 million of the increases, respectively. Wage and benefit inflation, volume-related costs, depreciation, and property taxes also contributed to higher expenses during both periods. In addition, second quarter expenses increased $14 million for flood-related costs. Cost savings from productivity improvements and better resource utilization partially offset these increases. A $45 million one-time payment relating to a transaction with CSX Intermodal, Inc (CSXI) increased operating expenses during the first quarter of 2010, which favorably affects expenses in 2011 when compared to 2010.

Compensation and Benefits – Compensation and benefits include wages, payroll taxes, health and welfare costs, pension costs, other postretirement benefits, and incentive costs. Volume-related expenses, general wage and benefit inflation, higher training costs associated with new hires and higher pension expense drove the increase during the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to the same period in 2010.

Fuel – Fuel includes locomotive fuel and gasoline for highway and non-highway vehicles and heavy equipment. Higher locomotive diesel fuel prices, which averaged $3.29 and $3.08 per gallon (including taxes and transportation costs) in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 compared to $2.29 and $2.22 per gallon in the same periods in 2010, increased expenses by $263 million and $463 million, respectively. In addition, higher gasoline prices for highway and non-highway vehicles also increased in both periods. Volume, as measured by gross ton-miles, increased 5% in both the second quarter and six-month period versus 2010, driving expense up by $29 million and $59 million, respectively. Conversely, our fuel consumption rate improved 2% in the second quarter of 2011 versus 2010 due to on-going fuel conservation efforts, resulting in $9 million of savings. Year-to-date, the fuel consumption rate improved 1%, as the impact of severe winter weather on our locomotive fuel usage partially offset improvements from fuel conservation efforts.

 

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Purchased Services and Materials – Expense for purchased services and materials includes the costs of services purchased from outside contractors (including equipment maintenance and contract expenses incurred by our subsidiaries for external transportation services); materials used to maintain the Railroad’s lines, structures, and equipment; costs of operating facilities jointly used by UPRR and other railroads; transportation and lodging for train crew employees; trucking and contracting costs for intermodal containers; leased automobile maintenance expenses; and tools and supplies. Expenses for contract services increased $37 million and $67 million, respectively, in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010, driven by contract expenses incurred by our subsidiaries for volume-related external transportation services, equipment maintenance, and various other types of contractual services including flood-related service work. Volume-related crew transportation and lodging costs, as well as expenses associated with jointly owned operating facilities, also increased costs from 2010. In addition, an increase in locomotive maintenance materials used to prepare a portion of our locomotive fleet for return to active service due to increased volume and additional capacity for flood related reroutes increased expenses during the second quarter and year-to-date period compared to 2010.

Depreciation – The majority of depreciation relates to road property, including rail, ties, ballast, and other track material. A higher depreciable asset base, reflecting ongoing capital spending, increased depreciation expense in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010. Higher depreciation rates for rail and other track material also drove the increase. The higher rates, which became effective January 1, 2011, resulted primarily from increased track usage (based on higher gross ton-miles in 2010).

Equipment and Other Rents – Equipment and other rents expense primarily includes rental expense that the Railroad pays for freight cars owned by other railroads or private companies; freight car, intermodal, and locomotive leases; other rent expenses; and office and other rentals. Second quarter expense was flat year-over-year as higher office and other specialty leases offset lower lease expense for locomotives and freight cars. Year-to-date, container lease and short-term freight car rental expense increased. Conversely, lower freight car lease expense decreased costs compared to the six month period of 2010.

Other – Other expenses include personal injury, freight and property damage, destruction of foreign equipment, insurance, environmental, bad debt, state and local taxes, utilities, telephone and cellular, employee travel, computer software, and other general expenses. Higher casualty costs and property taxes increased other costs in the second quarter of 2011 compared to the same period of 2010. Despite continual improvement in our safety experience and lower estimated costs, personal injury expense increased in the second quarter of 2011 compared to 2010, as the reduction of liability for past years from our recent actuarial study was less than the reduction from our 2010 study. Year-to-date, higher property taxes and casualty costs, which only increased modestly for personal injury expense, were partially offset by the $45 million one-time payment in the first quarter of 2010 related to a transaction with CSXI.

Non-Operating Items

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

     Six Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

Change

 

Millions

   2011      2010         2011      2010     

Other income

   $ 26       $ 19         37%       $ 41       $ 20         F    

Interest expense

     (148)         (152)         (3)          (289)         (307)         (6)   

Income taxes

     (485)         (435)         11           (857)         (753)         14    

Other Income – Other income increased in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus the same period in 2010 due to premiums paid for early redemption of existing long-term debt in first quarter of 2010 and lower environmental costs.

