Xerox 10-K 2010
Documents found in this filing:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Xerox 2009 Annual Report i
Xerox 2009 Annual Report ii
Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Managements Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand the results of operations and financial condition of Xerox Corporation. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.
Throughout this document, references to we, our, the Company and Xerox refer to Xerox Corporation and its subsidiaries. References to Xerox Corporation refer to the stand-alone parent company and do not include its subsidiaries.
We are a technology and services enterprise and a leader in the global document market. We develop, manufacture, market, service and finance the industrys broadest portfolio of document equipment, software, solutions and services. The global document market continues to see significant trends toward color, enterprise print services, and electronic document management. Our broad portfolio of production, office and service offerings provide value to our customers and enable Xerox to lead and grow in the $132 billion market we serve.
In 2009, we agreed to acquire Affiliated Computer Services, Inc. (ACS). The acquisition was completed in February 2010. This acquisition transforms us into the worlds leading enterprise for business process and document management and accelerates our growth in an expanding market. ACS is one of the largest providers of business process outsourcing (BPO) and information technology (IT) services and solutions to commercial and government clients worldwide. ACSs revenues for the calendar year ended December 31, 2009 were $6.6 billion and they employed 78,000 people and operated in over 100 countries. With the acquisition of ACS we have greatly expanded our market opportunity. The BPO market is estimated at $150 billion and the ITO market is estimated at $250 billion.
Our business strategy is built upon an annuity model that yields consistent strong cash flow, expanded earnings and enables us to provide good returns to shareholders. The majority of our revenue (supplies, service, paper, outsourcing, rentals and financing) is recurring, which we collectively refer to as post sale revenue. This recurring revenue provides a significant degree of stability to our revenue, profits and cash flow. Post sale revenue currently represents more than 75 percent of the Companys revenue and is driven by the amount of equipment installed at customer locations and the utilization of that equipment. As such, our critical success factors include equipment installations, which stabilize and grow our installed base of equipment at customer locations, page volume growth and higher revenue per page. Key drivers to increase equipment installations, usage and associated post-sale revenue include the following:
The transition to color is a primary driver to improve revenue per page, as color documents typically require significantly more toner coverage per page than traditional black-and-white printing. We have the broadest color portfolio in the industry and leading technologies. Our growing services business helps customers reduce their costs. We lead the industry with end-to-end managed print services. Lastly, we continue to create new market opportunities with digital printing as a complement to traditional offset printing.
We operate in a global business environment, serving a wide range of customers with about 50 percent of our revenue generated from customers outside the U.S. Our markets are competitive. Customers are demanding document services such as assessment consulting, managed print services, imaging and hosting and document-intensive business process improvements. Additionally, our customers demand improved technology solutions, such as the ability to print offset quality color documents on-demand; improved product functionality, such as the ability to print, copy, fax and scan from a single device; and lower prices for the same functionality.
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 1
Accretive acquisitions and expanded distribution to drive organic growth are also key elements of our business strategy. In addition to the ACS acquisition, in 2009 Global Imaging Systems, Inc. (GIS) acquired ComDoc, Inc. (ComDoc), one of the larger independent dealers in the U.S., expanding coverage in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia.
Although we began to see some improvements in our markets in the fourth quarter 2009, we faced significant external challenges in 2009 including:
The overall slowdown in business activity reduced print volumes, especially in heavily document-driven processes, and our customers, in an effort to manage costs, are delaying spending on technology upgrades until there are stronger signs of economic improvement. The weak economies in developing markets, like Russia and Eurasia, where access to credit is still quite limited, also impacted our revenues. We reacted to these challenges by prioritizing cash generation and taking actions on cost and expense to help mitigate the effects of lower revenue.
The following is a summary of key 2009 highlights:
Total revenue of $15,179 million for 2009 declined 14% from the prior year including a 3-percentage point negative impact from currency. Equipment sales of $3,550 million for 2009 decreased 24% from the prior year primarily reflecting the continued industry-wide slowdown in technology spending. Post-sale revenue of $11,629 million for 2009 was down 10% from the prior year primarily reflecting lower supplies revenue as distributors maintained lower inventory levels and businesses implemented their own cost-cutting measures.
The benefits from restructuring and operational cost improvements helped to relieve the pressure from revenue declines. Gross margins of 39.7% for 2009 increased 0.8-percentage points from the prior year despite the continued effect of higher product costs due to the strength of the Japanese Yen. Selling, administrative and general expenses (SAG) for 2009 declined $385 million reflecting favorable currency, the benefits from restructuring and operational cost improvements, partially offset by increased bad debt expense.
Cash flows from operations of $2,208 million in 2009 were primarily driven by working capital improvements. Cash used in investing activities of $343 million reflected well controlled capital expenditures of $193 million, as well as $145 million for GISs acquisition of ComDoc in the first quarter of 2009.
We continue to maintain debt levels primarily to support our customer financing operations and, at the end of 2009, to fund the ACS acquisition. Total Debt at December 31, 2009 of $9,264 million increased $880 million from the prior year as net debt repayments of approximately $1.8 billion were more than offset by the issuance of $2,750 million in Senior Notes. Our 2009 public offerings included $750 million of Senior Notes issued in May and $2.0 billion of Senior Notes issued in December. The net proceeds from the December Senior Notes offering were used in connection with the acquisition of ACS. We finished the year with cash and cash equivalents of $3,799 billion, which included funds subsequently used for the acquisition of ACS.
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 2
Our 2010 priorities include:
Our 2010 balance sheet and cash flow strategy includes: sustaining our working capital improvements; maintaining our investment grade credit ratings; achieving an optimal cost of capital; and effectively deploying cash to deliver and maximize shareholder value through acquisitions and dividends. Our strategy also includes appropriately leveraging our financing assets (finance receivables and equipment on operating leases).
To understand the trends in our business, we believe that it is helpful to analyze the impact of changes in the translation of foreign currencies into U.S. Dollars on revenues and expenses. We refer to this analysis as currency impact or the impact from currency. Revenues and expenses from our developing markets are analyzed at actual exchange rates for all periods presented, since these countries generally have volatile currency and inflationary environments, and our operations in these countries have historically implemented pricing actions to recover the impact of inflation and devaluation. We do not hedge the translation effect of revenues or expenses denominated in currencies where the local currency is the functional currency.
Approximately 50% of our consolidated revenues are derived from operations outside of the United States where the U.S. Dollar is not the functional currency. When compared with the average of the major European currencies and Canadian Dollar on a revenue-weighted basis, the U.S. Dollar was 7% stronger in 2009 and 3% weaker in 2008, each compared to the prior year. As a result, the foreign currency translation impact on revenue was a 3% detriment in 2009 and a 1% benefit in 2008.
Revenues for the three years ended December 31, 2009 were as follows:
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 3
Revenue decreased 14% compared to the prior year, including a 3-percentage point negative impact from currency. Although moderating in the fourth quarter 2009, worldwide economic weakness negatively impacted our major market segments during the year. Total revenues included the following:
Revenue increased 2% compared to the prior year and was flat when including GIS in our 2007 results.(5) Currency had a 1-percentage point positive impact on total revenues. Total revenues included the following:
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 4
Net income and diluted earnings per share for the three years ended December 31, 2009 were as follows:
Net Income 2009
Net income attributable to Xerox of $485 million, or $0.55 per diluted share, included the following:
Net Income 2008
Net income of $230 million, or $0.26 per diluted share, included the following:
Application of Critical Accounting Policies
In preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements and accounting for the underlying transactions and balances, we apply various accounting policies. Senior management has discussed the development and selection of the critical accounting policies, estimates and related disclosures included herein with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. We consider the policies discussed below as critical to understanding our Consolidated Financial Statements, as their application places the most significant demands on managements judgment, since financial reporting results rely on estimates of the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. In instances where different estimates could have reasonably been used, we disclosed the impact of these different estimates on our operations. In certain instances, like revenue recognition for leases, the accounting rules are prescriptive; therefore, it would not have been possible to reasonably use different estimates. Changes in assumptions and estimates are reflected in the period in which they occur. The impact of such changes could be material to our results of operations and financial condition in any quarterly or annual period.
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Specific risks associated with these critical accounting policies are discussed throughout the MD&A, where such policies affect our reported and expected financial results. For a detailed discussion of the application of these and other accounting policies, refer to Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition for Leases
Our accounting for leases involves specific determinations under applicable lease accounting standards, which often involve complex and prescriptive provisions. These provisions affect the timing of revenue recognition for our equipment. If a lease qualifies as a sales-type capital lease, equipment revenue is recognized upon delivery or installation of the equipment as sale revenue as opposed to ratably over the lease term. The critical elements that we consider with respect to our lease accounting are the determination of the economic life and the fair value of equipment, including the residual value. For purposes of determining the economic life, we consider the most objective measure to be the original contract term, since most equipment is returned by lessees at or near the end of the contracted term. The economic life of most of our products is five years since this represents the most frequent contractual lease term for our principal products and only a small percentage of our leases are for original terms longer than five years. There is no significant after-market for our used equipment. We believe five years is representative of the period during which the equipment is expected to be economically usable, with normal service, for the purpose for which it is intended.
Revenue Recognition Under Bundled Arrangements
We sell the majority of our products and services under bundled lease arrangements, which typically include equipment, service, supplies and financing components for which the customer pays a single negotiated monthly fixed price for all elements over the contractual lease term. Typically these arrangements include an incremental, variable component for page volumes in excess of contractual page volume minimums, which are often expressed in terms of price per page. Revenues under these arrangements are allocated, considering the relative fair values of the lease and non-lease deliverables included in the bundled arrangement, based upon the estimated relative fair values of each element. Lease deliverables include maintenance and executory costs, equipment and financing, while non-lease deliverables generally consist of supplies and non-maintenance services. Our revenue allocation for lease deliverables begins by allocating revenues to the maintenance and executory costs plus profit thereon. The remaining amounts are allocated to the equipment and financing elements. We perform analyses of available verifiable objective evidence of equipment fair value based on cash selling prices during the applicable period. The cash selling prices are compared to the range of values included in our lease accounting systems. The range of cash selling prices must be reasonably consistent with the lease selling prices, taking into account residual values, in order for us to determine that such lease prices are indicative of fair value.
Our pricing interest rates, which are used in determining customer payments, are developed based upon a variety of factors including local prevailing rates in the marketplace and the customers credit history, industry and credit class. We reassess our pricing interest rates quarterly based on changes in the local prevailing rates in the marketplace. These interest rates have been generally adjusted if the rates vary by twenty-five basis points or more, cumulatively, from the last rate in effect. The pricing interest rates generally equal the implicit rates within the leases, as corroborated by our comparisons of cash to lease selling prices.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Credit Losses
We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and adjust credit limits based upon customer payment history and current creditworthiness. We continuously monitor collections and payments from our customers and maintain a provision for estimated credit losses based upon our historical experience and any specific customer collection issues that have been identified. We cannot guarantee that we will continue to experience credit loss rates similar to those we have experienced in the past. Measurement of such losses requires consideration of historical loss experience, including the need to adjust for current conditions, and judgments about the probable effects of relevant observable data, including present economic conditions such as delinquency rates and financial health of specific customers. We recorded bad debt provisions of $291 million, $188 million and $134 million in SAG expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Income for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 6
Historically, the majority of the bad debt provision relates to our finance receivables portfolio. This provision is inherently more difficult to estimate than the provision for trade accounts receivable because the underlying lease portfolio has an average maturity, at any time, of approximately two to three years and contains past due billed amounts, as well as unbilled amounts. The estimated credit quality of any given customer and class of customer or geographic location can significantly change during the life of the portfolio. We consider all available information in our quarterly assessments of the adequacy of the provision for doubtful accounts.
The current economic environment has increased the risk of non-collection of receivables. We have accordingly considered this increased risk in the evaluation and assessment of our allowance for doubtful accounts at year-end. Bad debt provisions increased by $103 million in 2009 and reserves as a percentage of trade and finance receivables increased to 4.1% at December 31, 2009 as compared to 3.4% at December 31, 2008. However, collection risk is somewhat mitigated by the fact that our receivables are fairly well dispersed among a diverse customer base both in size and geography. Days sales outstanding improved slightly year-over-year. In addition, accounts receivable balances greater than 90 days outstanding were about 12% of total gross accounts receivables at December 31, 2009, which was relatively flat as compared to the prior year. However, we continue to assess our receivable portfolio in light of the current economic environment and its impact on our estimation of the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts.
As discussed above, in preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements for the three year period ended December 31, 2009, we estimated our provision for doubtful accounts based on historical experience and customer-specific collection issues. This methodology has been consistently applied for all periods presented. During the five year period ended December 31, 2009, our reserve for doubtful accounts ranged from 3.0% to 4.1% of gross receivables. Holding all other assumptions constant, a 1-percentage point increase or decrease in the reserve from the December 31, 2009 rate of 4.1% would change the 2009 provision by approximately $91 million.
Pension and Post-retirement Benefit Plan Assumptions
We sponsor defined benefit pension plans in various forms in several countries covering substantially all employees who meet eligibility requirements. Post-retirement benefit plans cover primarily U.S. employees for retirement medical costs. Several statistical and other factors that attempt to anticipate future events are used in calculating the expense, liability and asset values related to our pension and post-retirement benefit plans. These factors include assumptions we make about the discount rate, expected return on plan assets, rate of increase in healthcare costs, the rate of future compensation increases and mortality. Differences between these assumptions and actual experiences are reported as net actuarial gains and losses and are subject to amortization to net periodic pension cost generally over the average remaining service lives of the employees participating in the pension plan.
Cumulative actuarial losses for our pension plans of $1.8 billion as of December 31, 2009 were flat as compared to December 31, 2008. Positive returns on plan assets in 2009 as compared to expected returns offset a decrease in discount rates. The total actuarial loss will be amortized in the future, subject to offsetting gains or losses that will change the future amortization amount.
We have utilized a weighted average expected rate of return on plan assets of 7.4% for 2009 and 7.6% for both 2008 and 2007, on a worldwide basis.
During 2009, the actual return on plan assets was $720 million, primarily as a result of an improvement in the equity markets. In estimating the 2010 expected rate of return, in addition to assessing recent performance, we considered the historical returns earned on plan assets, the rates of return expected in the future and our investment strategy and asset mix with respect to the plans funds. The weighted average expected rate of return on plan assets we will utilize for 2010 will be 7.3% as compared to 7.4% in 2009 and 7.6% in 2008.
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 7
For purposes of determining the expected return on plan assets, we utilize a calculated value approach in determining the value of the pension plan assets, as opposed to a fair market value approach. The primary difference between the two methods relates to a systematic recognition of changes in fair value over time (generally two years) versus immediate recognition of changes in fair value. Our expected rate of return on plan assets is then applied to the calculated asset value to determine the amount of the expected return on plan assets to be used in the determination of the net periodic pension cost. The calculated value approach reduces the volatility in net periodic pension cost that can result from using the fair market value approach. The difference between the actual return on plan assets and the expected return on plan assets is added to, or subtracted from, any cumulative differences that arose in prior years. This amount is a component of the net actuarial gain or loss.
Another significant assumption affecting our pension and post-retirement benefit obligations and the net periodic pension and other post-retirement benefit cost is the rate that we use to discount our future anticipated benefit obligations. The discount rate reflects the current rate at which the pension liabilities could be effectively settled considering the timing of expected payments for plan participants. In estimating this rate, we consider rates of return on high quality fixed-income investments included in various published bond indices, adjusted to eliminate the effects of call provisions and differences in the timing and amounts of cash outflows related to the bonds. In the U.S. and the U.K., which comprise approximately 80% of our projected benefit obligations, we consider the Moodys Aa Corporate Bond Index and the International Index Companys iBoxx Sterling Corporate AA Cash Bond Index, respectively, in the determination of the appropriate discount rate assumptions. The weighted average discount rate we utilized to measure our pension obligation as of December 31, 2009 and to calculate our 2010 expense was 5.7%, which is a decrease of 0.6% from 6.3% used in determining our 2009 expense.
Assuming settlement losses in 2010 are consistent with 2009, our 2010 net periodic defined benefit pension cost is expected to be approximately $70 million higher than 2009, primarily as a result of a decrease in the discount rate and increased amortization of actuarial losses, which includes the impact of the significant asset losses in 2008.
On a consolidated basis, we recognized net periodic pension cost of $270 million, $254 million and $315 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The costs associated with our defined contribution plans, which are included in net periodic pension cost, were $38 million, $80 million and $80 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The decrease in 2009 was primarily due to the April 2009 suspension of the 401(k) match in the U.S. Pension cost is included in several income statement components based on the related underlying employee costs. Pension and post-retirement benefit plan assumptions are included in Note 14 - Employee Benefit Plans in the Consolidated Financial Statements. Holding all other assumptions constant, a 0.25% increase or decrease in the discount rate would change the 2010 projected net periodic pension cost by $12 million. Likewise, a 0.25% increase or decrease in the expected return on plan assets would change the 2010 projected net periodic pension cost by $11 million.
Income Taxes and Tax Valuation Allowances
We record the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and amounts reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, as well as operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. We follow very specific and detailed guidelines in each tax jurisdiction regarding the recoverability of any tax assets recorded in our Consolidated Balance Sheets and provide valuation allowances as required. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability considering historical profitability, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences and tax planning strategies. If we continue to operate at a loss in certain jurisdictions or are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income, or if there is a material change in the actual effective tax rates or time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, we could be required to increase the valuation allowance against all or a significant portion of our deferred tax assets resulting in a substantial increase in our effective tax rate and a material adverse impact on our operating results. Conversely, if and when our operations in some jurisdictions were to become sufficiently profitable to recover previously reserved deferred tax assets, we would reduce all or a portion of the applicable valuation allowance in the period when such determination is made. This would result in an increase to reported earnings in such period. Adjustments to our valuation allowance, through (credits) charges to income tax expense, were $(11) million, $17 million and $14 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. There were other (decreases) increases to our valuation allowance, including the effects of currency, of $55 million, $(136) million and $86 million for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively, that did not affect income tax expense in total as there was a corresponding adjustment to deferred tax assets or other comprehensive income. Gross deferred tax assets of $3.7 billion and $3.8 billion had valuation allowances of $672 million and $628 million at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 8
We are subject to ongoing tax examinations and assessments in various jurisdictions. Accordingly, we may incur additional tax expense based upon our assessment of the more-likely-than-not outcomes of such matters. In addition, when applicable, we adjust the previously recorded tax expense to reflect examination results. Our ongoing assessments of the more-likely-than-not outcomes of the examinations and related tax positions require judgment and can materially increase or decrease our effective tax rate, as well as impact our operating results.
We file income tax returns in the U.S. Federal jurisdiction and various foreign jurisdictions. In the U.S. we are no longer subject to U.S. Federal income tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2007. With respect to our major foreign jurisdictions, we are no longer subject to tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2000.
We are involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations and proceedings concerning securities law, intellectual property law, environmental law, employment law and ERISA, as discussed in Note 16 - Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements. We determine whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. We assess our potential liability by analyzing our litigation and regulatory matters using available information. We develop our views on estimated losses in consultation with outside counsel handling our defense in these matters, which involves an analysis of potential results, assuming a combination of litigation and settlement strategies. Should developments in any of these matters cause a change in our determination as to an unfavorable outcome and result in the need to recognize a material accrual, or should any of these matters result in a final adverse judgment or be settled for significant amounts, they could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial position in the period or periods in which such change in determination, judgment or settlement occurs.
Business Combinations and Goodwill
The application of the purchase method of accounting for business combinations requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions in the determination of the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in order to properly allocate purchase price consideration between assets that are depreciated and amortized from goodwill. Our estimates of the fair values of assets and liabilities acquired are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, and when appropriate, include assistance from independent third-party appraisal firms.