Interest Expense – Interest expense decreased slightly in the second quarter of 2011 versus 2010 due to a lower weighted-average debt level of $9.1 billion versus $9.6 billion. The effective interest rate was 6.3% in both the second quarter of 2011 and 2010. A lower weighted-average debt level of $9.2 billion in 2011 versus $9.8 billion in 2010 drove the decrease in year-to-date interest expense. The effective interest rate was 6.3% versus 6.2% year-to-date in 2011 and 2010, respectively.

 

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Income Taxes – Higher income taxes in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010 primarily result from higher pre-tax income. Our effective tax rate for the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 was 38.2% and 37.6%, respectively, compared to 38.0% for the corresponding periods of 2010. Year-to-date, the lower effective tax rate in 2011 is primarily due to Arizona legislation reducing the state’s corporate tax rate.

OTHER OPERATING/PERFORMANCE AND FINANCIAL STATISTICS

We report key Railroad performance measures weekly to the Association of American Railroads (AAR), including carloads, average daily inventory of freight cars on our system, average train speed, and average terminal dwell time. We provide this data on our website at www.up.com/investors/reports/index.shtml.

Operating/Performance Statistics

Railroad performance measures reported to the AAR, as well as other performance measures, are included in the table below:

 

      Three Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

    Change

     Six Months Ended
June 30,
    

%

    Change

 
      2011              2010         2011              2010     

Average train speed (miles per hour)

     26.1          26.4          (1)%          26.1          26.3          (1)%    

Average terminal dwell time (hours)

     25.6          24.7          4 %          26.0          25.4          2 %    

Average rail car inventory (thousands)

     271.9          275.2          (1)%          271.5          276.4          (2)%    

Gross ton-miles (billions)

     239.2          228.1          5 %          474.6          451.8          5 %    

Revenue ton-miles (billions)

     132.2          126.3          5 %          264.9          253.1          5 %    

Operating ratio

     71.3          69.4          (1.9) pts          72.9          72.2          (0.7) pts    

Employees (average)

     44,971          42,571          6 %          44,508          42,350          5 %    

Customer satisfaction index

     92          89          3 pts          92          88            4 pts    

Average Train Speed – Average train speed is calculated by dividing train miles by hours operated on our main lines between terminals. Average train speed decreased 1% in the second quarter of 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 due to a 3% increase in carloads coupled with the impact of Midwest flooding. Severe winter weather and Midwest flooding, which had a greater impact than weather events in 2010, drove the decline in the six-month period of 2011 compared to 2010. Overall, we continued operating a fluid and efficient network during the first half of the year, effectively handling the 4% increase in carloads compared to the first half of 2010.

Average Terminal Dwell Time – Average terminal dwell time is the average time that a rail car spends at our terminals. Lower average terminal dwell time improves asset utilization and service. Average terminal dwell time increased 4% in the second quarter of 2011 compared to 2010. Year-to-date, average terminal dwell time increased 2% compared to 2010. Effects of the Midwest flooding, February winter storm, which impacted major terminals (including Chicago, St. Louis, and Fort Worth), track maintenance and improvement programs, and a shift of traffic mix to more manifest traffic, which requires additional terminal processing, all contributed to the increase.

Average Rail Car Inventory – Average rail car inventory is the daily average number of rail cars on our lines, including rail cars in storage. Lower average rail car inventory reduces congestion in our yards and sidings, which increases train speed, reduces average terminal dwell time, and improves rail car utilization. Average rail car inventory decreased 1% and 2% in the second quarter and year-to-date period of 2011 compared to 2010, respectively, as we continue to adjust the size of our freight car fleet.

Gross and Revenue Ton-Miles – Gross ton-miles are calculated by multiplying the weight of loaded and empty freight cars by the number of miles hauled. Revenue ton-miles are calculated by multiplying the weight of freight by the number of tariff miles. Gross and revenue-ton-miles increased 5% in the second quarter and year-to-date in 2011 compared to 2010, driven by a 3% and 4% increase in carloads, respectively. Mix changes to heavier commodity groups drove the difference in increases between gross and revenue ton-miles and carloads.