As a result of our acquisition of GIS, as well as other prior year acquisitions, we have a significant amount of goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if an event or circumstance indicates that an impairment loss may have been incurred. Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a discounted cash flow methodology. This requires us to use significant judgment including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, the useful life over which cash flows will occur, determination of our weighted average cost of capital for purposes of establishing a discount rate and relevant market data.
Our annual impairment test of goodwill was performed in the fourth quarter. The estimated fair values of our reporting units were based on discounted cash flow models derived from internal earnings forecasts and assumptions. The assumptions and estimates used in those valuations incorporated the current economic environment. In performing our 2009 impairment test, the following were the overall composite assumptions regarding revenue and expense growth, which were the basis for estimating future cash flows used in the discounted cash flow model: 1) revenue growth 2-4%; 2) gross margin 39-40%; 3) RD&E 4-5%; 4) SAG 24-25%; and 5) return on sales 8-9%. We believe these estimated assumptions are appropriate for our circumstances, in-line with historical results, consistent with our forecasted long-term business model and give consideration to the current economic environment. Our forecast does not include the impact of the ACS acquisition completed in February 2010 since our impairment test was limited to goodwill as of the fourth quarter 2009.
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Based on these valuations, we determined that the fair values of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values and no goodwill impairment charge was required during the fourth quarter 2009.
Refer to Note 1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Goodwill and Intangible Assets for further information regarding our goodwill impairment testing, as well as Note 8 - Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Net in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding goodwill by operating segment.
Operations Review of Segment Revenue and Operating Profit
Our reportable segments are consistent with how we manage the business and view the markets we serve. Our reportable segments are Production, Office and Other. See Note 2 Segment Reporting in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on our segment operating revenues and segment operating profit.
Revenues by segment for the years ended 2009, 2008 and 2007 were as follows:
Note: Install activity percentages include the Xerox-branded product shipments to GIS.
Production revenue of $4,545 million decreased 13%, including a 3-percentage point negative impact from currency, reflecting:
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 10
Production revenue of $5,237 million decreased 1%, including a 1-percentage point benefit from currency, reflecting:
Operating Profit 2009
Production operating profit of $217 million decreased $177 million from 2008. The decrease is primarily the result of lower gross profit flow-through from revenue declines which were partially offset by lower RD&E and SAG spending as a result of favorable currency and cost reductions. The improvement in SAG was mitigated by an increase in bad debt provisions.
Operating Profit 2008
Production operating profit of $394 million decreased $168 million from 2007. The decrease is primarily the result of lower revenue and lower gross margins due to pricing and product mix, as well as increased SAG expenses.
Office revenue of $8,576 million decreased 13%, including a 2-percentage point negative impact from currency, reflecting:
Office revenue of $9,828 million increased 4%, including a 1-percentage point benefit from currency, as well as the benefits from our expansion in the SMB market through GIS and Veenman. Revenue for 2008 reflects:
Xerox 2009 Annual Report 11
Operating Profit 2009
Office operating profit of $835 million decreased $227 million from 2008, as revenue declines were partially offset by lower RD&E and SAG as a result of favorable currency and cost actions. The improvement in SAG was mitigated by an increase in bad debt provisions.
Operating Profit 2008
Office operating profit of $1,062 million decreased $53 million from 2007. The decrease was primarily due to lower gross profits reflecting lower margins, as well as higher SAG expenses partially offset by the full year inclusion of GIS.
Other revenue of $2,058 million decreased 19%, including a 2-percentage point negative impact from currency, primarily driven by declines in revenue from paper, wide format systems and licensing and royalty arrangements. Paper comprised approximately 50% of the Other segment revenue.
Other revenue of $2,543 million increased 4%, primarily reflecting the full year inclusion of GIS and increased paper revenue partially offset by lower revenue from wide format systems. There was no impact from currency. Paper comprised approximately 50% of the Other segment revenue.
Operating Loss 2009
Other operating loss of $274 million increased $109 million from 2008, primarily due to lower revenue, as well as lower interest income and equity income.
Operating Loss 2008
Other operating loss of $165 million increased $76 million from 2007, reflecting lower wide format revenue, higher foreign exchange losses and lower interest income partially offset by gains on sales of assets.
Costs, Expenses and Other Income
Gross margins by revenue classification were as follows:
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Gross Margin 2009
Total gross margin increased 0.8-percentage points compared to 2008, primarily driven by cost improvements enabled by restructuring and our cost actions, which were partially offset by the 0.5-percentage point unfavorable impact of transaction currency, primarily the Yen, and price declines of 1.0-percentage points.
Gross Margin 2008
2008 Total gross margin decreased 1.4-percentage points compared to 2007 as price declines and mix of approximately 2.0-percentage points were only partially offset by cost productivity improvements. Cost improvements were limited by an unfavorable impact on product costs of approximately 0.5-percentage points from the significant strengthening of the Yen versus the U.S. Dollar and Euro. The negative impact of 0.3-percentage points from an Office product line equipment write-off was offset by positive adjustments related to the capitalized costs for equipment on operating leases and European product disposal costs.
Research, Development and Engineering Expenses (RD&E)
We invest in technological development, particularly in color, and believe our RD&E spending is sufficient to remain technologically competitive. Our R&D is strategically coordinated with that of Fuji Xerox.
RD&E 2009: The decrease in RD&E spending for 2009 reflects our restructuring and cost actions which consolidated the Production and Office development and engineering infrastructures.
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RD&E 2008: The decrease in R&D spending for 2008 reflects the capture of efficiencies following a significant number of new product launches over the previous two years, as well as leveraging our current R,D&E investments to support our GIS operations. Sustaining engineering costs declined in 2008 due primarily to lower spending related to environmental compliance activities and maturing product platforms in the Production segment.
Selling, Administrative and General Expenses (SAG)
SAG of $4,149 million was $385 million lower than 2008, including a $126 million benefit from currency. The SAG decrease was the result of the following:
SAG of $4,534 million was $222 million higher than 2007, including a $12 million unfavorable impact from currency. The SAG increase was the result of the following:
Bad debt expense, which is included in SAG, increased $103 million in 2009 and reserves as a percentage of trade and finance receivables increased to 4.1% at December 31, 2009 as compared to 3.4% at December 31, 2008. These increases reflect the weak worldwide economic conditions and the increased level of customer bankruptcies in certain industry groups during the year. Bad debts provision and write-offs in the fourth quarter 2009 were flat as compared to the prior year.
Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges
For the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, we recorded net restructuring and asset impairment (credits)/charges of $(8) million, $429 million and $(6) million, respectively.
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The restructuring reserve balance as of December 31, 2009, for all programs was $74 million, of which approximately $64 million is expected to be spent over the next twelve months. Refer to Note 9 - Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our restructuring programs.
2010 Expected Actions
In connection with our continued objective to align our cost base to current revenues, we expect to record pre-tax restructuring charges of approximately $280 million in 2010, of which $250 million is expected to be recorded in the first quarter. These actions are expected to impact all geographies and segments with approximately equal focus on SAG reductions, gross margin improvements and optimization of RD&E investments. The restructuring is also expected to involve the rationalization of some of our facilities.
Acquisition-related costs of $72 million were incurred and expensed during 2009 in connection with our acquisition of ACS. $58 million of the costs relate to the write-off of fees associated with the Bridge Loan Facility commitment which was terminated as a result of securing permanent financing to fund the acquisition. The remainder of the costs represents transaction costs such as banking, legal and accounting fees, as well as some pre-integration costs such as external consulting services. Consistent with the new accounting guidance with respect to business combinations, adopted in 2009, all acquisition-related costs must be expensed as incurred.
Worldwide employment of 53,600 as of December 31, 2009 decreased approximately 3,500 from December 31, 2008, primarily reflecting restructuring reductions, partially offset by additional headcount related to GIS acquisitions. Worldwide employment was approximately 57,100 and 57,400 at December 31, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Other Expenses, Net
Other expenses, net for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007 consisted of the following:
Non-financing interest expense: 2009 non-financing interest expense decreased compared to 2008, as interest expense associated with our $2.0 billion Senior Note offering for the funding of the ACS acquisition was more than offset by lower interest rates on the remaining debt.
In 2008, non-financing interest expense was flat compared to 2007, as the benefit of lower interest rates was offset by higher average non-financing debt balances.
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Interest income: Interest income is derived primarily from our invested cash and cash equivalent balances. The decline in interest income in 2009 and 2008 was primarily due to lower average cash balances and rates of return.
Gain on sales of businesses and assets: 2009 and 2008 gain on sales of business and assets primarily consisted of the sales of certain surplus facilities in Latin America.
Currency losses, net: Currency losses primarily result from the re-measurement of foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities, the cost of hedging foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities, the mark-to-market of foreign exchange contracts utilized to hedge those foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities and the mark-to-market impact of hedges of anticipated transactions, primarily future inventory purchases, for those that we do not apply cash flow hedge accounting treatment.
The 2009 currency losses were primarily due to the significant movement in exchange rates among the U.S. Dollar, Euro and Yen in the first quarter of 2009, as well as the increased cost of hedging, particularly in developing markets.
The 2008 currency losses were primarily due to net re-measurement losses associated with our Yen-denominated payables, foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities in our developing markets and the cost of hedging. The currency losses on Yen-denominated payables were largely limited to the first quarter 2008 as a result of the significant and rapid weakening of the U.S. Dollar and Euro versus the Yen.
Amortization of intangible assets: The increase in 2009 and 2008 amortization as compared to prior years primarily reflects the full-year amortization of the assets acquired as part of our recent acquisitions.
Litigation matters: In 2008 legal matters consisted of the following:
Refer to Note 16 Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding litigation against the Company.
All other expenses, net: All Other expenses in 2009 were $19 million higher than the prior year primarily due to fees associated with the sale of receivables, as well as an increase in interest expense related to Brazil tax and labor contingencies.