 

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Operating Ratio – Operating ratio is our operating expenses reflected as a percentage of operating revenue. Our operating ratio increased 1.9 points to 71.3% in the second quarter of 2011 versus the same period of 2010 and 0.7 points to 72.9% in the six-month period of 2011 versus 2010. Higher fuel prices, inflation and flooding costs partially offset by core pricing gains and productivity initiatives drove the increase.

Employees – Employee levels were up 6% and 5% in the second quarter and six-month period of 2011 versus 2010, respectively, driven by a 3% and 4% increase in volume levels, a higher number of Trainmen, Engineers, and Yard employees currently in training, and increased work on construction projects.

Customer Satisfaction Index – Our customer satisfaction survey asks customers to rate how satisfied they are with our performance over the last 12 months on a variety of attributes. A higher score indicates higher customer satisfaction. We believe that improvement in survey results in the second quarter and year-to-date period of 2011 generally reflects customer recognition of our service quality.

Debt to Capital / Adjusted Debt to Capital

 

Millions, Except Percentages

   Jun. 30,
2011
     Dec. 31,
2010
 

Debt (a)

   $ 8,938        $ 9,242    

Equity

     18,306          17,763    

Capital (b)

   $ 27,244        $ 27,005    

 

  Debt to capital (a/b)

     32.8%          34.2%    
                   
     

Millions, Except Percentages

   Jun. 30,
2011
     Dec. 31,
2010
 

Debt

     8,938          9,242    

Net present value of operating leases

     3,325          3,476    

Unfunded pension and OPEB

     421          421    

Adjusted debt (a)

   $ 12,684        $ 13,139    

Equity

     18,306          17,763    

Adjusted capital (b)

   $     30,990        $     30,902    

Adjusted debt to capital (a/b)

     40.9%          42.5%    
                   

Adjusted debt to capital is a non-GAAP financial measure under SEC Regulation G and Item 10 of SEC Regulation S-K. We believe this measure is important to management and investors in evaluating the total amount of leverage in our capital structure, including off-balance sheet lease obligations, which we generally incur in connection with financing the acquisition of locomotives and freight cars and certain facilities. Operating leases were discounted using 6.3% at June 30, 2011 and 6.2% at December 31, 2010. The higher discount rate reflects changes to interest rates and our current financing costs. We monitor the ratio of adjusted debt to capital as we manage our capital structure to balance cost-effective and efficient access to the capital markets with the Corporation’s overall cost of capital. Adjusted debt to capital should be considered in addition to, rather than as a substitute for, debt to capital. The tables above provide reconciliations from debt to capital to adjusted debt to capital.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Financial Condition

 

Cash Flows

Millions,

for the six month ended June 30

   2011      2010  

Cash provided by operating activities

   $         2,640       $         1,695   

Cash used in investing activities

     (1,366)         (1,068)   

Cash used in financing activities

     (1,305)         (1,160)   

Net change in cash and cash equivalents

   $ (31)       $ (533)   
                   

 

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Operating Activities

Higher net income in the first six months of 2011 increased cash provided by operating activities compared to the same period of 2010. In addition, the adoption of a new accounting standard in January of 2010 changed the accounting treatment for our receivables securitization facility from a sale of undivided interests (recorded as an operating activity) to a secured borrowing (recorded as a financing activity), which decreased cash provided by operating activities by $400 million in the first half of 2010.

Investing Activities

Higher capital investments in the first six months of 2011 drove the increase in cash used in investing activities compared to the same period in 2010.

The table below details cash capital investments:

 

Millions,

for the six months ended June 30

   2011      2010  

Rail and other track material

   $ 350        $ 317    

Ties

     199          238    

Ballast

     110          105    

Other [a]

     130          122    

 

Total road infrastructure replacements

     789          782    
                   

Line expansion and other capacity projects

     129          40    

Commercial facilities

     18          65    

 

Total capacity and commercial facilities

     147          105    
                   

Locomotives and freight cars

     248          87    

Positive train control

     84          30    

Technology and other

     59          52    

 

Total cash capital investments

   $ 1,327        $ 1,056    
                   

 

[a]

Other includes bridges and tunnels, signals, other road assets, and road work equipment.

Financing Activities

Cash used in financing activities increased in the first six months of 2011 versus the same period of 2010 driven by an increase of $186 million of shares repurchased under our common stock repurchase program. Additionally, higher dividend payments in 2011 of $374 million compared to $272 million in 2010, reflecting our higher dividends per share, also contributed to the increase in cash used in financing activities of 2011.

 

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