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The 2009 effective tax rate of 24.2% was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily reflecting the benefit to taxes from the geographical mix of income before taxes and the related effective tax rates in those jurisdictions, and the settlement of certain previously unrecognized tax benefits partially offset by a reduction in the utilization of foreign tax credits.
The 2008 effective tax rate of 292.4% reflected the tax benefits from certain discrete items including the net provision for litigation matters; the second, third and fourth quarter restructuring and asset impairment charges; the product line equipment write-off; and the settlement of certain previously unrecognized tax benefits. Excluding these items, the adjusted effective tax rate was 20.9%*. The adjusted 2008 effective tax rate was lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate primarily reflecting the benefit to taxes from the geographical mix of income before taxes and the related effective tax rates in those jurisdictions, the utilization of foreign tax credits and tax law changes.
The 2007 effective tax rate of 27.2% was lower than the U.S. statutory rate primarily reflecting tax benefits from the geographical mix of income before taxes and the related effective tax rates in those jurisdictions and the utilization of foreign tax credits, as well as the resolution of other tax matters. These benefits were partially offset by changes in tax law.
Our effective tax rate will change based on nonrecurring events as well as recurring factors including the geographical mix of income before taxes and the related effective tax rates in those jurisdictions and available foreign tax credits. In addition, our effective tax rate will change based on discrete or other nonrecurring events (such as audit settlements) that may not be predictable. Including the results from ACS, we anticipate that our effective tax rate for 2010 will be approximately 32%, excluding the effects of any discrete events.
Refer to Note 15 Income and Other Taxes in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
* See the Non-GAAP Measures section for additional information.
Equity in Net Income of Unconsolidated Affiliates
2009 equity in net income of unconsolidated affiliates of $41 million is principally related to our 25% share of Fuji Xerox income. The $72 million decrease from 2008 is primarily due to Fuji Xeroxs lower net income, which has been impacted by the worldwide economic weakness, and includes $46 million related to our share of Fuji Xerox after-tax restructuring costs.
2008 equity in net income of unconsolidated affiliates of $113 million increased by $16 million from 2007, primarily due to a $14 million reduction in our share of Fuji Xerox restructuring charges.
We have operations in Venezuela where the U.S. Dollar is the functional currency. At December 31, 2009 our Venezuelan operations had approximately 90 million in net Bolivar-denominated monetary assets that were re-measured to U.S. Dollars at the official exchange rate of 2.15 Bolivars to the Dollar. In January 2010, Venezuela announced a devaluation of the Bolivar to an official rate of 4.30 Bolivars to the Dollar for our products. As a result of this devaluation, we expect to record a loss of approximately $21 million in the first quarter of 2010 for the re-measurement of our net Bolivar-denominated monetary assets. Other than the loss from re-measurement, we do not expect the devaluation to materially impact our results of operations or financial position in 2010 since we derive less than 0.5% of our total revenue from Venezuela and expect to take actions to lessen the effect of the devaluation.
On January 20, 2010, we acquired Irish Business Systems Limited (IBS) for approximately $31 million. This acquisition expands our reach into the small and mid-sized business (SMB) market in Ireland. IBS, with eight offices located throughout Ireland, is a managed print services provider and the largest independent supplier of digital imaging and printing solutions in Ireland.
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On February 5, 2010, we completed the acquisition of ACS. Refer to Note 3-Acquisitions, Note 11-Debt and Note 17-Shareholders Equity for further information regarding the acquisition and associated funding for it.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2009, we adopted SFAS No. 160 Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements an amendment of ARB No. 51, (Accounting Standards CodificationTM Topic 810-10-65). This guidance requires that minority interests be renamed noncontrolling interests and be presented as a separate component of equity. In addition, the Company must report a consolidated net income (loss) measure that includes the amount attributable to such noncontrolling interests for all periods presented.
Refer to Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of all recent accounting pronouncements including the respective dates of adoption and the effects on results of operations and financial condition.
Capital Resources and Liquidity
Cash Flow Analysis
The following summarizes our cash flows for the three years ended December 31, 2009, as reported in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements:
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $2,208 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The $1,269 million increase from 2008 was primarily due to the following:
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Net cash provided by operating activities was $939 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The $932 million decrease from 2007 was primarily due to the following:
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $343 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The $98 million increase from 2008 was primarily due to the following:
Net cash used in investing activities was $441 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The $1,171 million increase from 2007 was primarily due to the following:
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $692 million for the year ended December 31, 2009. The $1,003 million increase from 2008 was primarily due to the following:
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Net cash used in financing activities was $311 million for the year ended December 31, 2008. The $308 million increase from 2007 was primarily due to the following:
Financing Activities, Credit Facility and Capital Markets
Customer Financing Activities
We provide lease equipment financing to the majority of our customers. Our lease contracts permit customers to pay for equipment over time rather than at the date of installation. Our investment in these contracts is reflected in Total finance assets, net. We currently fund our customer financing activity through cash generated from operations, cash on hand, borrowings under bank credit facilities and proceeds from capital markets offerings.
We have arrangements in certain international countries and domestically through GIS, where third party financial institutions independently provide lease financing, on a non-recourse basis to Xerox, directly to our customers. In these arrangements, we sell and transfer title of the equipment to these financial institutions. Generally, we have no continuing ownership rights in the equipment subsequent to its sale; therefore, the unrelated third party finance receivable and debt are not included in our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following represents Total finance assets associated with our lease and finance operations as of December 31, 2009 and 2008:
The decrease of $294 million in Total finance assets, net includes favorable currency of $224 million.
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We maintain a certain level of debt, referred to as financing debt, in order to support our investment in our lease contracts. We maintain an assumed 7:1 leverage ratio of debt to equity as compared to our finance assets for this financing aspect of our business. Based on this leverage, the following represents the breakdown of Total debt between financing debt and core debt as of December 31, 2009 and 2008:
The following summarizes our debt:
Principal debt balance at December 31, 2008 includes short-term debt of $61 million. Refer to Note 11 Debt in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the above balances.
Refer to Note 13 - Financial Instruments in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding our derivative financial instruments.
Share Repurchase Programs
Refer to Note 17 Shareholders Equity Treasury Stock in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our share repurchase programs.
The Board of Directors declared a 4.25 cent per share dividend on common stock in each quarter of 2009 and 2008.
In October 2009, in connection with our anticipated acquisition of ACS, we amended our $2.0 billion Credit Facility and entered into a Bridge Loan Facility commitment as noted below. The Credit Facility amendment extended the maximum permitted leverage ratio of 4.25x through September 30, 2010, which will change to 4.00x through December 31, 2010, and to 3.75x thereafter. The amendment also included the following changes:
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Capital Markets Offerings
In 2009, we raised net proceeds of $745 million and $1,980 million through the issuance of Senior Notes of $750 million in May and $2.0 billion in December, respectively. The net proceeds from the Senior Notes issued in December 2009 were used to fund the acquisition of ACS.
Refer to Note 3 Acquisitions in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding the ACS acquisition, as well as Note 11 Debt in the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Debt activity.
Bridge Loan Facility Commitment
In connection with the agreement to acquire ACS, in September 2009 we entered into a commitment for a syndicated $3.0 billion Bridge Loan Facility with several banks that was to be used for funding the acquisition in the event the transaction closed prior to obtaining permanent financing in the capital markets. Debt issuance costs for the Bridge Loan Facility commitment were $58 million. On December 4, 2009, the debt commitment was reduced to $500 million following our issuance of $2.0 billion of Senior Notes. On January 8, 2010, we terminated the remaining commitment because we concluded we had sufficient liquidity to complete the ACS acquisition without having to borrow under the Bridge Loan Facility.
Liquidity and Financial Flexibility
We manage our worldwide liquidity using internal cash management practices, which are subject to (1) the statutes, regulations and practices of each of the local jurisdictions in which we operate, (2) the legal requirements of the agreements to which we are a party and (3) the policies and cooperation of the financial institutions we utilize to maintain and provide cash management services.
Our liquidity is a function of our ability to successfully generate cash flows from a combination of efficient operations and access to capital markets. Our ability to maintain positive liquidity going forward depends on our ability to continue to generate cash from operations and access to financial markets, both of which are subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other market factors that are beyond our control.
The following is a discussion of our liquidity position as of December 31, 2009:
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In February 2010, in connection with the closing of our acquisition of ACS, we borrowed $649 million under our Credit Facility.
Loan Covenants and Compliance
At December 31, 2009, we were in full compliance with the covenants and other provisions of the Credit Facility, our Senior Notes and our Bridge Loan Facility commitment (which was terminated on January 8, 2010). We have the right to prepay any outstanding loans or to terminate the Credit Facility without penalty. Failure to be in compliance with any material provision or covenant of these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations and our ability to continue to fund our customers purchase of Xerox equipment.
Refer to Note 11 Debt for further information regarding debt arrangements.
Credit Ratings: We are currently rated investment grade by all major rating agencies. As of February 8, 2010 the ratings were as follows:
Contractual Cash Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments and Contingencies
At December 31, 2009, we had the following contractual cash obligations and other commercial commitments and contingencies (in millions):
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Pension and Other Post-retirement Benefit Plans
We sponsor pension and other post-retirement benefit plans that may require periodic cash contributions. Our 2009 contributions for these plans were $122 million for pensions and $107 million for our retiree health plans. We expect to make contributions of approximately $260 million to our worldwide defined benefit pension plans and $103 million to our retiree health benefit plans in 2010. Once the January 1, 2010 actuarial valuations are finalized for our U.S. qualified pension plans, we will reassess the need for additional contributions for these plans. No additional contributions were made in 2009, due to the ERISA funded status of our U.S. qualified pension plans and the availability of a credit balance that had resulted from funding in prior periods in excess of minimum requirements. In 2008, we made additional contributions above what was disclosed in the 2007 Annual Report of $165 million to our U.S. qualified pension plans.
Our retiree health benefit plans are non-funded and are almost entirely related to domestic operations. Cash contributions are made each year to cover medical claims costs incurred in that year. The amounts reported in the above table as retiree health payments represent our estimated future benefit payments.
We purchased products, including parts and supplies, from Fuji Xerox totaling $1.6 billion, $2.1 billion and $1.9 billion in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Our purchase commitments with Fuji Xerox are in the normal course of business and typically have a lead time of three months. Related party transactions with Fuji Xerox are discussed in Note 7 - Investments in Affiliates, at Equity in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Brazil Tax and Labor Contingencies
Our Brazilian operations were involved in various litigation matters and have received or been the subject of numerous governmental assessments related to indirect and other taxes, as well as disputes associated with former employees and contract labor. The tax matters, which comprise a significant portion of the total contingencies, principally relate to claims for taxes on the internal transfer of inventory, municipal service taxes on rentals and gross revenue taxes. We are disputing these tax matters and intend to vigorously defend our position. Based on the opinion of legal counsel and current reserves for those matters deemed probable of loss, we do not believe that the ultimate resolution of these matters will materially impact our results of operations, financial position or cash flows. The labor matters principally relate to claims made by former employees and contract labor for the equivalent payment of all social security and other related labor benefits, as well as consequential tax claims, as if they were regular employees. As of December 31, 2009, the total amounts related to the unreserved portion of the tax and labor contingencies, inclusive of any related interest, amounted to approximately $1,225 million, with the increase from the December 31, 2008 balance of $839 million primarily related to currency and current year interest indexation. In connection with the above proceedings, customary local regulations may require us to make escrow cash deposits or post other security of up to half of the total amount in dispute. As of December 31, 2009 we had $240 million of escrow cash deposits for matters we are disputing and there are liens on certain Brazilian assets with a net book value of $19 million and additional letters of credit of approximately $137 million. Generally, any escrowed amounts would be refundable and any liens would be removed to the extent the matters are resolved in our favor. We routinely assess all these matters as to probability of ultimately incurring a liability against our Brazilian operations and record our best estimate of the ultimate loss in situations where we assess the likelihood of an ultimate loss as probable.
Other Contingencies and Commitments
As more fully discussed in Note 16 Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements, we are involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations and proceedings concerning securities law, intellectual property law, environmental law, employment law and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. In addition, guarantees, indemnifications and claims may arise during the ordinary course of business from relationships with suppliers, customers and nonconsolidated affiliates. Nonperformance under a contract including a guarantee, indemnification or claim could trigger an obligation of the Company. We determine whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. Should developments in any of these areas cause a change in our determination as to an unfavorable outcome and result in the need to recognize a material accrual, or should any of these matters result in a final adverse judgment or be settled for significant amounts, they could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial position in the period or periods in which such change in determination, judgment or settlement occurs.
Unrecognized Tax Benefits
As of December 31, 2009, we had $148 million of unrecognized tax benefits. This represents the tax benefits associated with various tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, on domestic and international tax returns that have not been recognized in our financial statements due to uncertainty regarding their resolution. The resolution or settlement of these tax positions with the taxing authorities is at various stages and therefore we are unable to make a reliable estimate of the eventual cash flows by period that may be required to settle these matters. In addition, certain of these matters may not require cash settlement due to the existence of credit and net operating loss carryforwards, as well as other offsets, including the indirect benefit from other taxing jurisdictions that may be available.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Although we rarely utilize off-balance sheet arrangements in our operations, we enter into operating leases in the normal course of business. The nature of these lease arrangements is discussed in Note 6 - Land, Buildings and Equipment, Net in the Consolidated Financial Statements. In addition, we have facilities in the U.S., Canada and several countries in Europe that enable us to sell, on an on-going basis, certain short-term accounts receivable without recourse to third parties. Refer to Note 4 Receivables, Net in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
Refer to Note 16 Contingencies in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our guarantees, indemnifications and warranty liabilities.
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Financial Risk Management
We are exposed to market risk from foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, which could affect operating results, financial position and cash flows. We manage our exposure to these market risks through our regular operating and financing activities and, when appropriate, through the use of derivative financial instruments. These derivative financial instruments are utilized to hedge economic exposures, as well as reduce earnings and cash flow volatility resulting from shifts in market rates.
Recent market events have not required us to materially modify or change our financial risk management strategies with respect to our exposures to interest rate and foreign currency risk. Refer to Note 13 Financial Instruments in the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on our financial risk management.
Foreign Exchange Risk Management
Assuming a 10% appreciation or depreciation in foreign currency exchange rates from the quoted foreign currency exchange rates at December 31, 2009, the potential change in the fair value of foreign currency-denominated assets and liabilities in each entity would not be significant because all material currency asset and liability exposures were economically hedged as of December 31, 2009. A 10% appreciation or depreciation of the U.S. Dollar against all currencies from the quoted foreign currency exchange rates at December 31, 2009 would have a $689 million impact on our cumulative translation adjustment portion of equity. The net amount invested in foreign subsidiaries and affiliates primarily Xerox Limited, Fuji Xerox, Xerox Canada Inc. and Xerox do Brasil, and translated into Dollars using the year-end exchange rates, was $6.9 billion at December 31, 2009.
Interest Rate Risk Management
The consolidated weighted-average interest rates related to our total debt and liability to subsidiary trust issuing preferred securities for 2009, 2008 and 2007 approximated 6.1%, 6.6%, and 7.1%, respectively. Interest expense includes the impact of our interest rate derivatives.
Virtually all customer-financing assets earn fixed rates of interest. The interest rates on a significant portion of the Companys term debt are fixed.
As of December 31, 2009, $2.4 billion of our total debt carried variable interest rates, including the effect of pay variable interest rate swaps we are utilizing with the intent to reduce the effective interest rate on our fixed coupon debt.
The fair market values of our fixed-rate financial instruments are sensitive to changes in interest rates. At December 31, 2009, a 10% change in market interest rates would change the fair values of such financial instruments by approximately $274 million.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We have reported our financial results in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). A reconciliation of the following non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are set forth below:
We discussed the revenue growth for the year ended December 31, 2008 using non-GAAP financial measures. To understand trends in the business, we believe that it is helpful to adjust the revenue growth rates to illustrate the impact of the acquisition of GIS by including their estimated revenue for the comparable 2007 period. We refer to this adjusted revenue as As Adjusted in the following reconciliation table. Revenue As Adjusted adds GISs revenues from January 1, 2007 to May 8, 2007 to our 2007 reported revenue. Management believes these measures give investors an additional perspective on revenue trends, as well as the impact to the Company of the acquisition of GIS that was completed in May 2007.
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Adjusted Effective Tax Rate
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2008 is discussed using a non-GAAP financial measure that excludes the effect of charges associated with an equipment write-off; restructuring and asset impairments; certain litigation matters and the settlement of certain previously unrecognized tax benefits. Management believes that it is helpful to exclude these effects to better understand, analyze and compare 2008s income tax expense and effective tax rate to the 2007 amounts given the discrete nature and size of these items in 2008.
Management believes that these non-GAAP financial measures provide an additional means of analyzing the current period results against the corresponding prior period results. However, non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as a substitute for, the Companys reported results prepared in accordance with GAAP.
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words anticipate, believe, estimate, expect, intend, will, should and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect managements current beliefs, assumptions and expectations and are subject to a number of factors that may cause actual results to differ materially. Information concerning these factors is included in our 2009 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We do not intend to update these forward-looking statements, except as required by law.
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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS EQUITY
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements
Dollars in millions, except per share data and unless otherwise indicated.
Note 1 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
References herein to we, us, our, the Company, and Xerox refer to Xerox Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context specifically requires otherwise.
Description of Business and Basis of Presentation
We are a technology and services enterprise and a leader in the global document market. We develop, manufacture, market, service and finance a complete range of document equipment, software, solutions and services.
Basis of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Xerox Corporation and all of our controlled subsidiary companies. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Investments in business entities in which we do not have control, but we have the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies (generally 20% to 50% ownership) are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Operating results of acquired businesses are included in the Consolidated Statements of Income from the date of acquisition.
We consolidate variable interest entities if we are deemed to be the primary beneficiary of the entity. Operating results for variable interest entities in which we are determined to be the primary beneficiary are included in the Consolidated Statements of Income from the date such determination is made.
For convenience and ease of reference, we refer to the financial statement caption Income (Loss) before Income Taxes and Equity Income as Pre-tax Income or Pre-tax Loss throughout the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In 2009, we changed the presentation of our financial statements for noncontrolling (minority) interests. Refer to Business Combinations and Noncontrolling Interests below for additional information.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates and assumptions are used for, but not limited to: (i) allocation of revenues and fair values in leases and other multiple element arrangements; (ii) accounting for residual values; (iii) economic lives of leased assets; (iv) allowance for doubtful accounts; (v) inventory valuation; (vi) restructuring and related charges; (vii) asset impairments; (viii) depreciable lives of assets; (ix) useful lives of intangible assets; (x) pension and post-retirement benefit plans; (xi) income tax reserves and valuation allowances; and (xii) contingency and litigation reserves. Future events and their effects cannot be predicted with certainty; accordingly, our accounting estimates require the exercise of judgment. The accounting estimates used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as our operating environment changes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
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The following table summarizes certain significant charges that require management estimates:
Changes in Estimates
In the ordinary course of accounting for items discussed above, we make changes in estimates as appropriate and as we become aware of circumstances surrounding those estimates. Such changes and refinements in estimation methodologies are reflected in reported results of operations in the period in which the changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
New Accounting Standards and Accounting Changes
FASB Establishes Accounting Standards Codification
In 2009, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-01, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (ASC Topic 105) which establishes the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (the Codification or ASC) as the official single source of authoritative U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). All existing accounting standards are superseded. All other accounting guidance not included in the Codification will be considered non-authoritative. The Codification also includes all relevant Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) guidance organized using the same topical structure in separate sections within the Codification.
Following the Codification, the Board will not issue new standards in the form of Statements, FASB Staff Positions or Emerging Issues Task Force Abstracts. Instead, it will issue Accounting Standards Updates (ASU) which will serve to update the Codification, provide background information about the guidance and provide the basis for conclusions on the changes to the Codification.
The Codification is not intended to change GAAP, but it will change the way GAAP is organized and presented. The Codification was effective for our third-quarter 2009 financial statements and the principal impact on our financial statements is limited to disclosures as all future references to authoritative accounting literature will be referenced in accordance with the Codification. In order to ease the transition to the Codification, we are providing the Codification cross-reference alongside the references to the standards issued and adopted prior to the adoption of the Codification.
Fair Value Accounting
In 2006, the FASB issued SFAS No. 157, Fair Value Measurements (ASC Topic 820) which defines fair value, establishes a market-based framework or hierarchy for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value
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measurements. This guidance is applicable whenever another accounting pronouncement requires or permits assets and liabilities to be measured at fair value. It does not expand or require any new fair value measures; however the application of this statement may change current practice. We adopted this guidance for financial assets and liabilities effective January 1, 2008 and for non-financial assets and liabilities effective January 1, 2009. The adoption of this guidance, which primarily affected the valuation of our derivative contracts, did not have a material effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
In 2009, the FASB issued the following updates that provide additional application guidance and enhance disclosures regarding fair value measurements and impairments of securities:
We elected to early adopt these updates effective March 31, 2009 and the adoption did not have a material effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
In 2009, the FASB issued ASU No. 2009-05 which amends Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures Overall (ASC Topic 820-10) to provide guidance on the fair value measurement of liabilities. This update provides clarification for circumstances in which a quoted price in an active market for the identical liability is not available. This update was effective October 1, 2009 (our fourth quarter) and did not have a material effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
In 2010, the FASB issued ASU No. 2010-06 which amends Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures Overall (ASC Topic 820-10). This update requires a gross presentation of activities within the Level 3 roll forward and adds a new requirement to disclose transfers in and out of Level 1 and 2 measurements. The update also clarifies the following existing disclosure requirements in ASC 820-10 regarding: i) the level of disaggregation of fair value measurements; and ii) the disclosures regarding inputs and valuation techniques. This update is effective for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2010 except for the gross presentation of the Level 3 roll forward information, which is effective for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2011. The principle impact from this update will be expanded disclosures regarding our fair value measurements.
Business Combinations and Noncontrolling Interests
In 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007), Business Combinations (ASC Topic 805). This guidance requires the acquiring entity in a business combination to recognize the full fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction (whether a full or partial acquisition); establishes the acquisition date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed; requires expensing of most transaction and restructuring costs; and requires the acquirer to disclose the information needed to evaluate and understand the nature and financial effect of the business combination. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2009 and have applied it to all business combinations prospectively from that date. The impact of ASC Topic 805 on our consolidated financial statements will depend upon the nature, terms and size of the acquisitions we consummate in the future.
In 2009, the FASB issued Staff Position No. FSP FAS 141(R)-1; Accounting for Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed in a Business Combination That Arise from Contingencies (ASC Topic 805-20). This updated guidance amended the accounting treatment for assets and liabilities arising from contingencies in a business combination and requires that pre-acquisition contingencies be recognized at fair value, if fair value can be reasonably determined. If fair value cannot be reasonably determined, measurement should be based on the best estimate in accordance with SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies (ASC Topic 405). This updated guidance was effective January 1, 2009.
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In 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statementsan amendment of Accounting Research Bulletin No. 51 (ASC Topic 810-10-65). This guidance requires companies to present noncontrolling (minority) interests as equity (as opposed to a liability) and provides guidance on the accounting for transactions between an entity and noncontrolling interests. In addition, it requires companies to report a consolidated net income (loss) measure that includes the amount attributable to such noncontrolling interests. We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2009, and have applied it to noncontrolling interests prospectively from that date. The presentation and disclosure requirements were applied retrospectively for all periods presented. As a result of this adoption, we reclassified noncontrolling interests in the amount of $120 from Other long-term liabilities to equity in the December 31, 2008 balance sheet.
In 2009, the FASB issued the following ASUs:
These updates require expanded qualitative and quantitative disclosures and are effective for fiscal years beginning on or after June 15, 2010. We have elected to adopt these updates effective for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2010 and we will apply them prospectively from that date for new or materially modified arrangements. We do not believe adoption of these updates will have a material effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Benefit Plans Accounting
In 2008, the FASB issued Staff Position No. FAS 132(R)-1, Employers Disclosures about Postretirement Benefit Plan Assets (ASC Topic 715-20-65). This guidance expands disclosure by requiring the following new disclosures: 1) how investment allocation decisions are made by management; 2) major categories of plan assets; 3) a roll-forward of assets valued with non-observable market inputs; and 4) significant concentrations of risk. Additionally, ASC 715-20-65 requires an employer to disclose information about the valuation of plan assets similar to that required in ASC Topic 820 Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. This guidance was effective for our fiscal year ending December 31, 2009. The only impact from this standard was to require us to expand disclosures regarding our benefit plan assets. Refer to Note 14-Employee Benefit Plans for expanded disclosures.
Other Accounting Changes
In January 2010, the FASB issued the following Codification updates:
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In 2009, the FASB issued the following codification updates:
During 2009 and early 2010, the FASB has issued several ASUs ASU No. 2009-02 through ASU No. 2009-17 and ASU No. 2010-01 through ASU No. 2010-08. Except for ASUs No. 2009-05, 2009-13, 2009-14, 2009-16, 2009-17, 2010-01, 2010-02 and 2010-06 discussed above, the remaining ASUs entail technical corrections to existing guidance or affect guidance related to specialized industries or entities and therefore have minimal, if any, impact on the Company.
Summary of Accounting Policies
We generate revenue through the sale and rental of equipment, service and supplies and income associated with the financing of our equipment sales. Revenue is recognized when earned. More specifically, revenue related to sales of our products and services is recognized as follows:
Equipment: Revenues from the sale of equipment, including those from sales-type leases, are recognized at the time of sale or at the inception of the lease, as appropriate. For equipment sales that require us to install the product at the customer location, revenue is recognized when the equipment has been delivered and installed at the customer location. Sales of customer installable products are recognized upon shipment or receipt by the customer according to the customers shipping terms. Revenues from equipment under other leases and similar arrangements are accounted for by the operating lease method and are recognized as earned over the lease term, which is generally on a straight-line basis.
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Service: Service revenues are derived primarily from maintenance contracts on our equipment sold to customers and are recognized over the term of the contracts. A substantial portion of our products are sold with full service maintenance agreements for which the customer typically pays a base service fee plus a variable amount based on usage. As a consequence, other than the product warranty obligations associated with certain of our low end products in the Office segment, we do not have any significant product warranty obligations, including any obligations under customer satisfaction programs.
Revenues associated with outsourcing services, as well as professional and value-added services are generally recognized as such services are performed. In those service arrangements where final acceptance of a system or solution by the customer is required, revenue is deferred until all acceptance criteria have been met. Costs associated with service arrangements are generally recognized as incurred. Initial direct costs of an arrangement are capitalized and amortized over the contractual service period. Long-lived assets used in the fulfillment of the arrangements are capitalized and depreciated over the shorter of their useful life or the term of the contract. Losses on service arrangements are recognized in the period that the contractual loss becomes probable and estimable.
Sales to distributors and resellers: We utilize distributors and resellers to sell certain of our products to end-users. We refer to our distributor and reseller network as our two-tier distribution model. Sales to distributors and resellers are generally recognized as revenue when products are sold to such distributors and resellers. Distributors and resellers participate in various cooperative marketing and other programs, and we record provisions for these programs as a reduction to revenue when the sales occur. Similarly, we account for our estimates of sales returns and other allowances when the sales occur based on our historical experience.
Supplies: Supplies revenue generally is recognized upon shipment or utilization by customers in accordance with the sales terms.
Software: Software included within our equipment and services is generally considered incidental and is therefore accounted for as part of the equipment sales or services revenues. Software accessories sold in connection with our equipment sales, as well as free-standing software sales are accounted for as separate deliverables or elements. In most cases, these software products are sold as part of multiple element arrangements and include software maintenance agreements for the delivery of technical service, as well as unspecified upgrades or enhancements on a when-and-if-available basis. In those software accessory and free-standing software arrangements that include more than one element, we allocate the revenue among the elements based on vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) of fair value. VSOE of fair value is based on the price charged when the deliverable is sold separately by us on a regular basis and not as part of the multiple-element arrangement. Revenue allocated to software is normally recognized upon delivery while revenue allocated to the software maintenance element is recognized ratably over the term of the arrangement.
Leases: Our accounting for leases involves specific determinations regarding complex accounting provisions, as well as significant judgments. The two primary accounting provisions which we use to classify transactions as sales-type or operating leases are: 1) a review of the lease term to determine if it is equal to or greater than 75% of the economic life of the equipment and 2) a review of the present value of the minimum lease payments to determine if they are equal to or greater than 90% of the fair market value of the equipment at the inception of the lease. Our leases in our Latin America operations have historically been recorded as operating leases given the cancellable nature of the contract or because the recoverability of the lease investment is deemed not to be predictable at lease inception.
The critical elements that we consider with respect to our lease accounting are the determination of the economic life and the fair value of equipment, including the residual value. For purposes of determining the economic life, we consider the most objective measure to be the original contract term, since most equipment is returned by lessees at or near the end of the contracted term. The economic life of most of our products is five years since this represents the most frequent contractual lease term for our principal products and only a small percentage of our leases have original terms longer than five years. We continually evaluate the economic life of both existing and newly introduced products for purposes of this determination. Residual values, if any, are established at lease inception using estimates of fair value at the end of the lease term.
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The vast majority of our leases that qualify as sales-type are non-cancelable and include cancellation penalties approximately equal to the full value of the lease receivables. A portion of our business involves sales to governmental units. Governmental units are those entities that have statutorily defined funding or annual budgets that are determined by their legislative bodies. Certain of our governmental contracts may have cancellation provisions or renewal clauses that are required by law, such as 1) those dependant on fiscal funding outside of a governmental units control, 2) those that can be cancelled if deemed in the best interest of the governmental units taxpayers or 3) those that must be renewed each fiscal year, given limitations that may exist on entering into multi-year contracts that are imposed by statute. In these circumstances, we carefully evaluate these contracts to assess whether cancellation is remote. The evaluation of a lease agreement with a renewal option includes an assessment as to whether the renewal is reasonably assured based on the apparent intent and our experience of such governmental unit. We further ensure that the contract provisions described above are offered only in instances where required by law. Where such contract terms are not legally required, we consider the arrangement to be cancelable and account for the lease as an operating lease.
After the initial lease of equipment to our customers, we may enter subsequent transactions with the same customer whereby we extend the term. Revenue from such lease extensions is typically recognized over the extension period.
Bundled Arrangements: We sell our products and services under bundled lease arrangements, which typically include equipment, service, supplies and financing components for which the customer pays a single negotiated fixed minimum monthly payment for all elements over the contractual lease term. These arrangements also typically include an incremental, variable component for page volumes in excess of contractual page volume minimums, which are often expressed in terms of price per page. The fixed minimum monthly payments are multiplied by the number of months in the contract term to arrive at the total fixed minimum payments that the customer is obligated to make (fixed payments) over the lease term. The payments associated with page volumes in excess of the minimums are contingent on whether or not such minimums are exceeded (contingent payments). The minimum contractual committed page volumes are typically negotiated to equal the customers estimated page volume at lease inception. In applying our lease accounting methodology, we only consider the fixed payments for purposes of allocating to the relative fair value elements of the contract. Contingent payments, if any, are inherently uncertain and therefore are recognized as revenue in the period when the customer exceeds the minimum copy volumes specified in the contract. Revenues under bundled arrangements are allocated considering the relative fair values of the lease and non-lease deliverables included in the bundled arrangement based upon the estimated relative fair values of each element. Lease deliverables include maintenance and executory costs, equipment and financing, while non-lease deliverables generally consist of the supplies and non-maintenance services. Our revenue allocation for the lease deliverables begins by allocating revenues to the maintenance and executory costs plus profit thereon. The remaining amounts are allocated to the equipment and financing elements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, including money-market funds, and investments with original maturities of three months or less.
Restricted Cash and Investments
As more fully discussed in Note 16 - Contingencies, various litigation matters in Brazil require us to make cash deposits as a condition of continuing the litigation. In addition, several of our secured financing arrangements and other contracts require us to post cash collateral or maintain minimum cash balances in escrow. These cash amounts are classified in our Consolidated Balance Sheets based on when the cash will be contractually or judicially released (refer to Note 10-Supplementary Financial Information for classification of amounts). At December 31, 2009 and 2008, such restricted cash amounts were as follows:
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Provisions for Losses on Uncollectible Receivables
The provisions for losses on uncollectible trade and finance receivables are determined principally on the basis of past collection experience applied to ongoing evaluations of our receivables and evaluations of the default risks of repayment.
Allowances for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2009 and 2008 were as follows:
Inventories are carried at the lower of average cost or market. Inventories also include equipment that is returned at the end of the lease term. Returned equipment is recorded at the lower of remaining net book value or salvage value. Salvage value consists of the estimated market value (generally determined based on replacement cost) of the salvageable component parts, which are expected to be used in the remanufacturing process. We regularly review inventory quantities and record a provision for excess and/or obsolete inventory based primarily on our estimated forecast of product demand, production requirements and servicing commitments. Several factors may influence the realizability of our inventories, including our decision to exit a product line, technological changes and new product development. The provision for excess and/or obsolete raw materials and equipment inventories is based primarily on near term forecasts of product demand and include consideration of new product introductions, as well as changes in remanufacturing strategies. The provision for excess and/or obsolete service parts inventory is based primarily on projected servicing requirements over the life of the related equipment populations.
Land, Buildings and Equipment and Equipment on Operating Leases
Land, buildings and equipment are recorded at cost. Buildings and equipment are depreciated over their estimated useful lives. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life. Equipment on operating leases is depreciated to estimated salvage value over the lease term. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method. Significant improvements are capitalized and maintenance and repairs are expensed. Refer to Note 5 - Inventories and Equipment on Operating Leases, Net and Note 6 - Land, Buildings and Equipment, Net for further discussion.
Internal Use Software
We capitalize direct costs associated with developing, purchasing or otherwise acquiring software for internal use and amortize these costs on a straight-line basis over the expected useful life of the software, beginning when the software is implemented. Useful lives of the software generally vary from three to seven years. Amortization expense was $53, $50, and $76 for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Capitalized costs were $354 and $288 as of December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
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Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if an event or circumstance indicates that an impairment loss may have been incurred. Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. We estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using a discounted cash flow methodology. This requires us to use significant judgment including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, the useful life over which cash flows will occur, determination of our weighted average cost of capital and relevant market data.
Other intangible assets primarily consist of assets obtained in connection with business acquisitions, including installed customer base and distribution network relationships, patents on existing technology and trademarks. We apply an impairment evaluation whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying value of our intangible assets may not be recoverable. Other intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic lives. We believe that the straight-line method of amortization reflects an appropriate allocation of the cost of the intangible assets to earnings in proportion to the amount of economic benefits obtained annually by the Company. Refer to Note 8 Goodwill and Intangible Assets, Net for further information.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review the recoverability of our long-lived assets, including buildings, equipment, internal-use software and other intangible assets, when events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. The assessment of possible impairment is based on our ability to recover the carrying value of the asset from the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) of the related operations. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between estimated fair value and carrying value. Our primary measure of fair value is based on discounted cash flows.
We account for repurchased common stock under the cost method and include such treasury stock as a component of our Common shareholders equity. Retirement of Treasury stock is recorded as a reduction of Common stock and Additional paid-in-capital at the time such retirement is approved by our Board of Directors.
Research, Development and Engineering (RD&E)
Research, development and engineering costs are expensed as incurred. Sustaining engineering costs are incurred with respect to on-going product improvements or environmental compliance after initial product launch. Our RD&E expense for the three years ended December 31, 2009 was as follows:
Costs associated with exit or disposal activities, including lease termination costs and certain employee severance costs associated with restructuring, plant closing or other activity, are recognized when they are incurred. In those geographies where we have either a formal severance plan or a history of consistently providing severance benefits representing a substantive plan, we recognize severance costs when they are both probable and reasonably estimable. Refer to Note 9 Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges for further information.
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Pension and Post-Retirement Benefit Obligations
We sponsor pension plans in various forms in several countries covering substantially all employees who meet eligibility requirements. Post-retirement benefit plans cover U.S. and Canadian employees for retirement medical costs. We employ a delayed recognition feature in measuring the costs of pension and post-retirement benefit plans. This requires changes in the benefit obligations and changes in the value of assets set aside to meet those obligations to be recognized not as they occur, but systematically and gradually over subsequent periods. All changes are ultimately recognized as components of net periodic benefit cost, except to the extent they may be offset by subsequent changes. At any point, changes that have been identified and quantified but not recognized as components of net periodic benefit cost, are recognized in Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax.
Several statistical and other factors that attempt to anticipate future events are used in calculating the expense, liability and asset values related to our pension and post-retirement benefit plans. These factors include assumptions we make about the discount rate, expected return on plan assets, rate of increase in healthcare costs, the rate of future compensation increases, and mortality among others. Actual returns on plan assets are not immediately recognized in our income statement, due to the delayed recognition requirement. In calculating the expected return on the plan asset component of our net periodic pension cost, we apply our estimate of the long-term rate of return to the plan assets that support our pension obligations, after deducting assets that are specifically allocated to Transitional Retirement Accounts (which are accounted for based on specific plan terms).
For purposes of determining the expected return on plan assets, we utilize a calculated value approach in determining the value of the pension plan assets, as opposed to a fair market value approach. The primary difference between the two methods relates to systematic recognition of changes in fair value over time (generally two years) versus immediate recognition of changes in fair value. Our expected rate of return on plan assets is then applied to the calculated asset value to determine the amount of the expected return on plan assets to be used in the determination of the net periodic pension cost. The calculated value approach reduces the volatility in net periodic pension cost that results from using the fair market value approach.
The discount rate is used to present value our future anticipated benefit obligations. In estimating our discount rate, we consider rates of return on high quality fixed-income investments included in various published bond indexes, adjusted to eliminate the effects of call provisions and differences in the timing and amounts of cash outflows related to the bonds, as well as the expected timing of pension and other benefit payments. In the U.S. and the U.K., which comprise approximately 80% of our projected benefit obligation, we consider the Moodys Aa Corporate Bond Index and the International Index Companys iBoxx Sterling Corporate AA Cash Bond Index, respectively, in the determination of the appropriate discount rate assumptions. Refer to Note 14 - Employee Benefit Plans for further information.
Each year, the difference between the actual return on plan assets and the expected return on plan assets, as well as increases or decreases in the benefit obligation as a result of changes in the discount rate are added to or subtracted from any cumulative actuarial gain or loss that arose in prior years. This resultant amount is the net actuarial gain or loss recognized in Accumulated other comprehensive loss and is subject to subsequent amortization to net periodic pension cost in future periods over the remaining service lives of the employees participating in the pension plan.
Foreign Currency Translation and Re-measurement
The functional currency for most foreign operations is the local currency. Net assets are translated at current rates of exchange and income, expense and cash flow items are translated at average exchange rates for the applicable period. The translation adjustments are recorded in Accumulated other comprehensive loss.
The U.S. Dollar is used as the functional currency for certain subsidiaries that conduct their business in U.S. Dollars. A combination of current and historical exchange rates is used in re-measuring the local currency transactions of these subsidiaries and the resulting exchange adjustments are included in income.
Foreign currency losses were $26, $34 and $8 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively, and are included in Other expenses, net in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income.
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We have operations in Venezuela where the U.S. Dollar is the functional currency. At December 31, 2009 our Venezuelan operations had approximately 90 million in net Bolivar-denominated monetary assets that were re-measured to U.S. Dollars at the official exchange rate of 2.15 Bolivars to the Dollar. In January 2010, Venezuela announced a devaluation of the Bolivar to an official rate of 4.30 Bolivars to the Dollar for our products. As a result of this devaluation, we expect to record a loss of approximately $21 in the first quarter of 2010 for the re-measurement of our net Bolivar-denominated monetary assets.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss (AOCL)
AOCL is composed of the following for the three years ending December 31, 2009:
Note 2 Segment Reporting
Our reportable segments are consistent with how we manage the business and view the markets we serve. Our reportable segments are Production, Office and Other. The Production and Office segments are centered on strategic product groups which share common technology, manufacturing and product platforms, as well as classes of customers.
The Production segment includes black-and-white products which operate at speeds over 90 pages per minute (ppm) excluding 95 ppm with an embedded controller and color products which operate at speeds over 40 ppm excluding 50, 60 and 70 ppm products with an embedded controller. Products include the Xerox iGen3 and iGen4 digital color production press, Xerox Nuvera®, DocuTech®, DocuPrint® and DocuColor families, as well as older technology light-lens products. These products are sold predominantly through direct sales channels to Fortune 1000, graphic arts, government, education and other public sector customers.
The Office segment includes black-and-white products which operate at speeds up to 95 ppm and color devices up to 85 ppm. Products include our family of ColorQube, WorkCentre® multifunction printers, Phaser® desktop printers and digital multifunction printers., DocuColor color multifunction products, color laser, solid ink color printers and multifunction devices, monochrome laser desktop printers, digital and light-lens copiers and facsimile products and non-Xerox branded products with similar specifications. These products are sold through direct and indirect sales channels to global, national and mid-size commercial customers, as well as government, education and other public sector customers.
The segment classified as Other includes several units, none of which met the thresholds for separate segment reporting. This group primarily includes Xerox Supplies Business Group (predominantly paper sales), Value-Added Services, Wide Format Systems, Xerox Technology Enterprises, royalty and licensing revenues, GIS network integration solutions and electronic presentation systems, equity net income and non-allocated Corporate items. Other segment profit (loss) includes the operating results from these entities, other less significant businesses, our equity income from Fuji Xerox, and certain costs which have not been allocated to the Production and Office segments, including non-financing interest, as well as other items included in Other expenses, net.
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Selected financial information for our Operating segments for each of the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively, was as follows:
The following is a reconciliation of segment profit to pre-tax income (loss):
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Geographic area data is based upon the location of the subsidiary reporting the revenue or long-lived assets and is as follows:
Note 3 Acquisitions
Affiliated Computer Services, Inc.
In September 2009, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Affiliated Computer Services, Inc. (ACS) in a cash and stock transaction. The acquisition closed on February 5, 2010, at which time 100% of the outstanding shares of ACS common stock were converted into a combination of 4.935 shares of Xerox common stock and $18.60 in cash for a combined value of $60.40 per share, or approximately $6.0 billion based on the closing price of Xerox common stock of $8.47 on date of closing. Approximately 489,800 thousand shares of common stock were issued to holders of ACS Class A and Class B common stock.
Xerox assumed all outstanding ACS stock options at closing. Each assumed ACS option became exercisable for 7.085289 Xerox common shares for a total of approximately 96,700 thousand shares at a weighted average exercise price of $6.79 per option. The estimated fair value associated with the Xerox options issued in exchange for the ACS options was approximately $222 based on a Black-Scholes valuation model. Approximately $168 of the estimated fair value is expected to be recorded as part of the acquisition fair value and $54 will be expensed over the remaining vesting period which is estimated to be approximately 3.9 years.
As part of the closing, we repaid $1.7 billion of ACSs debt and assumed an additional $0.6 billion. We also issued convertible preferred stock with a liquidation value of $300 to ACSs Class B shareholder (see Note 17 Shareholders Equity for further information). The cash portion of the acquisition, as well as the repayment of ACSs debt, was funded through a combination of cash-on-hand, borrowing under our existing Credit Facility and the issuance of senior notes in the capital markets. (Refer to Note 11 Debt for further information).
ACS provides business process outsourcing (BPO) and information technology (IT) services and solutions to commercial and government clients worldwide. ACS delivers a full range of BPO and IT services, as well as end-to-end solutions to the public and private sectors and supports a variety of industries including education, energy, financial, government, healthcare, retail and transportation. ACSs revenues for the calendar year ended December 31, 2009 were $6.6 billion and they employed 78,000 people and operated in over 100 countries.
All information regarding the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, including assets and liabilities arising from contingencies, is not yet available. However, the purchase price is expected to be primarily allocated to intangible assets and goodwill based on third-party valuations and managements estimates which have not yet been finalized.
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The unaudited pro forma results presented below include the effects of the ACS acquisition as if it had been consummated as of January 1, 2008. The pro-forma results include the amortization associated with a preliminary estimate for the acquired intangible assets and interest expense associated with debt used to fund the acquisition. However, pro forma results do not include any anticipated synergies or other expected benefits of the acquisition. Accordingly, the unaudited pro forma financial information below is not necessarily indicative of either future results of operations or results that might have been achieved had the acquisition been consummated as of January 1, 2008:
We are still evaluating and assessing the impact of the ACS acquisition on our internal organizational and reporting structure as well as its related impact on our reportable segment disclosures. Accordingly, in the first quarter 2010, we currently expect to report ACS as a separate reportable segment, pending completion of that evaluation and assessment.
In 2008, we acquired Veenman B.V. (Veenman), expanding our reach into the small and mid-sized business market in Europe, for approximately $69 ( 44 million) in cash, including transaction costs. Veenman is the Netherlands leading independent distributor of office printers, copiers and multifunction devices serving small and mid-size businesses. The operating results of Veenman are not material to our financial statements, and are included within our Office segment from the date of acquisition. The purchase price was primarily allocated to intangible assets and goodwill based on third-party valuations and managements estimates.
Global Imaging Systems, Inc.
In 2007, we acquired GIS, a provider of office technology for small and mid-size businesses in the United States. The acquisition of GIS expanded our access to the U.S. small and mid-size business market. The aggregate purchase price was approximately $1.5 billion. In addition, in connection with the closing, we also repaid $200 of GISs then outstanding bank debt. The results of operations for GIS are included in our Consolidated Statements of Income as of May 9, 2007.
The total cost of the acquisition was allocated to the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed based on their respective estimated fair values. Goodwill of $1,335 and intangible assets of $363 were recorded in connection with the acquisition based on third-party valuations and managements estimates for those acquired intangible assets. The majority of the goodwill is not deductible for tax purposes and the primary elements that generated goodwill are the value of the acquired assembled workforce, specialized processes and procedures and operating synergies, none of which qualify as a separate intangible asset. Intangible assets included customer relationships of $189 with a 12-year weighted average useful life and trade names of $174 with a 20-year weighted average useful life.
The unaudited pro forma results presented below include the effects of the GIS acquisition as if it had been consummated as of January 1, 2007.
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In February 2009, GIS acquired ComDoc, Inc. (ComDoc) for approximately $145 in cash. ComDoc is one of the larger independent office technology dealers in the U.S. and expands GISs coverage in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia. GIS also acquired another business in 2009 for $18 in cash. In 2008, GIS acquired Saxon Business Systems, an office equipment supplier in Florida, for approximately $69 in cash, including transaction costs. GIS acquired three other similar businesses in 2008 for a total of $17 in cash. In 2007, GIS acquired four businesses that provide office-imaging solutions and related services for $39 in cash.
These acquisitions continue the development of GISs national network of office technology suppliers to serve its expanding base of small and mid-size businesses. The operating results of these acquired entities are not material to our financial statements and are included within our Office segment from the dates of acquisition. The purchase prices were primarily allocated to intangible assets and goodwill based on third-party valuations and managements estimates.
In 2007, we acquired Advectis, Inc. (Advectis), a privately-owned provider of a web-based solution to electronically manage the process needed to underwrite, audit, collaborate, deliver and archive mortgage loan documents, for $30 in cash. The operating results of Advectis are not material to our financial statements, and are included within our Other segment from the date of acquisition. The purchase price was primarily allocated to intangible assets and goodwill based on managements estimates.
Note 4 Receivables, Net
Finance receivables result from installment arrangements and sales-type leases arising from the marketing of our equipment. These receivables are typically collateralized by a security interest in the underlying assets. Finance receivables, net at December 31, 2009 and 2008 were as follows:
Contractual maturities of our gross finance receivables as of December 31, 2009 were as follows (including those already billed of $226):
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Accounts Receivable Sales Arrangements
We have facilities in the U.S., Canada and several countries in Europe that enable us to sell, on an on-going basis, certain accounts receivable without recourse to third-parties. The accounts receivables sold are generally short-term trade receivables with a payment due date of less than 60 days. In some of the agreements we continue to service the sold receivables and hold beneficial interests. When applicable, a servicing liability is recorded for the estimated fair value of
the servicing. Beneficial interests are included in the caption Other current assets in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and are recorded at estimated fair value. The amounts associated with the servicing liability and beneficial interests were not material at December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively. Accounts receivables sales for the three years ended December 31, 2009 were as follows:
Note 5 Inventories and Equipment on Operating Leases, Net
Inventories at December 31, 2009 and 2008 were as follows:
Cost of sales in 2008 included a charge of $39 associated with an Office segment product line equipment and residual value write-off. The write-off was the result of a 2008 change in strategy reflecting our decision to discontinue the remanufacture of end-of-lease returned inventory from a certain Office segment product line following an assessment of the current and expected market for these products.
The transfer of equipment from our inventories to equipment subject to an operating lease is presented in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows in the operating activities section as a non-cash adjustment. Equipment on operating leases and similar arrangements consists of our equipment rented to customers and depreciated to estimated salvage value at the end of the lease term. We recorded $52, $115 and $66 in inventory write-down charges for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Equipment on operating leases and the related accumulated depreciation at December 31, 2009 and 2008 were as follows: