Yahoo! 10-K 2010
Documents found in this filing:
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2009
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 000-28018
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
701 First Avenue
Sunnyvale, California 94089
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
Registrants telephone number, including area code: (408) 349-3300
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrants knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, and smaller reporting company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ¨ No þ
As of June 30, 2009, the aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based upon the closing sales price for the Registrants common stock, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, was $17,311,784,462. Shares of common stock held by each officer and director and by each person who owns 10 percent or more of the outstanding common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purpose.
The number of shares of the Registrants common stock outstanding as of February 19, 2010 was 1,400,201,879.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents (or parts thereof) are incorporated by reference into the following parts of this Form 10-K:
Proxy Statement for the 2010 Annual Meeting of ShareholdersPart III Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14.
Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2009
The trademarks and/or registered trademarks of Yahoo! Inc. and its subsidiaries referred to herein include, but are not limited to, Yahoo!, Y!, del.icio.us, Flickr, HotJobs, Launch, Overture, and their respective logos. All other names are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Yahoo! Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries (Yahoo!, the Company, we, or us), attracts hundreds of millions of users every month through its innovative technology and engaging content and services, making it one of the most trafficked Internet destinations and a world class online media company. Yahoo!s vision is to be the center of peoples online lives by delivering personally relevant, meaningful Internet experiences. To users, we provide online properties and services (Yahoo! Properties or our Owned and Operated sites). To advertisers, we provide a range of marketing services designed to reach and connect with users of our Owned and Operated sites, as well as with Internet users beyond Yahoo! Properties, through a distribution network of third-party entities (our Affiliates) that have integrated our advertising offerings into their Websites, referred to as Affiliate sites, or their other offerings. We believe that our marketing services enable advertisers to deliver highly relevant marketing messages to their target audiences.
We generate revenues by providing marketing services to advertisers across a majority of Yahoo! Properties and Affiliate sites. Our marketing services offerings include the display of graphical advertisements (display advertising), the display of text-based links to an advertisers Website (search advertising), listing-based services, and commerce-based transactions. Additionally, although many of the services we provide to users are free, we charge fees for a number of premium services.
Our offerings to users on Yahoo! Properties currently fall into four categories: Integrated Consumer Experiences, Applications (Communications and Communities), Search, and Media Products and Solutions. The majority of our offerings are available in more than 25 languages.
Yahoo! was developed and first made available in 1994 by our founders, David Filo and Jerry Yang, while they were graduate students at Stanford University. We were incorporated in 1995 and are a Delaware corporation. We are headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, and have offices in more than 25 countries, regions, and territories.
Changes in Management and Board of Directors
During 2009, we made key changes to our executive leadership. On January 13, 2009, Carol Bartz was named Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and a member of the Board of Directors (the Board). On July 1, 2009, Timothy R. Morse became Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of Yahoo!. During the fourth quarter of 2009, Carl Icahn and Maggie Wilderotter resigned from our Board. Sue James was elected to the Board, effective January 11, 2010. She was also named Chair of the Boards Audit Committee.
We expect to continue to acquire or make investments in companies, products, services, and technologies in the future. See Note 3Acquisitions of the Notes to the consolidated financial statements, which appears in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our acquisitions.
UsersEngagement and Offerings
Our offerings to users on Yahoo! Properties currently fall into four categories: Integrated Consumer Experiences, Applications (Communications and Communities), Search, and Media Products and Solutions.
Yahoo!s mobile services are available across the Companys network of properties and through partnerships. Yahoo! has distribution partnerships with more than 80 carriers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) around the world for distributing its mobile services.
Integrated Consumer Experiences
Our Integrated Consumer Experiences offerings include the Yahoo! Home Page, My Yahoo!, Yahoo! Toolbar, Yahoo! Local, and Connected TVall are entry points to the Yahoo! experience, whether via the Web, mobile or TV. These offerings are generally provided to users free of charge. We generate revenues from these offerings primarily from search and display advertising.
Yahoo! Home Page (www.yahoo.com) is a navigation hub and starting point into Yahoo! Properties and the Internet, via a personal computer (PC) or mobile device. This is where users have the ability to perform a Web search, read the latest news, and find links to other Yahoo! Websites.
My Yahoo! is a personalized start page that delivers registered users information of personal interest to registered users via a user-customized interface.
Yahoo! Toolbar is a Web browser add-on that conveniently enables users to access Yahoo! Properties and third-party content via applications from anywhere on the Web.
Yahoo! Local is a stand-alone local search offering, which helps users find local business listings and related content such as recommendations, user reviews, merchant photos, and maps.
Connected TV seamlessly integrates the Internet into the television experience in an open platform. We have distribution relationships with the top three global television manufacturers.
Our Communications offerings, including Yahoo! Mail and Yahoo! Messenger, provide a wide range of communication services to users and small businesses across a variety of devices and through our broadband Internet access partners. We offer some services free of charge to our users and also provide some services on a fee or subscription basis. We generate display advertising and fees revenues from these offerings.
Yahoo! Mail provides users with full-featured e-mail functionality. In addition to our free e-mail service, for a subscription fee, we offer Yahoo! Mail Plus, a premium e-mail service that provides features such as a display-ad-free interface.
Yahoo! Messenger instant messaging service provides an interactive and personalized way for people to connect and share experiences on a real-time basis. Yahoo! currently offers mobile applications for Yahoo! Messenger.
Our Communities offerings, including Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, and Flickr, enable users to organize into groups and share knowledge, common interests, and photos. We generate revenues from our Communities offerings primarily through display advertising.
Yahoo! Groups provides members with shared access to information such as message archives, photo albums, event calendars, and polls.
Yahoo! Answers is a service where anyone can ask and answer questions on any topic.
Flickr is an online photo management and sharing service that makes it easy for users to upload, store, organize, and share their photos. In addition to the basic service, Flickr offers a fee-based service with unlimited storage, uploads, and an advertising-free browsing and sharing interface. Yahoo! currently offers mobile applications for Flickr.
Our Search offering is available free to users and is often the starting point for our users to navigate the Internet and search for information. We generate revenues through our Search offerings on Yahoo! and affiliate sites.
Yahoo! Search, our proprietary search technology, provides users with a free search capability with search results ranked and sorted based on relevance to the users search query. Pages on the Internet are ranked according to their relevance to a particular query by analyzing document features, including text, title and description accuracy, source, associated links, and other unique document characteristics. Sponsored search results are a subset of the overall search results and provide links to paying advertisers Web pages. Yahoo! currently offers mobile applications for Yahoo! Search.
On December 4, 2009, Yahoo! entered into a Search and Advertising Services and Sales Agreement and a License Agreement with Microsoft under which Microsoft will be Yahoo!s exclusive platform technology provider for algorithmic and paid search services and Yahoo! will become the exclusive worldwide relationship sales force for both companies premium search advertisers. See Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations2009 HighlightsSearch and License Agreements with Microsoft.
Media Products and Solutions
Our Media Products and Solutions offerings are designed to engage users with some of the most relevant and compelling online content and services on the Web broadly organized in one of the following two areas:
Our online Media properties include several of the most visited news and entertainment destinations on the Internet. We generate revenue on our Media properties from display and search advertising and fee-based services. Our Media properties include the following:
Yahoo! News provides stories from the major news agencies that are aggregated by our editorial team and augmented by in-house generated content focused on up-to-the-minute news coverage with video, text, photos, and audio.
Yahoo! Finance provides a comprehensive set of financial data, information, and tools that helps users make informed financial decisions. The content is primarily provided through relationships with a number of third-party providers. Some of these providers pay a fee when a user is referred from Yahoo! Finance to their Websites. Some financial content, such as analyst research reports, is also available to users for a fee. Yahoo! currently offers mobile applications for Yahoo! Finance.
Yahoo! Sports offers free and fee-based fantasy games, up-to-the-minute sports news, real-time statistics, scores and game updates, broadcast programming, integrated shopping, and an online sports community. Yahoo! Sports offers mobile applications for specific areas of interest to our users, such as Yahoo! Fantasy Football, along with generalized sports content via our Yahoo! Mobile site.
Yahoo! Entertainment & Lifestyles represents a collection of properties that provides users with information, and other engaging content centered around popular culture-related themes and activities with sites such as Yahoo! Movies, Yahoo! Music, Yahoo! TV, including Prime Time in No Time which provides quick recaps of the previous evenings prime time television shows, celebrity news (omg!), Yahoo! Games, and womens lifestyles (Shine). In addition, our Media properties also include Websites devoted to specialty topics such as Yahoo! Health, Yahoo! Tech, Yahoo! Education, and Yahoo! Weather.
Other Offerings and Services
Our other offerings and services include Yahoo! Shopping, Yahoo! Travel, Yahoo! Real Estate, Yahoo! HotJobs, Yahoo! Personals, Yahoo! Autos, and Yahoo! Small Business. On these properties, users can research specific topics, products, services or areas of interest by reviewing and exchanging information, obtaining contact details or considering offers from providers of goods, services, or parties with similar interests. We generate revenue from listing fees, transaction fees, and display and search advertising on many of these properties as well as from subscription fees for hosting, registering domains, and other services to small businesses seeking to maintain a Website. We also have properties tailored to users in specific international markets, which include commerce (auctions), blogging, and social networking Websites. Commerce properties, primarily based in our Asian markets, allow prospective buyers and sellers to enter into an online auction for goods for which we earn a posting and transaction fee. These properties include Wretch and Monday in Taiwan.
ADVERTISER AND PUBLISHER OFFERINGS AND SERVICES
We seek to provide the most efficient and effective marketing services for advertisers and publishers. Advertisers are increasing their use of online media as consumers shift their media consumption away from traditional television and print media towards the Internet. We offer Internet marketing solutions that enable users to interact with our advertisers brands and also provide valuable insights to our advertisers and publishers about their customer base. We offer a suite of targeted marketing services for our advertisers and publishers, which includes brand building to increase consumer awareness, direct marketing, lead generation, and commerce services. We offer publishers the opportunity to integrate our advertising offerings into their Websites and other online offerings. Our offerings enable advertisers to display their advertisements in different formats and in different locations on Yahoo! Properties and such Affiliate sites and to optimize their performance against their marketing objectives.
In addition, we offer a broad range of tools for online display advertising, including rich media, video, and targeting. Our knowledge of our audience enables advertisers to reach their desired communities by placing contextually relevant advertising on both our Owned and Operated and our Affiliates sites.
We generate revenues by providing marketing services to advertisers across a majority of Yahoo! Properties and Affiliate sites. The majority of our marketing services revenue is from sales of search and display advertising.
DEVELOPERS AND PLATFORM OFFERINGS
We provide several software and platform offerings for third-party developers, advertisers, and publishers. Our top priority is to enable innovation in the user experience on Yahoo!. Our goal is to continue to create more personally relevant Web experiences for consumers and to make Yahoo! an even more valuable asset to advertisers. We believe open platforms accelerate this goal by attracting and enabling third-party developers/partners to build and incorporate new products and innovations that users want into our product experiences. We are committed to providing the developer community with products that solve their problems and enhance the development experience, positioning Yahoo! as a leader in the technical evolution of the Web.
Our offerings to developers and platforms for advertisers and publishers include:
Yahoo! Developer Network (Y!DN) is the central source for developers, independent software vendors, partners, and advertisers to find resources and technical support for leveraging Yahoo! platforms, APIs, and development tools.
Yahoo! Open Strategy (Y!OS) platform is an initiative designed both to make the Yahoo! experience both more social for our users and to open Yahoo! to innovation by third-party developers and publishers. By allowing third-party developers, publishers, and advertisers to develop applications that integrate with Yahoo! products and leverage Yahoo!s data we are enabling experimentation and innovation in the user experience on both Yahoo! and the Web.
Yahoo! Application Platform (Y!AP) is an application platform that third-party developers, including publishers and advertisers, can use to create innovative applications and consumer experiences that will function across the Yahoo! network and beyond.
Yahoo! Updates allows developers and publishers to syndicate user-generated actions from Yahoo! on their website and vice versa, integrating social data and actions into new applications and services.
Yahoo! Query Language (YQL) is a simple language that enables developers to query, filter, and join data across different Web services. Traditionally, developers must locate the correct URLs and documentation for every Web service needed by an application, which is time consuming and complex. With YQL, developers can access and shape data across the Internet with one simple syntax, eliminating the need to learn how to call different APIs and making it possible for applications to run faster with fewer lines of code and a smaller network footprint.
Yahoo! Search BOSS is an open search web services platform that enables developers, start-ups, and large Internet companies to build web-scale search products by utilizing the entire Yahoo! Search index.
SearchMonkey is a leading open search platform that allows developers and Website owners to use structured data to make Yahoo! Search results more useful and visually appealing, and drive more relevant traffic to their Websites.
We manage our business geographically based on two segments: United States and International. Additional information required by this item is incorporated herein by reference to Note 14Segments of the Notes to the consolidated financial statements, which appears in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We provide services in more than 25 languages and in more than 50 countries, regions, and territories, including localized versions of Yahoo! in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, the Middle East, Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden), Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam.
Outside of native English speaking countries, we provide some of our most popular user services through Yahoo! Asia (our English language portal to Southeast Asia), Yahoo! Canada en Français (French Canadian Website), and Yahoo! En Espanol (United States Hispanic Website).
We own our international operations (except in Australia, China, Japan, and New Zealand where we have joint ventures and/or noncontrolling interests). We support these businesses through a network of offices worldwide.
Revenues are primarily attributed to individual countries according to the international online property that generated the revenues.
Information regarding risks involving our international operations is included in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is incorporated herein by reference.
We maintain four primary channels for selling our advertising services: field, telesales, online, and reseller. Our field advertising sales team sells display and search marketing services to leading advertisers and agencies. Our telesales channel sells our services to medium-sized businesses, while our online channel is a self-service program primarily for small businesses. Our reseller channel enables Yahoo! to sell advertising services to additional regional and small business advertisers.
In the United States, we employ sales professionals in multiple locations, including Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Hillsboro, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Omaha, San Francisco, and Sunnyvale. In the international markets, we have either our own internal sales professionals or we have established sales agency relationships in 50 countries, regions, and territories.
No individual customer represented more than 10 percent of our revenues in 2007, 2008, or 2009.
Internet usage is subject to seasonal fluctuations, typically declining during customary summer vacation periods and becoming most active during the fourth quarter holiday period due to increased online retail activity. This seasonality pattern has affected, and we expect will continue to affect, our business and quarterly sequential revenue growth rates.
The Yahoo! brand is one of the most widely recognized in the world. Maintaining and growing the Yahoo! brand enables us to attract, retain, and more deeply engage users, advertisers, publishers, and developers. We believe a great brand begins with great products, services, and content. Our marketing teams engage in each step of product and services development, deployment, and management and content design to understand and shape our offerings so as better to market them to our communities of potential and existing users. In 2009, we launched a global brand marketing campaign designed to highlight our commitment to delivering personally relevant online experiences. Our marketing communications efforts help accelerate product momentum, awareness, adoption, and engagement. We use online, television, print, radio, and outdoor advertising. We leverage our global online network and our distribution partnerships to market our products and services to the right people at the right time.
We operate in the Internet products, services, and content markets, which are highly competitive and characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and increasing competition. Our most significant competition is from Google, Inc. (Google), Microsoft, and AOL, Inc. (AOL), which each offer an integrated variety of Internet products, advertising services, technologies, online services and content in a manner similar to Yahoo!. We compete with these and other companies, including social networking Websites, such as Facebook, Inc., and MySpace.com, for users, advertisers, publishers, and developers. We also compete with these companies to obtain agreements with software publishers, Internet access providers, mobile carriers, device manufacturers and others to promote or distribute our services to their users. We compete with advertising networks, such as Google AdSense, AOLs Ad.com, and Microsoft Media Network, as well as traditional media companies for a share of advertisers marketing budgets and in the development of the tools and systems for managing and optimizing advertising campaigns.
We believe our principal competitive strengths relating to attracting and retaining users include the usefulness, accessibility, integration, and personalization of the online services that we offer, the quality, relevance, and presentation of our search results, and the overall user experience on Yahoo! Properties. Our principal competitive strengths relating to attracting advertisers and publishers are the reach, effectiveness, and efficiency of our marketing services as well as the creativity of the marketing solutions that we offer. Reach is the size of the audience and/or demographic that can be accessed through the Yahoo! network. Effectiveness for advertisers is the achievement of marketing objectives, which we support by developing campaigns, measuring the performance of these campaigns against their objectives, and optimizing for their objectives across the Yahoo! network. Effectiveness for publishers is the monetization of their online audiences, which we enable through our advertising technology platforms and marketing services. Efficiency is the simplicity and ease of use of the services we offer advertisers and publishers.
In international markets, we also compete with local portals that are predominantly supported by local telecommunication providers or local providers of specific locally designed and marketed Internet services, some of which may have a potential competitive advantage due to an existing direct billing relationship with their users.
Additional information regarding competition is included in Part I, Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Yahoo! continually enhances, expands, and launches products and features to meet evolving user, advertiser, and publisher needs for technological innovation and a deeper, more integrated experience.
Most of our software products and features are developed internally by Yahoo! employees. In some instances, however, we might purchase technology and license intellectual property rights if the opportunity is strategically aligned, operationally compatible, and economically advantageous. We believe that Yahoo! is not materially dependent upon licenses or other agreements with third parties relating to product development.
Our Product Development organization includes Yahoo! Labs. This organization includes our industry-leading Yahoo! Research group, our Applied Sciences group and our Academic Relations team, which has spearheaded key relationships with some of the worlds most influential universities and institutions. Yahoo! Labs is designed to foster the long-term scientific competitiveness of Yahoo! as a world leader on the Internet through cutting-edge, multi-disciplinary research in a variety of fields, including economic theory, computer science, artificial intelligence, and various social sciences. In addition to Yahoo! Labs, the Product Development organization contains our Cloud Computing group which provides the common computing infrastructure upon which Yahoo!s product are delivered, including grid computing. Finally, the Product Development organization contains our Consumer Platforms group, which focuses on the common elements that are embedded in multiple Yahoo! Products. These elements include the user data base and login, video and social connection platforms.
Our engineering and production teams are primarily located in our Sunnyvale, California headquarters and in Bangalore, India and Burbank, California. Product development expenses for 2007, 2008, and 2009 totaled approximately $1.1 billion, $1.2 billion, and $1.2 billion, respectively, which included stock-based compensation expense of $218 million, $178 million, and $206 million, respectively.
We create, own, and maintain a wide array of intellectual property assets that we believe are among our most valuable assets. Our intellectual property assets include patents and patent applications related to our innovations, products and services; trademarks related to our brands, products and services; copyrights in software and creative content; trade secrets; and other intellectual property rights and licenses of various kinds. We seek to protect our intellectual property assets through patent, copyright, trade secret, trademark and other laws of the U.S. and other countries, and through contractual provisions. We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, and non-disclosure agreements with third parties with whom we conduct business in order to secure our proprietary rights and additionally limit access to, and disclosure of, our proprietary information. We consider the Yahoo! trademark and our many related trademarks to be among our most valuable assets and we have registered these trademarks in the U.S. and other countries throughout the world and aggressively seek to protect them. We have licensed in the past, and expect that we may license in the future, certain of our proprietary rights, such as trademark, patent, copyright, and trade secret rights to third parties. Additional information regarding certain risks related to our intellectual property is included in Part I, Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
As of December 31, 2009, we had approximately 13,900 full-time employees. Our future success is substantially dependent on the performance of our senior management and key technical personnel, as well as our continuing ability to attract, maintain the caliber of, and retain highly qualified technical and managerial personnel. Additional information regarding certain risks related to our employees is included in Part I, Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our Website is located at http://www.yahoo.com. Our investor relations Website is located at http://yhoo.client.shareholder.com. We make available free of charge on our investor relations Website under SEC Filings our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file or furnish such materials to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC maintains a Website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding our filings at http://www.sec.gov.
We face significant competition for users, advertisers, publishers and distributors, principally from Google, Microsoft, and AOL.
We face significant competition from Google, Microsoft, and AOL, which each offer an integrated variety of Internet products, advertising services, technologies, online services and content in a manner similar to Yahoo!. Among other areas, we compete against these companies:
Google, Microsoft and others offer products and services that directly compete for users with our offerings, including consumer e-mail, desktop search, local search, instant messaging, photos, maps, video sharing, content channels, mobile applications, and shopping. Similarly, the advertising networks operated by Google, Microsoft, AOL and others offer services that directly compete with our offerings for advertisers, including advertising exchanges, ad serving technologies and sponsored search offerings. While under our Search Agreement with Microsoft, Yahoo! will become the exclusive worldwide relationship sales force for both companies premium search advertisers and Microsoft will become Yahoo!s exclusive platform technology provider for algorithmic and paid search services, Yahoo! and Microsoft will still continue to compete for users, advertisers, publishers and distribution partners as described above.
We further compete for users, advertisers and developers with the wide variety of other providers of online services, including social media and networking sites. Social networking sites, such as Facebook.com in particular, are attracting a substantial and increasing share of users and users online time, which could enable them to attract an increasing share of online advertising dollars.
We also compete with traditional media companies to attract advertising dollars, both domestically and internationally. Currently many advertisers direct a portion, but only a portion, of their advertising budgets to Internet advertising. In response, traditional media companies are increasingly expanding their content offerings onto the Web and thus are competing not only to keep offline advertising dollars but also for a share of online advertising dollars.
Some of our existing competitors and possible additional entrants may have greater brand recognition for certain products and services, more expertise in a particular segment of the market, and greater operational, strategic, technological, financial, personnel, or other resources than we do. For example, Google and Microsoft have access to considerable financial and technical resources with which to compete aggressively, including by funding future growth and expansion and investing in acquisitions and research and development. In addition, emerging start-ups may be able to innovate and provide new products and services faster than we can.
If our competitors are more successful than we are in developing compelling products or in attracting and retaining users, advertisers, publishers, developers, or distributors, our revenues and growth rates could decline. In addition, competitors may consolidate with each other or collaborate and new competitors may enter the market.
The majority of our revenues are derived from marketing services, and the reduction in spending by or loss of current or potential advertisers would cause our revenues and operating results to decline.
For the year ended December 31, 2009, 88 percent of our total revenues came from marketing services. Our ability to continue to retain and grow marketing services revenues depends upon:
In many cases, our agreements with advertisers have terms of one year or less, or, may be terminated at any time by the advertiser or by Yahoo!. Search marketing agreements often have payments dependent upon usage or click-through levels. Accordingly, it is difficult to forecast marketing services revenues accurately. In addition, our expense levels are based in part on expectations of future revenues, including occasional guaranteed minimum payments to our Affiliates in connection with search and/or display advertising, and are fixed over the short-term in some categories. The state of the global economy and availability of capital has and could further impact the advertising spending patterns of existing and potential future advertisers. Any reduction in spending by, or loss of, existing or potential future advertisers would cause our revenues to decline. Further, we may be unable to adjust our expenses and capital expenditures quickly enough to compensate for any unexpected revenue shortfall.
Adverse general economic conditions have caused and could cause decreases or delays in marketing services spending by our advertisers and could harm our ability to generate marketing services revenues and our results of operations.
Marketing services expenditures tend to be cyclical, reflecting overall economic conditions and budgeting and buying patterns. Since we derive most of our revenues from marketing services, the adverse economic conditions have caused, and a continuation of adverse economic conditions could cause, additional decreases in or delays in advertising spending, a reduction in our marketing services revenues and a negative impact on our short term ability to grow our revenues. Further, any decreased collectability of accounts receivable or early termination of agreements, whether resulting from customer bankruptcies or otherwise due to the current deterioration in economic conditions, could negatively impact our results of operations.
If we do not manage our operating expenses effectively, our profitability could decline.
We have implemented cost reduction initiatives to better align our operating expenses with our revenues, including reducing our headcount, outsourcing some administrative functions, consolidating space and terminating leases or entering into subleases. We plan to continue to manage costs to better and more efficiently manage our business. However, our operating expenses might also increase, from their reduced levels, as we expand our operations in areas of desired growth, continue to develop and extend the Yahoo! brand, fund product development, and acquire and integrate complementary businesses and technologies. In addition, deteriorating economic conditions or other factors could cause our business to contract requiring us to implement additional cost cutting measures. If our expenses increase at a greater pace than our revenues, or if we fail to implement additional cost cutting if required in a timely manner, our profitability will decline.
Transition and implementation risks associated with our Search Agreement with Microsoft may adversely affect our business and operating results.
Under our Search Agreement with Microsoft, Microsoft will be Yahoo!s exclusive platform technology provider for algorithmic and paid search services. The parties commenced implementation of the Search Agreement on February 23, 2010. The global transition of Yahoo!s algorithmic and paid search platforms to Microsoft and migration of Yahoo!s paid search advertisers and publishers is expected to take up to 24 months and will be done on a market by market basis. The transition process will be complex and will require the expenditure of significant time and resources by us. Delays or difficulties in, or disruptions and inconveniences caused by, the transition process could result in the loss of advertisers, publishers, Affiliates, and employees, as well as, delays in recognizing or reductions in the anticipated benefits of the transaction, any of which could negatively impact our business and operating results.
Following the transition in each market, we will be relying on Microsoft as our exclusive platform technology provider of algorithmic and paid search services. If Microsoft fails to perform as required under the Search Agreement for any reason or suffers service level interruptions or other performance issues, we may not realize the anticipated benefits of the Search Agreement and our search revenues could decline.
If we are unable to provide innovative search experiences and other services that generate significant traffic to our Websites, our business could be harmed, causing our revenues to decline.
Internet search is characterized by rapidly changing technology, significant competition, evolving industry standards, and frequent product and service enhancements. We must continually invest in improving our users search experienceincluding improving the relevance of our search results, as well as presenting users with a search experience that is responsive to their needs and preferencesin order to continue to attract, retain, and expand our user base and paid search advertiser base. We currently deploy our own technology to provide search results on our network. Following implementation of our Search Agreement with Microsoft, Microsoft will become our algorithmic and paid search platform technology provider, however, we will continue to need to invest and innovate to improve our users search experience.
We also generate advertising revenue through other online services, such as Yahoo! Mail. If we are unable to provide innovative search and other services which generate significant traffic to our Websites, our business could be harmed, causing our revenues to decline.
We rely on the value of our brands, and a failure to maintain or enhance the Yahoo! brands in a cost-effective manner could harm our operating results.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brands is an important aspect of our efforts to attract and expand our user, advertiser, and Affiliate base. We also believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase due to the relatively low barriers to entry in the Internet market. We have spent considerable money and resources to date on the establishment and maintenance of our brands, and we anticipate spending increasing amounts of money on, and devoting greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other brand-building efforts to preserve and enhance consumer awareness of our brands. Our brands may be negatively impacted by a number of factors, including among other issues: service outages; product malfunctions; data privacy and security issues; exploitation of our trademarks by others without permission; and poor presentation or integration of our search marketing listings by Affiliates on their sites or in their software and services.
Further, while we attempt to ensure that the quality of our brand is maintained by our licensees, our licensees might take actions that could impair the value of our brand, our proprietary rights, or the reputation of our products and media properties. If we are unable to maintain or enhance customer awareness of, and trust in, our brands in a cost-effective manner, or if we incur excessive expenses in these efforts, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed.
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any failure or inability to sufficiently protect them could harm our business and our operating results.
We create, own, and maintain a wide array of intellectual property assets, including copyrights, patents, trademarks, trade dress, trade secrets, and rights to certain domain names, which we believe are collectively among our most valuable assets. We seek to protect our intellectual property assets through patent, copyright, trade secret, trademark, and other laws of the U.S. and other countries of the world, and through contractual provisions. However, the efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights might not be sufficient or effective at stopping unauthorized use of those rights. Protection of the distinctive elements of Yahoo! might not always be available under copyright law or trademark law, or we might not discover or determine the full extent of any unauthorized use of our copyrights and trademarks in order to protect our rights. In addition, effective trademark, patent, copyright, and trade secret protection might not be available or cost-effective in every country in which our products and media properties are distributed or made available through the Internet. Changes in patent law, such as changes in the law regarding patentable subject matter, could also impact our ability to obtain patent protection for our innovations. Further, given the costs of obtaining patent protection, we might choose not to protect (or not to protect in some jurisdictions) certain innovations that later turn out to be important. There is also a risk that the scope of protection under our patents may not be sufficient in some cases or that existing patents may be deemed invalid or unenforceable. With respect to maintaining our trade secrets, we have entered into confidentiality agreements with most of our employees and contractors, and confidentiality agreements with many of the parties with whom we conduct business in order to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. However, these agreements might be breached and our trade secrets might be compromised by outside parties or by our employees, which could cause us to lose any competitive advantage provided by maintaining our trade secrets.
If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use, the value of our intellectual property assets may be reduced. In addition, protecting our intellectual property and other proprietary rights is expensive and time consuming. Any increase in the unauthorized use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and consequently harm our operating results.
We are, and may in the future be, subject to intellectual property infringement or other third-party claims, which are costly to defend, could result in significant damage awards, and could limit our ability to provide certain content or use certain technologies in the future.
Internet, technology, media, and patent holding companies often possess a significant number of patents. Further, many of these companies and other parties are actively developing or purchasing search, indexing, electronic commerce, and other Internet-related technologies, as well as a variety of online business models and methods. We believe that these parties will continue to take steps to protect these technologies, including, but not limited to, seeking patent protection. In addition, patent holding companies may continue to seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. As a result, disputes regarding the ownership of technologies and rights associated with online businesses are likely to continue to arise in the future. From time to time, parties assert patent infringement claims against us. Currently, we are engaged in a number of lawsuits regarding patent issues and have been notified of a number of other potential disputes.
In addition to patent claims, third parties have asserted, and are likely in the future to assert, claims against us alleging infringement of copyrights, trademark rights, trade secret rights or other proprietary rights, or alleging unfair competition, violation of federal or state statutes or other claims, including alleged violation of international statutory and common law. In addition, third parties have made, and may continue to make, trademark infringement and related claims against us over the display of search results triggered by search terms that include trademark terms. Currently, we are engaged in lawsuits regarding such trademark issues.
As we expand our business and develop new technologies, products and services, we may become increasingly subject to intellectual property infringement claims. In the event that there is a determination that we have infringed third-party proprietary rights such as patents, copyrights, trademark rights, trade secret rights, or other
third-party rights such as publicity and privacy rights, we could incur substantial monetary liability, be required to enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements or be prevented from using such rights, which could require us to change our business practices in the future and limit our ability to compete effectively. We may also incur substantial expenses in defending against third-party infringement claims regardless of the merit of such claims. In addition, many of our agreements with our customers or Affiliates require us to indemnify them for some types of third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which could increase our costs in defending such claims and our damages. The occurrence of any of these results could harm our brand and negatively impact our operating results.
We are subject to U.S. and foreign government regulation of Internet, mobile, and voice over internet protocol, or VOIP, products and services which could subject us to claims, judgments, and remedies including monetary liabilities and limitations on our business practices.
We are subject to regulations and laws directly applicable to providers of Internet, mobile, and VOIP services both domestically and internationally. The application of existing domestic and international laws and regulations to Yahoo! relating to issues such as user privacy and data protection, defamation, pricing, advertising, taxation, gambling, sweepstakes, promotions, billing, real estate, consumer protection, accessibility, content regulation, quality of services, telecommunications, mobile, television, and intellectual property ownership and infringement in many instances is unclear or unsettled. In addition, we will also be subject to any new laws and regulations directly applicable to our domestic and international activities. Further, the application of existing laws to Yahoo! or our subsidiaries regulating or requiring licenses for certain businesses of our advertisers including, for example, distribution of pharmaceuticals, alcohol, adult content, tobacco, or firearms, as well as insurance and securities brokerage, and legal services, can be unclear. Internationally, we may also be subject to laws regulating our activities in foreign countries and to foreign laws and regulations that are inconsistent from country to country. We may incur substantial liabilities for expenses necessary to defend such litigation or to comply with these laws and regulations, as well as potential substantial penalties for any failure to comply. Compliance with these laws and regulations may also cause us to change or limit our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.
A number of U.S. federal laws, including those referenced below, impact our business. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is intended, in part, to limit the liability of eligible online service providers for listing or linking to third-party Websites that include materials that infringe copyrights or other rights of others. Portions of the Communications Decency Act (CDA) are intended to provide statutory protections to online service providers who distribute third-party content. Yahoo! relies on the protections provided by both the DMCA and CDA in conducting its business. Any changes in these laws or judicial interpretations narrowing their protections, or international jurisdictions refusal to apply similar provisions to foreign lawsuits, will subject us to greater risk of liability and may increase our costs of compliance with these regulations or limit our ability to operate certain lines of business. The Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act is intended to impose restrictions on the ability of online services to collect some types of information from children under the age of 13. In addition, Providing Resources, Officers, and Technology to Eradicate Cyber Threats to Our Children Act of 2008 (PROTECT Act) requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances. Other federal and state laws and legislative efforts designed to protect children on the Internet may impose additional requirements on the Company. U.S. export control laws and regulations impose requirements and restrictions on exports to certain nations and persons and on our business. The cost of compliance with these regulations may increase in the future as a result of changes in the regulations or the interpretation of them. Further, any failure on our part to comply with these regulations may subject us to significant liabilities.
Changes in regulations or user concerns regarding privacy and protection of user data, or any failure to comply with such laws, could adversely affect our business.
Federal, state and international laws and regulations govern the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of data that we receive from and about our users. We have posted on our and many of our Affiliates Websites our
own privacy policies and practices concerning the collection, use, and disclosure of user data. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with our posted privacy policies or with any data-related consent orders, Federal Trade Commission requirements or orders, or other federal, state, or international privacy or data-protection-related laws, regulations or industry self-regulatory principles could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, which could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.
Further, failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our policies, applicable requirements, or industry self-regulatory principles related to the collection, use, sharing or security of personal information, or other privacy, data-retention or data-protection matters could result in a loss of user confidence in us, damage to the Yahoo! brands, and ultimately in a loss of users, advertising partners, or Affiliates which could adversely affect our business.
In addition, various federal, state and foreign legislative or regulatory bodies may enact new or additional laws and regulations concerning privacy, data-retention and data-protection issues which could adversely impact our business. The interpretation and application of privacy, data protection and data retention laws and regulations are currently unsettled in the U.S. and internationally. These laws may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. Complying with these varying international requirements could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.
We may be subject to legal liability for online services.
We host a wide variety of services and technology products that enable individuals and businesses to exchange information, generate content, advertise products and services, conduct business, and engage in various online activities on a domestic and an international basis. The law relating to the liability of providers of these online services and products for activities of their users is currently unsettled both within the U.S. and internationally. Claims have been threatened and have been brought against us for defamation, negligence, copyright or trademark infringement, unfair competition, unlawful activity, tort, including personal injury, fraud, or other theories based on the nature and content of information to which we provide links or that may be posted online or generated by our users. In addition, Yahoo! has been and may again in the future be subject to domestic or international actions alleging that the availability of certain content within our services violates laws in domestic and international jurisdictions. Defense of any such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources and may require us to change our business in an adverse manner.
We arrange for the distribution of third-party advertisements to third-party publishers and advertising networks, and we offer third-party products, services, or content, such as stock quotes and trading information, under the Yahoo! brand or via distribution on Yahoo! Properties. We may be subject to claims concerning these products, services, or content by virtue of our involvement in marketing, branding, broadcasting, or providing access to them, even if we do not ourselves host, operate, provide, or provide access to these products, services, or content. While our agreements with respect to these products, services, and content often provide that we will be indemnified against such liabilities, the ability to receive such indemnification depends on the financial resources of the other party to the agreement and any amounts received might not be adequate to cover our liabilities or the costs associated with defense of such proceedings.
It is also possible that if the manner in which information is provided or any information provided directly by us contains errors or is otherwise wrongfully provided to users, third parties could make claims against us. For example, we offer Web-based e-mail services, which expose us to potential risks, such as liabilities or claims resulting from unsolicited e-mail, lost or misdirected messages, illegal or fraudulent use of e-mail, or interruptions or delays in e-mail service. We may also face purported consumer class actions or state actions relating to our online services, including our fee-based services (particularly in connection with any decision to discontinue a fee-based service). In addition, our customers, third parties or government entities may assert claims or actions against us if our online services or technologies are used to spread or facilitate malicious or
harmful code or applications. Investigating and defending these types of claims is expensive, even if the claims are without merit or do not ultimately result in liability, and could subject us to significant monetary liability or cause a change in business practices that could impact our ability to compete.
Acquisitions and strategic investments could result in adverse impacts on our operations and in unanticipated liabilities.
We have acquired, and have made strategic investments in, a number of companies (including through joint ventures) in the past, and we expect to make additional acquisitions and strategic investments in the future. Such transactions may result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, use of our cash resources, and incurrence of debt and amortization expenses related to intangible assets. Our acquisitions and strategic investments to date were accompanied by a number of risks, including:
We are likely to experience similar risks in connection with our future acquisitions and strategic investments. Our failure to be successful in addressing these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our past or future acquisitions and strategic investments could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions or investments, incur unanticipated liabilities and harm our business generally.
Any failure to manage expansion and changes to our business could adversely affect our operating results.
We continue to evolve our business both in the U.S. and internationally. As a result of acquisitions, and international expansion in recent years, more than one-half of our employees are now based outside of our Sunnyvale, California headquarters. If we are unable to effectively manage a large and geographically dispersed group of employees or to anticipate our future growth and personnel needs our business may be adversely affected.
As we expand our business, we must also expand and adapt our operational infrastructure. Our business relies on data systems, billing systems, and financial reporting and control systems, among others. All of these systems have become increasingly complex in the recent past due to the growing complexity of our business, due to acquisitions of new businesses with different systems, and due to increased regulation over controls and procedures. To manage our business in a cost effective manner, we will need to continue to upgrade and improve our data systems, billing systems, and other operational and financial systems, procedures and controls. In some cases, we are outsourcing administrative functions to lower-cost providers. These upgrades, improvements and outsourcing changes will require a dedication of resources and in some cases are likely to be complex. If we are unable to adapt our systems and put adequate controls in place in a timely manner, our business may be adversely affected. In particular, sustained failures of our billing systems to accommodate increasing numbers of transactions, to accurately bill users and advertisers, or to accurately compensate Affiliates could adversely affect the viability of our business model.
Any failure to scale and adapt our existing technology architecture to manage expansion and respond to rapid technological change could adversely affect our business.
As some of the most visited sites on the Internet, Yahoo! Properties deliver a significant number of products, services, Page Views and advertising impressions to users around the world. The products and services offered by Yahoo! have expanded and changed significantly over time and are expected to continue to expand and change rapidly in the future to accommodate new technologies and Internet advertising solutions, and new means of content delivery.
In addition, the Internet and online services industry is characterized by rapid technological change. Widespread adoption of new Internet, networking or telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our services or infrastructure. The technology architectures and platforms utilized for our services are highly complex and may not provide satisfactory support in the future, as usage increases and products and services expand, change, and become more complex. In the future, we may make additional changes to our architectures, platforms and systems, including moving to completely new architectures, platforms and systems. Such changes may be technologically challenging to develop and implement, may take time to test and deploy, may cause us to incur substantial costs or data loss, and may cause delays or interruptions in service. These changes, delays, or interruptions in our service may cause our users, Affiliates and other advertising platform participants to become dissatisfied with our service and move to competing providers or seek remedial actions or compensation.
Further, to the extent that demands for our services increase, we will need to expand our infrastructure, including the capacity of our hardware servers and the sophistication of our software. This expansion is likely to be expensive and complex and require additional technical expertise. As we acquire users who rely upon us for a wide variety of services, it becomes more technologically complex and costly to retrieve, store, and integrate data that will enable us to track each users preferences. Any difficulties experienced in adapting our architectures, platforms and infrastructure to accommodate increased traffic, to store user data, and track user preferences, together with the associated costs and potential loss of traffic, could harm our operating results, cash flows from operations, and financial condition.
We have dedicated considerable resources to provide a variety of premium services, which might not prove to be successful in generating significant revenue for us.
We offer fee-based enhancements to many of our free services, including e-mail, personals, finance, games, photographs, and sports. The development cycles for these technologies are long and generally require significant investment by us. We have invested and will continue to invest in new products and services. Some of these new products and services might not generate anticipated revenues or might not meet anticipated user adoption rates. We have previously discontinued some non-profitable premium services and may discontinue others. We must, however, continue to provide new services that are compelling to our users while continuing to develop an
effective method for generating revenues for such services. General economic conditions as well as the rapidly evolving competitive landscape may affect users willingness to pay for such services. If we cannot generate revenues from these services that are greater than the cost of providing such services, our operating results could be harmed.
If we are unable to recruit and retain key personnel, we may not be able to execute our business plan.
Our business is dependent on our ability to recruit, hire, motivate, and retain talented, highly skilled personnel. Achieving this objective may be difficult due to many factors, including the intense competition for such highly skilled personnel in the San Francisco Bay Area and other metropolitan areas where our offices and the offices of several of our vertical and horizontal competitors are located, as well as fluctuations in global economic and industry conditions, changes in Yahoo!s management or leadership, competitors hiring practices, and the effectiveness of our compensation programs. If we do not succeed in recruiting, retaining, and motivating our key employees and in attracting new key personnel, we may be unable to meet our business plan and as a result, our revenue and profitability may decline.
If we are unable to license or acquire compelling content and services at reasonable cost or if we do not develop or commission compelling content of our own, the number of users of our services may not grow as anticipated, or may decline, or users level of engagement with our services may decline, all or any of which could harm our operating results.
Our future success depends in part on our ability to aggregate compelling content and deliver that content through our online properties. We license from third parties much of the content and services on our online properties, such as news items, stock quotes, weather reports, music video, music radio, and maps. We believe that users will increasingly demand high-quality content and services, including music videos, film clips, news footage, and special productions. Such content and services may require us to make substantial payments to third parties from whom we license or acquire such content or services. Our ability to maintain and build relationships with such third-party providers is critical to our success. In addition, as new methods for accessing the Internet become available, including through alternative devices, we may need to enter into amended agreements with existing third-party providers to cover the new devices. We may be unable to enter into new, or preserve existing, relationships with the third-parties whose content or services we seek to obtain. In addition, as competition for compelling content increases both domestically and internationally, our third-party providers may increase the prices at which they offer their content and services to us, and potential providers may not offer their content or services to us at all, or may offer them on terms that are not agreeable to us. An increase in the prices charged to us by third-party providers could harm our operating results and financial condition. Further, many of our content and services licenses with third parties are non-exclusive. Accordingly, other media providers may be able to offer similar or identical content. This increases the importance of our ability to deliver compelling editorial content and personalization of this content for users in order to differentiate Yahoo! from other businesses. If we are unable to license or acquire compelling content at reasonable prices, if other companies distribute content or services that are similar to or the same as that provided by Yahoo!, or if we do not develop compelling editorial content or personalization services, the number of users of our services may not grow as anticipated, or may decline, which could harm our operating results.
We rely on third-party providers of rich media products to provide the technologies required to deliver rich media content to our users, and any change in the licensing terms, costs, availability, or user acceptance of these products could adversely affect our business.
We rely on leading providers of streaming media products to license the software necessary to deliver rich media content to our users. There can be no assurance that these providers will continue to license these products to us on reasonable terms, or at all. Our users are currently able to electronically download copies of the software to play rich media free of charge, but providers of rich media products may begin charging users for copies of their player software or otherwise change their business model in a manner that slows the widespread acceptance of
these products. In order for our rich media services to be successful, there must be a large base of users of these rich media products. We have limited or no control over the availability or acceptance of rich media software, and to the extent that any of these circumstances occur, our business may be adversely affected.
If we are unable to attract, sustain and renew distribution arrangements on favorable terms, our revenues may decline.
We enter into distribution arrangements with third parties such as operators of third-party Websites, online networks, software companies, electronics companies, computer manufacturers and others to promote or supply our services to their users. For example:
In some markets, we depend on a limited number of distribution arrangements for a significant percentage of our user activity. A failure by our distributors to attract or retain their user bases would negatively impact our user activity and, in turn, would reduce our revenues.
Distribution agreements often involve revenue sharing. Over time, competition to enter into distribution arrangements may cause our traffic acquisition costs to increase. In some cases, we guarantee distributors a minimum level of revenues and, as a result, run a risk that the distributors performance (in terms of ad impressions, toolbar installations, etc.) might not be sufficient to otherwise earn their minimum payments. In other cases, we agree that if the distributor does not realize specified minimum revenues we will adjust the distributors revenue-share percentage or provide make-whole arrangements.
Some of our distribution agreements are not exclusive, have a short term, are terminable at will, or are subject to early termination provisions. The loss of distributors, increased distribution costs, or the renewal of distribution agreements on significantly less favorable terms may cause our revenues to decline.
More individuals are utilizing non-PC devices to access the Internet and versions of our services developed for these devices might not gain widespread adoption by the devices users, manufacturers, or distributors or might fail to function as intended on some devices.
The number of individuals who access the Internet through devices other than a PC, such as mobile telephones, personal digital assistants, hand held computers, televisions, and set-top box devices, has increased dramatically, and the trend is likely to continue. Our services were originally designed for rich, graphical environments such as those available on the desktop and PC. The different hardware and software, memory, operating systems, resolution, and other functionality associated with alternative devices currently available may make our desktop and PC services unusable or difficult to use on such devices, and the versions of our services developed for these devices may not be compelling to users, manufacturers, or distributors of alternative devices. Similarly, the licenses we have negotiated to present third-party content to desktop and PC users may not extend to users of alternative devices. In those cases, we may need to enter into new or amended agreements with the content providers in order to present a similar user-experience on the new devices. The content providers may not be willing to enter into such new or amended agreements on reasonable terms or at all.
Further, new devices, operating systems, networks, and platforms are continually being released. It is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing versions of our services for use on these alternative devices. We may also need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of such
versions. We may be unable to attract and retain a substantial number of alternative device manufacturers, distributors, content providers, and users to our services, or to capture a sufficient share of an increasingly important portion of the market for these services, and, therefore, we may be unsuccessful in attracting both advertisers and premium service subscribers to these services.
To the extent that an access provider or device manufacturer enters into a distribution arrangement with one of our competitors (or as our competitors design mobile devices and mobile device operating systems), we face an increased risk that our users will favor the services or properties of that competitor. The manufacturer or access provider might promote a competitors services or might impair users access to our services by blocking access through their devices or by not making our services available in a readily-discoverable manner on their devices. If competitive distributors impair access to our services, or if they simply are more successful than our distributors in developing compelling products that attract and retain users or advertisers, then our revenues could decline.
In the future, as new methods for accessing the Internet and our services become available, including through alternative devices, we may need to enter into amended distribution agreements with existing access providers, distributors and manufacturers to cover the new devices and new arrangements. We face a risk that existing and potential new access providers, distributors, and manufacturers may decide not to offer distribution of our services on reasonable terms, or at all. If we fail to obtain distribution or to obtain distribution on terms that are reasonable, we may not be able to fully execute our business plan.
In international markets, we compete with local Internet service providers that may have competitive advantages.
In a number of international markets, especially those in Asia, Europe, and Latin America, we face substantial competition from local Internet service providers and other portals that offer search, communications, and other commercial services. Many of these companies have a dominant market share in their territories and are owned by local telecommunications providers which give them a competitive advantage. Local providers of competing online services may also have a substantial advantage over us in attracting users in their country due to more established branding in that country, greater knowledge with respect to the tastes and preferences of users residing in that country, and/or their focus on a single market. Further, the local providers may have greater regulatory and operational flexibility than Yahoo! due to the fact that we are subject to both U.S. and foreign regulatory requirements. We must continue to improve our local offerings, become more knowledgeable about our local users and their preferences, deepen our relationships with our local users as well as increase our branding and other marketing activities in order to remain competitive and strengthen our international market position.
Our international operations are subject to increased risks which could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition.
In addition to uncertainty about our ability to continue to generate revenues from our foreign operations and expand our international market position, there are risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:
Violations of the complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations could result in fines, criminal actions or sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and damage to our reputation. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with these laws, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate our policies. These risks inherent in our international operations and expansion increase our costs of doing business internationally and could result in harm to our business, operating results, and financial condition.
New technologies could block display advertisements or search marketing listings, which would harm our operating results.
Technologies have been developed and are likely to continue to be developed that can block the display of our advertisements or our search marketing listings. Most of our revenues are derived from fees paid to us by advertisers in connection with the display of advertisements or clicks on search marketing listings on Web pages. As a result, advertisement-blocking technology could reduce the number and relevancy of advertisements and search results that we are able to deliver and, in turn, our advertising revenues and operating results.
Proprietary document formats may limit the effectiveness of our search technology by preventing our technology from accessing the content of documents in such formats, which could limit the effectiveness of our products and services.
A large amount of information on the Internet is provided in proprietary document formats such as Microsoft Word. These proprietary document formats may limit the effectiveness of our search technology by preventing our technology from accessing the content of such documents. The providers of the software applications used to create these documents could engineer the document format to prevent or interfere with our ability to access the document contents with our search technology. This would mean that the document contents would not be included in our search results even if the contents were directly relevant to a search. The software providers may also seek to require us to pay them royalties in exchange for giving us the ability to search documents in their format. If a software provider also competes with us, it may give its search technologies, or the technologies of our competitors, a preferential ability to search documents in its proprietary format. Any of these results could harm our brand and our operating results.
Interruptions, delays, or failures in the provision of our services could harm our operating results.
Delays or disruptions to our service could result from a variety of causes, including the following:
Prolonged delays or disruptions to our service could result in a loss of users, damage our brand and harm our operating results. In addition, users ability or willingness to access our services might be impaired by spam, viruses, worms, spyware, phishing, and other acts of malice by third parties affecting the user generally or the users use of our services in particular.
If we fail to prevent click fraud or if we choose to manage traffic quality in a way that advertisers find unsatisfactory, our profitability may decline.
A portion of our marketing services revenues arises from advertisers that pay for advertising on a price-per-click basis, meaning that the advertisers pay a fee every time a user clicks on their advertising. This pricing model can be vulnerable to so-called click fraud, which occurs when clicks are submitted on ads by a user who is motivated by reasons other than genuine interest in the subject of the ad. On Yahoo! Properties and Affiliate sites, we are exposed to the risk of click fraud or other clicks or conversions that advertisers may perceive as undesirable. If fraudulent or other malicious activity is perpetrated by others and we are unable to detect and prevent it, or if we choose to manage traffic quality in a way that advertisers find unsatisfactory, the affected advertisers may experience or perceive a reduced return on their investment in our advertising programs which could lead the advertisers to become dissatisfied with our advertising programs and they might refuse to pay, demand refunds, or withdraw future business. This could damage our brand and lead to a loss of advertisers and revenues. Advertiser dissatisfaction has led to litigation alleging click fraud and other types of traffic quality-related claims and could potentially lead to further litigation or government regulation of advertising. We may also issue refunds or credits as a result of such activity. Any increase in costs due to any such litigation, government regulation or legislation, or refunds or credits could negatively impact our profitability.
Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates affect our operating results in U.S. dollar terms.
A portion of our revenues arises from international operations. Revenues generated and expenses incurred by our international subsidiaries are often denominated in the currencies of the local countries. As a result, our consolidated U.S. dollar financial statements are subject to fluctuations due to changes in exchange rates as the financial results of our international subsidiaries are translated from local currencies into U.S. dollars. In addition, our financial results are subject to changes in exchange rates that impact the settlement of transactions in non-local currencies.
We may be required to record a significant charge to earnings if our goodwill, amortizable intangible assets, or investments in equity interests become impaired.
We are required under generally accepted accounting principles to test goodwill for impairment at least annually and to review our amortizable intangible assets and investments in equity interests for impairment when events or changes in circumstance indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors that could lead to
impairment of goodwill and amortizable intangible assets include significant adverse changes in the business climate and declines in the financial condition of our business. Factors that could lead to impairment of investments in equity interests include a prolonged period of decline in the stock price or operating performance of, or an announcement of adverse changes or events by, the company in which we invested. We have recorded and may be required in the future to record additional charges to earnings if a portion of our goodwill, amortizable intangible assets, or investments in equity interests becomes impaired. Any such charge would adversely impact our financial results.
We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities which could negatively impact our income tax provision, net income, and cash flow.
We are subject to income taxes and other taxes in both the U.S. and the foreign jurisdictions in which we currently operate or have historically operated. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and current and deferred tax assets and liabilities requires judgment and estimation. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. In addition, there are current proposals for new U.S. tax legislation which, if adopted, could adversely affect the Companys tax rate. We are subject to regular review and audit by both domestic and foreign tax authorities as well as subject to the prospective and retrospective effects of changing tax regulations and legislation. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may materially differ from the tax amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our income tax provision, net income, or cash flows in the period or periods for which such determination and settlement is made.
Our stock price has been volatile historically and may continue to be volatile regardless of our operating performance.
The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be subject to broad fluctuations. During the year ended December 31, 2009, the closing sale price of our common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market ranged from $11.01 to $17.81 per share and the closing sale price on February 19, 2010 was $15.58 per share. Our stock price may fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as variations in quarterly operating results, announcements and implementations of technological innovations or new services by us or our competitors; changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts; the operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors may deem comparable to us; the operating performance of companies in which we have an equity investment, including Yahoo Japan Corporation (Yahoo Japan) and Alibaba Group Holding Limited (Alibaba Group); and news reports relating to us, trends in our markets, or general economic conditions.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for Internet-related companies in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our stock, regardless of our operating performance. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our stock price may adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, all of whom have been granted stock options or other stock-based awards. A sustained decline in our stock price and market capitalization could lead to an impairment charge of our long-lived assets.
Anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us.
We have adopted a stockholder rights plan and initially declared a dividend distribution of one right for each outstanding share of common stock to stockholders of record as of March 20, 2001. As a result of our two-for-one stock split effective May 11, 2004, each share of common stock is now associated with one-half of one right. Each right entitles the holder to purchase one unit consisting of one one-thousandth of a share of our Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock for $250 per unit. Under certain circumstances, if a person or group acquires 15 percent or more of our outstanding common stock, holders of the rights (other than the person or group triggering their exercise) will be able to purchase, in exchange for the $250 exercise price, shares of our
common stock or of any company into which we are merged having a value of $500. The rights expire on March 1, 2011, unless extended by our Board of Directors. Because the rights may substantially dilute the stock ownership of a person or group attempting to take us over without the approval of our Board of Directors, our rights plan could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us (or a significant percentage of our outstanding capital stock) without first negotiating with our Board of Directors regarding that acquisition.
In addition, our Board of Directors has the authority to issue up to 10 million shares of Preferred Stock (of which 2 million shares have been designated as Series A Junior Participating Preferred Stock) and to determine the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, of those shares without any further vote or action by the stockholders.
The rights of the holders of our common stock may be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any Preferred Stock that may be issued in the future. The issuance of Preferred Stock may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of Yahoo! without further action by the stockholders and may adversely affect the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. Further, some provisions of our charter documents, including provisions eliminating the ability of stockholders to take action by written consent and limiting the ability of stockholders to raise matters at a meeting of stockholders without giving advance notice, may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or management of Yahoo!, which could have an adverse effect on the market price of our stock. In addition, our charter documents do not permit cumulative voting, which may make it more difficult for a third-party to gain control of our Board of Directors. Further, we are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which will prohibit us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, even if such combination is favored by a majority of stockholders, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. The application of Section 203 also could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control of Yahoo!.
Our headquarters is located in Sunnyvale, California and consists of owned and leased space aggregating approximately 1.4 million square feet. We also lease office space in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. In the United States, we lease offices in various locations, including Atlanta, Boston, Champaign, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Hillsboro, the Los Angeles Area, Miami, New York, Omaha, Orlando, the San Diego Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Seattle Area, Brentwood and Franklin, Tennessee, and Washington, D.C. Our data centers are operated in locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet current requirements, and that suitable additional or substitute space will be available as needed to accommodate any further physical expansion of operations and for any additional sales offices.
For a description of our material legal proceedings, see Note 13Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements, which is incorporated herein by reference.
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders during the fourth quarter of 2009.
Market Information for Common Stock
Yahoo! Inc. common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol YHOO. The following table sets forth the range of high and low per share sales prices as reported for each period indicated:
We had 11,201 stockholders of record as of February 19, 2010.
We have not declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We presently do not have plans to pay any cash dividends in the near future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Stock repurchase activity during the three months ended December 31, 2009 was as follows:
This performance graph shall not be deemed filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that section and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Yahoo! Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
The following graph compares, for the five-year period ended December 31, 2009, the cumulative total stockholder return for the Companys common stock, the NASDAQ 100 Index, the Standard & Poors North American Technology-Internet Index, formerly the Goldman Sachs Internet Trading Index (the SPGIINTR), and the Standard & Poors 500 Stock Index (the S&P 500 Index). Measurement points are the last trading day of each of the Companys fiscal years ended December 31, 2005, December 31, 2006, December 31, 2007, December 31, 2008, and December 31, 2009. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2004 in the common stock of the Company, the NASDAQ 100 Index, the SPGIINTR, and the S&P 500 Index and assumes reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
Consolidated Statements of Income Data:
Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:
In addition to current and historical information, this Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements relate to our future operations, prospects, potential products, services, developments, and business strategies. These statements can, in some cases, be identified by the use of terms such as may, will, should, could, would, intend, expect, plan, anticipate, believe, estimate, predict, project, potential, or continue, the negative of such terms, or other comparable terminology. This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes, among others, forward-looking statements regarding our:
These statements involve certain known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, among others, those listed in Part 1, Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to update any of our forward-looking statements after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect actual results or future events or circumstances.
Yahoo! Inc., together with its consolidated subsidiaries (we, or us, Yahoo! or our Company), attracts hundreds of millions of users every month through our innovative technology and engaging content and services, making us one of the most trafficked Internet destinations and a world class online media company. Our vision is to be the center of peoples online lives by delivering personally relevant, meaningful Internet experiences. To users, we provide online properties and services (Yahoo! Properties or our Owned and Operated sites). To advertisers, we provide a range of marketing services designed to reach and connect with users of our Owned and Operated sites, as well as with Internet users beyond Yahoo! Properties, through a distribution network of third-party entities (our Affiliates) that have integrated our advertising offerings into their Websites, referred to as Affiliate sites, or their other offerings. We believe that our marketing services enable advertisers to deliver highly relevant marketing messages to their target audiences.
We generate revenues by providing marketing services to advertisers across a majority of Yahoo! Properties and Affiliate sites. Additionally, although many of the services we provide to users are free, we do charge fees for a number of premium services.
Our offerings to users on Yahoo! Properties currently fall into four categories: Integrated Consumer Experiences, Applications (Communications and Communities), Search, and Media Products and Solutions. The majority of our offerings are available in more than 25 languages. We manage and measure our business geographically. Our primary areas of measurement and decision-making are the United States (U.S.) and International.
Marketing Services Revenues. Our online advertising offerings include the display of graphical advertisements (display advertising), the display of text-based links to an advertisers Website (search advertising), listing-based services, and commerce-based transactions.
We recognize revenues from display advertising on Yahoo! Properties and on Affiliate sites as impressions are delivered or when qualifying actions are performed by the user. An impression is delivered when an advertisement appears on a page viewed by a user. We also recognize revenues from search advertising on Yahoo! Properties and on Affiliate sites. We recognize revenues from these arrangements as click-throughs occur. A click-through occurs when a user clicks on an advertisers listing.
Marketing services revenues also include listings and transaction revenues. Listings revenues are generated from a variety of consumer and business listings-based services, including access to the Yahoo! HotJobs database and classified advertising such as Yahoo! Autos, Yahoo! Real Estate, and other services. We recognize listings revenues when the services are performed. Transaction revenues are generated from facilitating commercial transactions through Yahoo! Properties, principally from Small Business, Yahoo! Travel, and Yahoo! Shopping. We recognize transaction revenues when there is evidence that qualifying transactions have occurred. For example, we recognize revenues when travel arrangements are booked through Yahoo! Travel.
Fees Revenues. Fees revenues consist of revenues generated from a variety of consumer and business fee-based services, including Internet broadband services, royalties received from joint venture partners, premium mail, music and personals offerings, as well as services for small businesses. We recognize fees revenues when the services are performed.
Our revenue decline of 10 percent for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008, can be attributed to a reduction in our marketing services revenues primarily due to the economic environment and the impact of foreign currency rate fluctuations. Marketing services experienced a 10 percent year-over-year decline for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The increase in income from operations for the year ended December 31, 2009 reflects a decrease in operating expenses of $970 million compared to 2008, partially offset by a decrease in revenues. The decrease in operating expenses is primarily due to our cost reduction initiatives and a goodwill impairment charge of $488 million recorded in 2008.
Cash provided by operating activities is a measure of the cash productivity of our business model. Our operating activities in 2009 generated adequate cash to meet our operating needs. Cash used in investing activities in the year ended December 31, 2009 included capital expenditures of $434 million, net acquisitions of $195 million, and net purchases of marketable debt securities of $2 billion, offset by $265 million of proceeds received from the sales of marketable equity securities. Cash provided by financing activities included $113 million in proceeds from employee option exercises and employee stock purchases, offset by $113 million used in the direct repurchase of common stock and $73 million used for tax withholding payments related to the net share settlements of restricted stock units and tax withholding-related reacquisition of shares of restricted stock. Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2008 included a $350 million one-time payment related to a commercial arrangement entered into with AT&T Inc. No similar payments were received during the year ended December 31, 2009.
During May of 2009, we sold all of our Gmarket shares for net proceeds of $120 million and recorded a pre-tax gain of $67 million ($42 million after tax) in connection with the sale. In September of 2009, we sold our direct investment in Alibaba.com for net proceeds of $145 million and recorded a pre-tax gain of $98 million ($60 million, after tax) in connection with the sale.
During 2009, we implemented cost initiatives that reduced our worldwide workforce by approximately 5 percent and reallocated resources to align with our strategic priorities including investing resources in some areas, reducing resources in others, and eliminating some areas of our business that do not support our strategic priorities. In connection with these initiatives, we incurred severance, facility, and other restructuring costs of $61 million. In addition, we recorded $66 million of restructuring costs relating to the 2008 restructuring plans during 2009.
Search and License Agreement with Microsoft
On December 4, 2009, Yahoo! entered into a Search Agreement and a License Agreement with Microsoft under which Microsoft will be Yahoo!s exclusive platform technology provider for algorithmic and paid search services and non-exclusive provider for contextual advertising. Under the Search Agreement, Yahoo! will become the exclusive worldwide relationship sales force for both companies premium search advertisers, which include advertisers meeting certain spending or other criteria, advertising agencies that specialize in or offer search engine marketing services and their clients, and resellers and their clients seeking assistance with their paid search accounts. The term of the Search Agreement is 10 years after the parties commence performance under the agreement, subject to earlier termination as provided in the Search Agreement. Under the License Agreement, Microsoft will acquire an exclusive 10-year license to Yahoo!s core search technology and will have the ability to integrate this technology into its existing Web search platforms. The parties commenced implementation of the Search Agreement on February 23, 2010.
During the first five years of the term of the Search Agreement, we will be entitled to receive 88% of the net revenues generated from Microsofts services on Yahoo! Properties (the Revenue Share Rate) and we will also be entitled to receive our share (at the Revenue Share Rate) of the net revenues generated from Microsofts services on Affiliate sites after the Affiliates share of net revenues is deducted. For new Affiliates during the term of the Search Agreement, and for all Affiliates after the first five years of such term, we will receive our share (at the Revenue Share Rate) of the net revenues generated from Microsofts services on Affiliate sites after the Affiliates share of net revenues and certain Microsoft costs are deducted. On the fifth anniversary of the date of implementation of the Search Agreement, Microsoft will have the option to terminate our sales exclusivity for premium search advertisers. If Microsoft exercises its option, the Revenue Share Rate will increase to 93% for the remainder of the term of the Search Agreement, unless Yahoo! exercises its option to retain its sales exclusivity, in which case the Revenue Share Rate would be reduced to 83% for the remainder of the term. If Microsoft does not exercise such option, the Revenue Share Rate will be 90% for the remainder of the term of the Search Agreement.
Microsoft has agreed to reimburse us for certain specified expenses up to an aggregate total of $150 million during the first three years of the Search Agreement. The expense reimbursement payments by Microsoft are not limited (other than by the $150 million total) during the period from February 23, 2010 through June 30, 2010, but will be limited thereafter to not more than $50 million in each of the three subsequent 12-month periods running from July 1 through June 30. From February 23, 2010 until the applicable services are fully transitioned to Microsoft, Microsoft will also reimburse us for the costs of running our algorithmic and paid search services subject to specified exclusions and limitations. These reimbursements are separate from and in addition to the $150 million of reimbursement payments.
The global transition of Yahoo!s algorithmic and paid search platforms to Microsoft and migration of Yahoo!s paid search advertisers and publishers is expected to take up to 24 months and will be done on a market by market basis. We do not expect any material revenue sharing to begin in 2010, but we expect to receive reimbursements from Microsoft for the cost of running our algorithmic and paid search services following implementation. We expect search revenue sharing with Microsoft under the Search Agreement to increase in 2011 and 2012 as we migrate our paid search advertisers and publishers to Microsofts platforms by market. Based on our current levels of revenue and operating expenses, we expect the Search Agreement, when fully implemented, to have a positive impact on our operating income and to result in capital expenditures savings.
In the following Managements Discussion and Analysis, we discuss the following areas of our financial results:
Results of Operations
Revenues. Revenues by groups of similar services were as follows (dollars in thousands):
We currently generate marketing services revenues principally from display advertising on Owned and Operated sites and from search advertising. Searches is defined as online search queries that may yield Internet search results ranked and sorted based on relevance to the users search query. Sponsored search results are a subset of the overall search results, and provide links to paying advertisers Web pages.
We also receive revenues for Content Match links (advertising in the form of contextually relevant links to advertisers Websites) on Owned and Operated and Affiliate sites and display advertising on Affiliate sites. The net revenues and related volume metrics from these additional sources are not currently material and are excluded from the discussion and calculation of average revenue per Page View on Owned and Operated sites and average revenue per search on Affiliate sites that follows.
Marketing Services Revenues from Owned and Operated Sites. Marketing services revenues from Owned and Operated sites for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased by approximately $493 million, or 12 percent, compared to 2008. For the year ended December 31, 2009, revenues from search advertising and display advertising on Owned and Operated sites declined 13 percent and 9 percent, respectively, compared to 2008. Although increased user activity levels on Yahoo! Properties has contributed to a higher volume of search queries and Page Views, lower advertising spending in both search and display advertising due to the economic environment during the majority of 2009 and a shift towards lower yielding inventory and non-commercial search terms have resulted in decreased revenues. In addition, the sale of Kelkoo SAS during the year ended December 31, 2008 contributed to the decline in revenues year-over-year. During 2009, the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations also contributed to the decline in revenues, compared to 2008. Using the foreign currency exchange rates from 2008, revenues from our Owned and Operated sites for 2009 would have been higher than we reported by approximately $71 million.
Marketing services revenues from Owned and Operated sites for the year ended December 31, 2008 increased by approximately $376 million, or 10 percent, compared to 2007. Factors leading to growth in overall marketing services revenues from 2007 to 2008 included an increase in user activity levels on Yahoo! Properties, which contributed to a higher volume of search queries, Page Views, and ad impression displays. The transition of and changes in certain of our broadband access partnerships from being fee-paying user based to an advertising revenue sharing model also contributed to the increase in marketing services revenues from Owned and Operated sites. For the year ended December 31, 2008, revenues from search advertising on Owned and Operated sites grew 17 percent, compared to 2007. For the year ended December 31, 2008, revenues from display advertising on Owned and Operated sites grew 7 percent, compared to 2007.
We periodically review and refine our methodology for monitoring, gathering, and counting Page Views to more accurately reflect the total number of Web pages viewed by users on Yahoo! Properties. Based on this process, from time to time, we update our methodology to exclude from the count of Page Views interactions with our servers that we determine or believe are not the result of user visits to our Owned and Operated sites.
For the year ended December 31, 2009, Page Views increased 4 percent and revenue per Page View decreased 16 percent, compared to 2008. The decline in revenue per Page View in 2009 compared to 2008 was due to the decline in revenues as discussed above. For the year ended December 31, 2008, Page Views increased 18 percent and revenue per Page View decreased 6 percent compared to 2007. The decrease in revenue per Page View in 2008 compared to 2007 was due to a shift to lower-yielding display advertising.
In the table below, we set forth the quarterly and year-over-year growth in Page Views and revenue per Page View for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008 both as previously reported and as revised to reflect our updated methodology.
We currently expect marketing services revenues on our Owned and Operated sites to increase for the first quarter of 2010 compared to the first quarter of 2009 provided global economic conditions continue to improve and advertising spending increases.
Marketing Services Revenues from Affiliate Sites. Marketing services revenues from Affiliate sites for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased $149 million, or 7 percent, compared to 2008. The number of searches on Affiliate sites increased by approximately 24 percent for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. Although increased traffic has contributed to a higher volume of search queries on our Affiliate network, lower advertising spending and a shift towards non-commercial search terms have resulted in decreased revenues. The average revenue per search on our Affiliate sites decreased by 24 percent for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008.
Marketing services revenues from Affiliate sites for the year ended December 31, 2008 decreased $148 million, or 6 percent, compared to 2007. During the third quarter of 2007, we sold Overture Japan to Yahoo Japan. As part of this transaction, we also entered into a commercial arrangement with Yahoo Japan in which we provide search marketing services to Yahoo Japan for a service fee. This arrangement began on September 1, 2007 and, beginning on that date, we commenced recording marketing services revenues from Yahoo Japan for the provision of search marketing services based on a percentage of advertising revenues earned by Yahoo Japan for the delivery of sponsored search results. The sale of Overture Japan to Yahoo Japan negatively impacted Affiliate revenues during the year ended December 31, 2008 by approximately $300 million, year-over-year. The number of searches on Affiliate sites increased by approximately 23 percent for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The average revenue per search on our Affiliate sites decreased by 26 percent for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007, primarily as a result of a change in traffic mix and the impact of the sale of Overture Japan to Yahoo Japan.
We expect marketing services revenues from Affiliate sites for the first quarter of 2010 to remain relatively flat compared to the first quarter of 2009 as we continue to implement our ongoing advertiser quality initiatives.
Fees Revenues. Our fees revenues include premium fee-based services such as services for small businesses, Internet broadband services, premium e-mail, sports, photos, games, personals, and music. Other fee-based revenues include royalties, licenses, and mobile services.
For the year ended December 31, 2009, fees revenues decreased approximately $106 million, or 12 percent, compared to 2008. For the year ended December 31, 2008, fees revenues increased approximately $11 million, or 1 percent, compared to 2007. The fluctuations were primarily attributed to changes in certain of our broadband access partnerships, from being fee-paying user based to an advertising revenue sharing model, as well as the outsourcing of the voice over internet protocol, or VOIP, subscription music businesses, and other business lines. Due to these factors and the renewed focus on our display and search revenues, we expect fees revenues to continue to decline for the first quarter of 2010, compared to the first quarter of 2009.
As used in this discussion, fee-paying users is based on the total number of fee-based subscriptions aggregated from each Yahoo! Property. To calculate the average revenue per fee-paying user, we divide the revenue generated from the subscriptions by the average fee-paying users during the year.
The number of paying users for our fee-based services decreased to 8.6 million as of December 31, 2009 compared to 9.7 million as of December 31, 2008, a decrease of 11 percent, as a result of the business model changes described above.
The number of paying users for our fee-based services decreased to 9.7 million as of December 31, 2008 compared to 19.0 million as of December 31, 2007, a decrease of 49 percent. As we renewed contracts with broadband partners and our relationships moved from being fee-paying user based to an advertising revenue sharing model, our number of fee-paying users decreased. Adjusting the number of fee-paying users as of December 31, 2007 to remove fee-paying users related to our renewed broadband relationships, our fee-paying users would have been 10.1 million as of December 31, 2007, compared to 9.7 million as of December 31, 2008, a decrease of 4 percent.
Average monthly revenues per paying user was approximately $3.50 for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to approximately $4.00 and $3.00 for the same periods in 2008 and 2007, respectively. The decrease in average monthly revenues per paying user for the year ended December 31, 2009 compared to 2008 can be attributed to the decline in fees revenues due to our business model changes. The increase in average monthly revenues per paying user for the year ended December 31, 2008 compared to 2007 was due to the change in mix of fee-based subscribers.
Costs and Expenses. Operating costs and expenses consist of cost of revenues, sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets. In addition, in 2008, we incurred restructuring charges, net, and a goodwill impairment charge. In 2009, we incurred restructuring charges, net. Cost of revenues consists of traffic acquisition costs (TAC), Internet connection charges, and other expenses associated with the production and usage of Yahoo! Properties, including amortization of acquired intellectual property rights and developed technology.
Operating costs and expenses were as follows (dollars in thousands):
Stock-based compensation expense was allocated as follows (in thousands):
See Note 1The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 12Employee Benefits in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements, as well as our Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates, for additional information about stock-based compensation expense.
TAC. TAC consist of payments made to Affiliates and payments made to companies that direct consumer and business traffic to Yahoo! Properties. We enter into agreements of varying duration that involve TAC. There are generally two economic structures of the Affiliate agreements: fixed payments based on a guaranteed minimum amount of traffic delivered, which often carry reciprocal performance guarantees from the Affiliate or variable payments based on a percentage of our revenues or based on a certain metric, such as number of searches or paid clicks. We expense TAC under two different methods. Agreements with fixed payments are expensed ratably over the term the fixed payment covers, and agreements based on a percentage of revenues, number of searches, or other metrics are expensed based on the volume of the underlying activity or revenues multiplied by the agreed-upon price or rate.
Compensation, Information Technology, Depreciation and Amortization, and Facilities Expenses. Compensation expense consists primarily of salary, bonuses, commissions, and stock-based compensation expense. Information and technology expense includes telecom usage charges and data center operating costs. Depreciation and amortization expense consists primarily of depreciation of server equipment and information technology assets
and amortization of developed or acquired technology and intellectual property rights. Facilities expense consists primarily of building maintenance costs, rent expense, and utilities.
The changes in operating costs and expenses for the year ended December 31, 2009 compared to the year ended December 31, 2008 are comprised of the following (in thousands):
The changes in operating costs and expenses for the year ended December 31, 2008 compared to the year ended December 31, 2007 are comprised of the following (in thousands):
Compensation Expense. Total compensation expense decreased approximately $281 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily due to decreases in our average total headcount across all functions, primarily the sales and marketing function, as a result of our cost initiatives. Total compensation expense increased approximately $54 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The increase in 2008 compared to the same period of 2007 was primarily due to increases in our average headcount, mainly in the product development function (partially offset in 2008 by decreased headcount in certain functions, mainly sales and marketing), as well as annual salary increases and higher base salaries across all functions. Product development headcount increased for the maintenance and development of and minor enhancements to existing offerings and services on Yahoo! Properties as well as the maintenance of Yahoo!s technology platforms and infrastructure. For 2008, the increase in compensation expense was net of a decrease in stock-based compensation expense of $165 million, primarily due to $30 million in reversals of stock-based compensation expense related to employee departures (including the departure of executives) in 2008, compared
to 2007 and reversals of $51 million of stock-based compensation expense to reflect an increase in estimated forfeiture rate assumptions related to equity awards for which there were no similar reversals in 2007. As we continue to invest for growth, we expect our headcount to increase during the first quarter of 2010 compared to the same period of 2009.
Information Technology Expenses. Information technology expenses decreased $27 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decreases were due to decreased telecom usage as well as decreased equipment spending. Information technology expenses increased $66 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The increase was due to increased telecom usage and data center operating costs.
Depreciation and Amortization Expenses. Depreciation and amortization expenses decreased $51 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was due to decreased amortization expense for fully amortized intangible assets acquired in prior years slightly offset by increased investments in information technology assets and server equipment. Depreciation and amortization expenses increased $131 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The increase was due to our investment in information technology assets and server equipment. The increase was slightly offset by a decrease in amortization expense for certain acquired intangible assets being fully amortized as well as an increase in the weighted amortization periods of recently acquired intangible assets.
Facilities Expenses. Facilities expenses decreased $23 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily due to the consolidation of our real estate facilities as part of our cost initiatives. Facilities expenses increased $14 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The increase was due to our expansion into new facilities and increased rent expense on our buildings during 2008.
TAC. TAC decreased $32 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008. The decrease was primarily driven by the impact of foreign currency rate fluctuations, offset by changes in Affiliate mix and a small increase in average TAC rates. TAC decreased $47 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. The decrease in 2008 was primarily due to the sale of Overture Japan to Yahoo Japan. The decrease in TAC was slightly offset by a small increase in average TAC rates and partner mix changes.
Other Expenses. Other expenses decreased $708 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008 mainly due to decreases of $488 million related to the goodwill impairment charge recorded in 2008 for which there was no comparable charge in 2009, decreases in third-party service-provider expenses of $117 million, decreases in content costs of $57 million, and decreases in employee travel and entertainment costs of $39 million. Decreases in third-party service-provider expenses were primarily due to higher advisor costs incurred in 2008 related to Microsofts proposal to acquire all or a part of our Company, other strategic alternatives, including the Google agreement, the proxy contest, and related litigation defense, compared to advisory and employee retention costs incurred in 2009 in connection with the Microsoft search arrangement. The decreases in third-party service provider expenses were also due to a decrease in temporary headcount and consulting projects related to our cost initiatives in 2009. Content costs, included in costs of revenues and driven by our rich media offerings, decreased due to lower content costs for various properties as we transition out of and/or outsource certain business lines.
Other expenses increased $703 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007 mainly due to the goodwill impairment charge of $488 million, increases in third-party service-provider expenses of $125 million, and restructuring charges, net of $107 million. For the year ended December 31, 2008, the increases in outsourced service-provider expenses were primarily the result of incremental costs incurred in general and administrative expense of $79 million for 2008 for outside advisors related to Microsofts proposals to acquire all or a part of our Company, other strategic alternatives, including the Google agreement, the proxy contest, and related litigation defense.
Excluding any advisory, retention costs, or reimbursements related to the Microsoft Search Agreement and any restructuring charges arising from ongoing cost initiatives, we currently expect our operating costs to remain relatively flat for the first quarter of 2010 compared to the same period of 2009.
Restructuring Charges, Net. For the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2009, restructuring charges, net was comprised of the following (in thousands):
Q108 Restructuring Plan. During the first quarter of 2008, we implemented a strategic workforce realignment to more appropriately allocate resources to our key strategic initiatives. The strategic workforce realignment involved investing resources in some areas, reducing resources in others, and eliminating some areas of our business that did not support our strategic priorities. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we incurred total pre-tax charges of approximately $27 million in severance pay expenses and related cash expenses in connection with this workforce realignment, net of reversal for adjustments to original estimates totaling $2 million. The pre-tax cash charges were offset by a $12 million credit related to non-cash stock-based compensation expense reversals for unvested stock awards that were forfeited. Of the net estimated total strategic workforce realignment pre-tax expense of approximately $15 million, $12 million was related to the U.S. segment and $3 million was related to the International segment. As of December 31, 2008, there was no remaining restructuring accrual related to this strategic workforce realignment.
Q408 Restructuring Plan. During the fourth quarter of 2008, we implemented additional cost reduction initiatives, including a workforce reduction and consolidation of certain real estate facilities. We began to consolidate and exit selected facilities beginning in the fourth quarter of 2008 and expect to continue this process through the second quarter of 2010. We vacated and ceased use of most of the ten facilities in the U.S. and five international facilities identified under the plan. Non-cancelable lease costs were determined based on the present value of remaining lease payments reduced by estimated sublease income. Present value computations use discount rates based on published Treasury risk-free interest rates, adjusted for our credit spread, which is consistent with observable credit spreads of companies with similar credit standing. The cost of exiting and terminating our facility leases was determined by referring to the contractual terms of the agreements, by evaluating the current real estate market conditions, and, where applicable, by referring to amounts in negotiation. Our ability to generate the estimated amounts of sublease income, as well as to terminate lease obligations at the estimated amounts, is dependent upon the commercial real estate market conditions in certain geographies at the time we negotiate the lease termination and sublease arrangements with third parties. These amounts represent our best estimate of the obligations we expect to incur and could be subject to adjustment as market conditions change. The fair value measurement of the liability related to exited facilities involves the use of certain significant unobservable inputs and therefore fall within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy established by accounting guidance. The remaining lease obligations will be settled over the remaining lease terms which expire through fiscal 2017 and will be adjusted for changes in estimates or the impact of sublease contracts. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we incurred severance, facility, and other restructuring costs of $110 million related to the Q408 restructuring plan, offset by $18 million related to stock-based compensation expense reversals for unvested stock awards, resulting in a net restructuring charge of $92 million. Of the $92 million in
restructuring charges, net recorded in the year ended December 31, 2008 related to the Q408 restructuring plan, $68 million related to our U.S. segment and $24 million related to our International segment. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we incurred total pre-tax cash charges for severance benefits provided and facilities vacated of approximately $57 million related to the Q408 restructuring plan in connection with the continued implementation of these initiatives, net of reversal for adjustments to original estimates totaling $8 million. Of the $65 million in restructuring charges, net recorded in the year ended December 31, 2009 related to the Q408 restructuring plan, $63 million related to the U.S segment and $2 million related to the International segment.
As of December 31, 2009, the aggregate outstanding restructuring liability related to the Q408 restructuring plan was $60 million, most of which relates to non-cancelable lease costs that we expect to pay over the terms of the related obligations, which end by the second quarter of 2017.
Q209 Restructuring Plan. During the second quarter of 2009, we implemented new cost reduction initiatives to further reduce our worldwide workforce by approximately 5 percent. The restructuring plan involves reallocating resources to align with our strategic priorities including investing resources in some areas, reducing resources in others, and eliminating some areas of our business that do not support our strategic priorities. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we incurred total pre-tax cash charges of approximately $35 million in severance and other related costs related to the Q209 restructuring plan. The pre-tax charges were offset by an $8 million credit related to non-cash stock-based compensation expense reversals for unvested stock awards that were forfeited. Of the $27 million in restructuring charges, net recorded in the year ended December 31, 2009 related to the Q209 restructuring plan, $18 million related to the U.S. segment and $9 million related to the International segment.
As of December 31, 2009, the aggregate outstanding restructuring liability related to the Q209 restructuring plan was $4 million, which we expect to pay out by the end of the third quarter of 2010.
Q409 Restructuring Charges. During the fourth quarter of 2009, we decided to close one of our international facilities and began implementation of a workforce realignment at the facility to focus resources on our strategic initiatives. We plan to exit the facility in the third quarter of 2010. During the fourth quarter of 2009, we incurred total pre-tax cash charges of approximately $16 million in severance and other costs related to this realignment. In connection with our strategic realignment efforts, an executive of one of our acquired businesses departed. We incurred $19 million of non-cash stock-based compensation expense for the acceleration of certain of the executives stock-based awards pursuant to the acquisition agreements. Of the $35 million in restructuring charges, recorded in the fourth quarter ended of 2009, $19 million related to the U.S. segment and $16 million related to the International segment.
As of December 31, 2009, the aggregate outstanding restructuring liability related to the Q409 restructuring activities was $15 million, most of which relates to employee severance pay expenses that we expect to substantially pay out by the end of the third quarter of 2010.
In addition to the charges described above, we currently expect to incur future charges of approximately $28 million to $38 million for non-cancelable lease costs and relocation costs as we continue to exit facilities identified as part of the Q408 restructuring plan and Q409 restructuring activities, of which $25 million to $33 million relates to the U.S. segment and $3 million to $5 million relates to the International segment. The expected future charges are expected to be recorded primarily in 2010 and 2011. See Note 16Restructuring charges, net in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Goodwill Impairment Charge. We conduct our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 31 each year. Goodwill is potentially impaired if the carrying value of the reporting unit that contains the goodwill exceeds its estimated fair value. As a result of this test in 2008, we previously concluded that the carrying value of our European reporting unit exceeded its fair value and recorded a goodwill impairment charge of approximately
$488 million. At the time of this test in 2008, the fair values of our other reporting units exceeded their carrying values by a significant margin and therefore goodwill in those reporting units was not impaired. The goodwill impairment in our European reporting unit resulted from a combination of factors, including the global economic downturn, a persistent decline in business conditions, reductions in projected operating results, reductions in estimated future cash flows, and decreases in revenue and earnings multiples of comparable companies in the region. We had no goodwill impairment charges in the year ended December 31, 2009.
Significant changes in the economic environment and our operating results may result in future impairment of our reporting units. See Note 5Goodwill in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Other Income, Net. Other income, net was as follows (in thousands):
Other income, net was $188 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, an increase of $114 million, compared to 2008. Interest and investment income for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased due to lower average interest rates compared to the same periods in 2008. Average interest rates were less than 1 percent in 2009, compared to 2.8 percent in 2008. Gains on sales of marketable equity securities include gains from sales of publicly traded companies. In May 2009, we sold all of our Gmarket shares for net proceeds of $120 million. We recorded a pre-tax gain of $67 million ($42 million after tax) in connection with the sale of our Gmarket shares. In September 2009, we sold our direct investment in Alibaba.com for net proceeds of $145 million. We recorded a pre-tax gain of $98 million ($60 million after tax) in connection with the sale of our Alibaba.com shares. We had no imputed interest on our convertible debt in 2009, compared to a charge of $9 million in 2008. Other charges decreased by $25 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to 2008, primarily due to foreign exchange re-measurement of assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies.
Other income, net was $74 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, a decrease of $45 million, compared to 2007. Interest and investment income for the year ended December 31, 2008 decreased $43 million due to lower average interest rates, compared to 2007. In the year ended December 31, 2008, higher average invested balances for 2008, compared to 2007, were offset by lower average interest rates of 2.8 percent in 2008, compared to 4.3 percent in 2007. Imputed interest on our convertible debt decreased $26 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007. Other decreased by $37 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, compared to 2007, primarily due to foreign exchange re-measurement of assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies. Other income, net for the year ended December 31, 2007 included a $6 million gain from the sale of Overture Japan and an $8 million non-cash gain arising from the reduction in our ownership in Alibaba Group, which was treated as an incremental sale of additional equity interests in Yahoo! China. Other income, net for the year ended December 31, 2008 included a $25 million gain from the sale of Kelkoo SAS.
Other income, net may fluctuate in future periods due to changes in our average investment balances, changes in interest and foreign exchange rates, realized gains and losses on investments, and impairments of investments.
Income Taxes. The provision for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2009 differs from the amount computed by applying the federal statutory income tax rate primarily due to the effect of non-U.S. operations, non-deductible stock-based compensation expense, benefits due to state taxes resulting from California state tax law changes, and the net impact of tax restructuring.
The following table summarizes the differences between our provision for income taxes and the amount computed by applying the federal statutory income tax rate to income before provision for income taxes and earnings in equity interests (dollars in thousands):
The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2009 was 38 percent, compared to 299 percent in 2008. The primary reasons for the lower effective tax rate in 2009 compared to 2008 were due to the fact that 2008 pre-tax income included a $488 million goodwill impairment charge, the majority of which was non-deductible for tax purposes, and that benefits resulting from tax restructuring activities were implemented in 2009. The 2008 effective tax rate included the cumulative tax benefit of a favorable state tax ruling granted in 2008 and retroactive to 2007. The 2007 provision for income taxes reflects a tax benefit related to the release of deferred tax liabilities in connection with changes to our worldwide entity structure in 2007.
Our U.S. federal and California income tax returns for the years ended December 31, 2005 and 2006 are currently under examination by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the California Franchise Tax Board. Additionally, we are seeking early resolution of a 2009 U.S. federal income tax position by means of a pre-filing agreement with the IRS. The issues relate to capital losses available for carry forward, intercompany transactions and research and development tax credits. The IRS is expected to notify us of their conclusions during 2010. We believe adequate reserves have been provided for all issues; however, it is reasonably possible that our unrecognized tax benefits could increase once the results are known. An estimate of the range of possible outcomes cannot be made at this time. The U.S. Federal Research and Development tax credit expires on December 31, 2009. It is uncertain whether this credit will be available in 2010, as it has not yet been signed into law. As a result, we expect our effective tax rate may increase in 2010 compared to 2009.
Earnings in Equity Interests. Earnings in equity interests for the year ended December 31, 2009 was approximately $250 million. Earnings in equity interests for the year ended December 31, 2008 was approximately $597 million, including a $401 million non-cash gain related to Alibaba Groups IPO of Alibaba.com, net of tax. In connection with the IPO, we made a direct investment of 1 percent in Alibaba.com, which we sold during the third quarter of 2009 for net proceeds of $145 million. In 2008, we also recorded an impairment charge of $30 million, net of tax, within earnings in equity interests to reduce the carrying value of
the Alibaba.com investment to fair value. Earnings in equity interests for the year ended December 31, 2007 were approximately $151 million (net of $7 million related to tax benefits on dividends received and net of $17 million related to the tax benefit of our share of Alibaba Groups loss). See Note 4 Investments in Equity Interests in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Noncontrolling Interests. Noncontrolling interests represents the noncontrolling holders percentage share of income or losses from the subsidiaries in which we hold a majority, but less than 100 percent, ownership interest and the results of which are consolidated in our consolidated financial statements. Noncontrolling interests was approximately $7 million in 2009, compared to $6 million and $3 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Noncontrolling interests recorded in 2009, 2008, and 2007 were mainly related to our Yahoo! 7 joint venture in Australia.
Business Segment Results
We manage our business geographically. Our primary areas of measurement and decision-making are the U.S. and International. Management relies on an internal management reporting process that provides revenues and segment operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for making financial decisions and allocating resources. Segment operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense includes income from operations before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense. Management believes that segment operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense is an appropriate measure of evaluating the operational performance of our segments. However, this measure should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, or superior to, income from operations or other measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. (U.S. GAAP).
In January 2010, we announced changes to our business management structure that are expected to be implemented by mid 2010. We are currently assessing the impact on segment reporting for 2010.
Summarized information by segment was as follows (dollars in thousands):
Revenues are attributed to individual countries according to the international online property that generated the revenues. No single foreign country accounted for more than 10 percent of revenues in 2009, 2008, or 2007, respectively.
United States. U.S. revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased approximately $468 million, or 9 percent, as compared to 2008. Our year-over-year decrease in revenues was a result of a decline in advertising across the majority of Yahoo! Properties, particularly search advertising, and in our fee-based services. The decline in revenues was offset by a decline in operating expenses of $278 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 as compared to 2008. U.S. revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008 increased approximately $458 million, or 10 percent, as compared to 2007. The year-over-year increases in 2008 and 2007 were a result of growth in advertising across Yahoo! Properties. More than 95 percent of the 2008 increase, or $453 million, came from marketing services revenues. U.S. operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased $110 million, or 9 percent, as compared to 2008. U.S. operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2009 includes restructuring charges of $79 million. U.S. operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 decreased $226 million, or 16 percent, as compared to 2007. U.S. operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 includes restructuring charges of $107 million.
International. International revenues for the year ended December 31, 2009 decreased approximately $280 million or 14 percent compared to 2008. The decline in international revenues was mainly due to a decline in advertising across the majority of Yahoo! Properties, the sale of Kelkoo SAS during the year ended December 31, 2008, and the effects of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. The decline in revenues was offset by a decline in operating expenses of $692 million for the year ended December 31, 2009 compared to 2008. International operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2009 increased $482 million compared to 2008. The increase in international operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense year-over-year is primarily due to the $488 million goodwill impairment charge related to our European reporting unit in 2008, for which there was no similar charge in 2009. In addition, international operating loss before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2009 included restructuring charges of $28 million.
International revenues for the year ended December 31, 2008 decreased approximately $219 million, or 10 percent, compared to 2007. More than 95 percent of the international revenues decrease in 2008 came from marketing services revenues. The year-over-year decrease is the result of the sale of Overture Japan to Yahoo Japan which negatively impacted revenues by approximately $300 million. Previously, we earned search marketing revenues from advertisers and paid TAC to Yahoo Japan. In the third quarter of 2007, we initiated a new commercial arrangement with Yahoo Japan in which we now provide search marketing services to Yahoo Japan for a service fee. Under this new arrangement, we record marketing services revenues from Yahoo Japan for the provision of search marketing services based on a percentage of advertising revenues earned by Yahoo Japan for the delivery of sponsored search results. International operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 decreased $491 million, or 99 percent, compared to 2007. The decrease in international operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense year-over-year is primarily due to the $488 million goodwill impairment charge related to our European reporting unit which is part of our International segment. See Note 5Goodwill in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information. In addition, international operating loss before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense for the year ended December 31, 2008 includes restructuring charges of $30 million.
International revenues accounted for approximately 27 percent of total revenues during 2009, 28 percent of total revenues during 2008, and 32 percent of total revenues during 2007. Our international operations expose us to
foreign currency fluctuations. Revenues and related expenses generated from our international subsidiaries are generally denominated in the currencies of the local countries. Primary currencies include Australian dollars, British pounds, Euros, Korean won, and Taiwan dollars. The statements of income of our international operations are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates indicative of market rates during each applicable period. To the extent the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency-denominated transactions results in reduced revenues, operating expenses, and net income for our International segment. Similarly, our revenues, operating expenses, and net income will increase for our International segment if the U.S. dollar weakens against foreign currencies. Using the foreign currency exchange rates from 2008, our international revenues for 2009 would have been higher than we reported by approximately $176 million and our International segment operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense would have been higher than we reported by $18 million.
Significant acquisitions, strategic investments, and other transactions completed in the last three years include the following:
See Note 3Acquisitions and Note 4Investments in Equity Interests in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information relating to these and other transactions.
We expect to continue to evaluate possible acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, businesses, products, and technologies that are complementary to our business, which may require the use of cash.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of and for each of the three years ended December 31, 2009 (dollars in thousands):
Our operating activities for each year in the three years ended December 31, 2009 have generated adequate cash to meet our operating needs. As of December 31, 2009, we had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable debt securities totaling $4.5 billion, compared to $3.5 billion as of December 31, 2008.
During the year ended December 31, 2009, we invested $113 million in direct stock repurchases, a net $434 million in capital expenditures, and a net $195 million in acquisitions. The cash used for these investments was offset by $1.3 billion of cash generated from operating activities, $265 million of proceeds from sales of marketable equity securities, and $113 million from the issuance of common stock as a result of the exercise of employee stock options. In 2009, $73 million was used for tax withholding payments related to the net share settlement of restricted stock units and tax withholding-related reacquisition of shares of restricted stock.
During the year ended December 31, 2008, we invested $79 million in direct stock repurchases, a net $675 million in capital expenditures, and a net $209 million in acquisitions. The cash used for these investments was offset by $1.9 billion of cash generated from operating activities (including a $350 million one-time payment from AT&T Inc.) and $363 million from the issuance of common stock as a result of the exercise of employee stock options. In 2008, $77 million was used for tax withholding payments related to the net share settlement of restricted stock units and tax withholding-related reacquisition of shares of restricted stock.
We have accrued U.S. federal income taxes on the earnings of our foreign subsidiaries except to the extent the earnings are considered indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S. As of December 31, 2009, approximately $2.0 billion of earnings held by our foreign subsidiaries and a corporate joint venture are designated as indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S. If required for our operations in the U.S., most of the cash held abroad could be repatriated to the U.S. but, under current law, would be subject to U.S. federal income taxes (subject to an adjustment for foreign tax credits). Currently, we do not anticipate a need to repatriate these funds to our U.S. operations.
We invest excess cash predominantly in marketable debt securities, money market funds, and time deposits that are liquid, highly rated, and the majority of which have effective maturities of less than one year. Our marketable debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income. Realized gains or losses and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary, if any, on available-for-sale securities are reported in other income, net. The fair value for securities is determined based on quoted market prices of the historical underlying security or from readily available pricing sources for the identical underlying securities that may not be actively traded as of the valuation date. As of December 31, 2009, certain of our marketable debt securities had a fair value below cost due primarily to the changes in market rates of interest and yields on these securities. We evaluate these investments periodically for possible other-than-temporary impairment. We have no current requirement or intent to sell these securities. We expect to recover up to (or beyond) the initial cost of the investment.
We expect to continue to generate positive cash flow from operations for the first quarter of 2010. We use cash generated by operations as our primary source of liquidity because we believe that internally generated cash flows are sufficient to support our business operations and capital expenditures. We believe that existing cash, cash equivalents, and investments in marketable debt securities, together with any cash generated from operations will be sufficient to meet normal operating requirements including capital expenditures for the next twelve months. However, we may sell additional equity, or debt securities, or obtain credit facilities to further enhance our liquidity position, and the sale of additional equity securities could result in dilution to our stockholders.
See Note 8Investments in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Cash flow changes
Cash provided by operating activities is driven by our net income, adjusted for non-cash items, and non-operating gains and losses from sales of investments. Non-cash adjustments include depreciation, amortization of intangible assets, stock-based compensation expense net of stock-based restructuring expense reversals, non-cash restructuring charges, goodwill impairment, tax benefits from stock-based awards, and excess tax benefits from stock-based awards. Cash provided by operating activities was greater than net income in 2009 mainly due to the net impact of non-cash adjustments to income. In the year ended December 31, 2008, operating cash flows were positively impacted by changes in working capital balances, including a one-time payment from AT&T Inc.
Cash used in investing activities is primarily attributable to capital expenditures, purchases, sales and maturities of marketable debt securities, purchases of intangible assets, as well as acquisitions including our strategic investments. Our capital expenditures totaled $434 million in 2009, $675 million in 2008, and $602 million in 2007. Our capital expenditures have been primarily used for purchases and internal development of software to support our offerings and our increased number of users. We invested a net $195 million in acquisitions in 2009, compared to $209 million and $974 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Acquisitions and investments in 2009 included the cash outlay for our acquisition of Maktoob. Acquisitions and investments in 2008 included the cash outlay for our acquisition of Maven. Acquisitions and investments in 2007 included cash outlays for our acquisitions of Right Media, Zimbra, and BlueLithium and an investment in Alibaba.com. In 2009 and 2008, we utilized $2.0 billion and $368 million, respectively, for net purchases of marketable debt securities, compared to cash proceeds from the net sales and maturities of marketable debt securities of $1.1 billion in 2007.
Cash used in financing activities is driven by employee option exercises and employee stock purchases offset by our stock repurchases. Our cash proceeds from employee option exercises and employee stock purchases were $113 million in 2009, compared to $363 million and $375 million in 2008 and 2007, respectively.
During 2009, we invested $113 million in the direct repurchase of 7.4 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $15.31 per share. In addition, certain restricted stock awards that vested during 2009 were subject to statutory tax withholding obligations. We reacquired 0.3 million shares of restricted stock awards to satisfy the tax withholding obligations and $5 million was recorded as treasury stock. We paid $68 million related to the net share settlement of 4.4 million shares of restricted stock units which was recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in-capital. During 2008, we invested $79 million in the direct repurchase of 3.4 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $23.39 per share. In addition, certain restricted stock awards that vested during 2008 were subject to statutory tax withholding obligations. We reacquired 1.1 million shares of restricted stock awards to satisfy the tax withholding obligations and $27 million was recorded as treasury stock. We paid $50 million related to the net share settlement of 2.2 million shares of restricted stock units which was recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in-capital. During 2007, we used $1.6 billion in the direct repurchase of 57.9 million shares of our common stock at an average price of $27.34 per share. In addition, certain restricted stock awards that vested during 2007 were subject to statutory tax withholding obligations. We reacquired 70,000 shares of restricted stock awards to satisfy the tax withholding obligations and $2 million was recorded as treasury stock. We paid $4 million related to the net share settlement of 156,000 shares of restricted stock units which was recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in-capital.
In the third quarter of 2007, a $250 million structured stock repurchase transaction, which was entered into in the first quarter of 2007, settled and matured. On the maturity date, we received 8.4 million shares of our common stock at an effective buy-back price of $29.80 per share.
In 2009, 2008, and 2007, $108 million, $125 million, and $35 million, respectively, of excess tax benefits from stock-based awards for options exercised in current and prior periods were included as a source of cash flows from financing activities. These excess tax benefits represent the reduction in income taxes otherwise payable during the period, attributable to the actual gross tax benefits in excess of the expected tax benefits for options exercised in current and prior periods. We have accumulated excess tax deductions relating to stock options exercised prior to January 1, 2006 available to reduce income taxes otherwise payable. To the extent such deductions reduce income taxes payable in the current year, they are reported as financing activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows. See Note 12Employee Benefits in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
In April 2003, we issued $750 million of zero coupon senior convertible notes (the Notes) which matured on April 1, 2008. During the year ended December 31, 2008, $750 million of the Notes were converted into 36.6 million shares of Yahoo! common stock. See Note 9Debt in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
In October 2006, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program for us to repurchase up to $3.0 billion of our outstanding shares of common stock from time to time over the next five years from the date of authorization, depending on market conditions, stock price, and other factors. We repurchase our common stock, from time to time, in part to reduce the dilutive effects of our stock options, awards, and employee stock purchase plan. Repurchases may take place in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, including derivative transactions, and may be made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan.
Under this program, during the year ended December 31, 2009, we repurchased 7.4 million shares of common stock at an average price of $15.31 per share. Total cash consideration for the repurchased stock was $113 million. In addition, upon the vesting of certain restricted stock awards during the year ended December 31, 2009, we reacquired 0.3 million shares of such vested stock to satisfy tax withholding obligations. These repurchased shares were recorded as $5 million of treasury stock and reduced the number of common shares outstanding by 0.3 million. Treasury stock is accounted for under the cost method. See Note 11Stockholders Equity in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Capital expenditures are generally comprised of purchases of computer hardware, software, server equipment, furniture and fixtures, and real estate. Capital expenditures, net were $434 million in 2009, compared to $675 million in 2008 and $602 million in 2007. Our capital expenditures in 2010 are expected to be higher compared to 2009 as we continue to invest in our infrastructure to support additional users and to increase performance to our users.
Contractual obligations and commitments
The following table presents certain payments due under contractual obligations with minimum firm commitments as of December 31, 2009 (in millions):
Intellectual Property Rights. We are committed to make certain payments under various intellectual property arrangements of up to $44 million through 2023.
Other Commitments. In the ordinary course of business, we may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to customers, vendors, lessors, joint venture and business partners, purchasers of assets or subsidiaries, and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of our breach of agreements or representations and warranties made by us, services to be provided by us, intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties or, with respect to the sale of assets or a subsidiary, matters related to our conduct of the business and tax matters prior to the sale. In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and certain of our officers that will require us, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. We have also agreed to indemnify certain former officers, directors, and employees of acquired companies in connection with the acquisition of such companies. We maintain director and officer insurance, which may cover certain liabilities arising from our obligation to indemnify our directors and officers, and former directors and officers of acquired companies, in certain circumstances. It is not possible to determine the aggregate maximum potential loss under these indemnification agreements due to the limited history of prior indemnification claims and the unique facts and circumstances involved in each particular agreement. Such indemnification agreements might not be subject to maximum loss clauses. Historically, we have not incurred material costs as a result of obligations under these agreements and we have not accrued any liabilities related to such indemnification obligations in our consolidated financial statements.
As of December 31, 2009, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. As such, we are not exposed to any financing, liquidity, market, or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in such relationships.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
An accounting policy is considered to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, could materially impact the consolidated financial statements. We believe that the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
Management has discussed the development and selection of these critical accounting estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board and the Audit Committee has reviewed the disclosure below. In addition, there are other items within our financial statements that require estimation, but are not deemed critical as defined above. Changes in estimates used in these and other items could have a material impact on our financial statements.
Revenue Recognition. Our revenues are generated from marketing services and fees. Marketing services revenues are generated from several offerings including: the display of graphical advertisements, display of text-based links to advertisers Websites, listings-based services, and commerce-based transactions. Fees revenues include revenues from a variety of consumer and business fee-based services. While the majority of our revenue transactions contain standard business terms and conditions, there are certain transactions that contain non-standard business terms and conditions. In addition, we enter into certain sales transactions that involve multiple elements (arrangements with more than one deliverable). We also enter into arrangements to purchase goods and/or services from certain customers. As a result, significant contract interpretation is sometimes required to determine the appropriate accounting for these transactions including: (1) whether an arrangement exists; (2) whether fees are fixed or determinable; (3) how the arrangement consideration should be allocated among potential multiple elements; (4) when to recognize revenue on the deliverables; (5) whether all elements of the arrangement have been delivered; (6) whether the arrangement should be reported gross as a principal versus net as an agent; (7) whether we receive a separately identifiable benefit from the purchase arrangements with certain customers for which we can reasonably estimate fair value; and (8) whether the consideration received from a vendor should be characterized as revenue or a reimbursement of costs incurred. In addition, our revenue recognition policy requires an assessment as to whether collection is reasonably assured, which inherently requires us to evaluate the creditworthiness of our customers. Changes in judgments on these assumptions and estimates could materially impact the timing or amount of revenue recognition.
Income Taxes. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes. See Note 10Income Taxes in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information. We establish reserves for tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. These reserves are established when we believe that certain
positions might be challenged despite our belief that our tax return positions are in accordance with applicable tax laws. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit, new tax legislation, or the change of an estimate based on new information. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will affect the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. The provision for income taxes includes the effect of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate, as well as the related net interest and penalties.
We record a valuation allowance against certain of our deferred income tax assets if it is more likely than not that those assets will not be realized. In evaluating our ability to realize our deferred income tax assets we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our operating results, ongoing tax planning, and forecasts of future taxable income on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis. In the event we were to determine that we would be able to realize these deferred income tax assets in the future, we would make an adjustment to the valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
Goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests in certain circumstances. The performance of the goodwill impairment test involves a two-step process. The first step involves comparing the fair value of our reporting units to their carrying values, including goodwill. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the test is performed by comparing the carrying value of the goodwill in the reporting unit to its implied fair value. An impairment charge is recognized for the excess of the carrying value of goodwill over its implied fair value.
Our reporting units are based on geography, either at the operating segment level or one level below operating segments. The fair values of our reporting units are estimated using an average of a market approach and an income approach as this combination is deemed to be the most indicative of our fair value in an orderly transaction between market participants and is consistent with the methodology used for the goodwill impairment test in the prior year. In addition, we ensure that the fair values estimated under these two approaches are consistent with each other. Under the market approach, we utilize publicly-traded comparable company information to determine revenue and earnings multiples that are used to value our reporting units adjusted for an estimated control premium. Under the income approach, we determine fair value based on estimated future cash flows of each reporting unit discounted by an estimated weighted-average cost of capital, reflecting the overall level of inherent risk of a reporting unit and the rate of return an outside investor would expect to earn. Determining the fair value of a reporting unit is judgmental in nature and requires the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including selection of market comparables, estimated future cash flows, and discount rates. These components are discussed below:
We select comparable companies in the specific regions in which our reporting units operate based on similarity of type of business, primarily those involved in online advertising, and relative size of those companies compared to our reporting units. Trailing and forward revenue and earnings multiples derived from these comparable companies are applied to financial metrics of each reporting unit to determine their estimated fair values.
We base cash flow projections for each reporting unit using a five-year forecast of cash flows and a terminal value based on the Perpetuity Growth Model. The five-year forecast and related assumptions were derived from the most recent annual financial forecast for which the planning process commenced in our fourth quarter. Key assumptions in estimating future cash flows include, among other items, revenue and operating expense growth rates, terminal value growth rate, and capital expenditure and working capital levels. Significant management judgment is involved in determining these assumptions.
We employ a Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) approach to determine the discount rates used in our cash flow projections. The determination of the discount rates for each reporting unit includes factors such as the risk-free rate of return and the return an outside investor would expect to earn based on the overall level of inherent risk. The determination of expected returns includes consideration of the beta (a measure of risk) of traded securities of comparable companies.
The sum of the fair values of our reporting units is reconciled to our market capitalization adjusted for an estimated control premium.
We conducted our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 31, 2009 and determined that the fair values of our reporting units exceeded their carrying values by a significant margin and therefore goodwill in those reporting units was not impaired.
Significant changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value for each reporting unit which could trigger future impairment.
Intangible Assets. We amortize intangible assets over their estimated useful lives. Identifiable amortizable intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Determination of recoverability is based on the lowest level of identifiable estimated undiscounted future cash flows resulting from use of the asset and its eventual disposition. Measurement of any impairment loss is based on the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value. Fair value is determined based on the lowest level of identifiable estimated future cash flows using discount rates determined by our management to be commensurate with the risk inherent in our business model. Our estimates of future cash flows attributable to our intangible assets require significant judgment based on our historical and anticipated results and are subject to many factors. Different assumptions and judgments could materially affect estimated future cash flows relating to our intangible assets which could trigger impairment. No impairments of intangible assets were identified during any of the periods presented.
Investments in Equity Interests. We account for investments in the common stock of entities in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence but do not own a majority equity interest or otherwise control using the equity method. In accounting for these investments we record our proportionate share of the entities net income or loss, one quarter in arrears.
We review our investments in equity interests for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the investment may not be fully recoverable. Investments identified as having an indication of impairment are subject to further analysis to determine if the impairment is other-than-temporary and this analysis requires estimating the fair value of the investment. The determination of fair value of the investment involves considering factors such as the stock prices of public companies in which we have an equity investment, current economic and market conditions, the operating performance of the companies, including current earnings trends and forecasted cash flows, and other company and industry specific information. The fair value determination, particularly for investments in privately-held companies, requires significant judgment to determine appropriate estimates and assumptions. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could affect the calculation of the fair value of the investments and the determination of whether any identified impairment is other-than-temporary.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense. We recognize stock-based compensation expense net of an estimated forfeiture rate and therefore only recognize compensation expense for those shares expected to vest over the service period of the award. Calculating stock-based compensation expense requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected term of the stock-based options, stock price volatility, and the pre-vesting award forfeiture rate. We estimate the expected life of options granted based on historical exercise patterns, which we believe are representative of future behavior. We estimate the volatility of our common stock
on the date of grant based on the implied volatility of publicly traded options on our common stock, with a term of one year or greater. We believe that implied volatility calculated based on actively traded options on our common stock is a better indicator of expected volatility and future stock price trends than historical volatility. Therefore, expected volatility for the year ended December 31, 2009 was based on a market-based implied volatility. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent our best estimates, but these estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment. As a result, if factors change and we use different assumptions, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition, we are required to estimate the expected pre-vesting award forfeiture rate, as well as the probability that performance conditions that affect the vesting of certain awards will be achieved, and only recognize expense for those shares expected to vest. We estimate this forfeiture rate based on historical experience of our stock-based awards that are granted and cancelled. If our actual forfeiture rate is materially different from our original estimates, the stock-based compensation expense could be significantly different from what we have recorded in the current period. Changes in the estimated forfeiture rate can have a significant effect on reported stock-based compensation expense, as the effect of adjusting the forfeiture rate for all current and previously recognized expense for unvested awards is recognized in the period the forfeiture estimate is changed. In addition, because many of our stock-based awards have vesting schedules of two or three years cliff vests, a significant change in our actual or expected forfeiture experience will result in the reversal of stock-based compensation which was recorded in prior years for all unvested awards. If the actual forfeiture rate is higher than the estimated forfeiture rate, then an adjustment will be made to increase the estimated forfeiture rate, which will result in a decrease to the expense recognized in the consolidated financial statements. If the actual forfeiture rate is lower than the estimated forfeiture rate, then an adjustment will be made to lower the estimated forfeiture rate, which will result in an increase to the expense recognized in the consolidated financial statements. See Note 12Employee Benefits in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements.
We are exposed to the impact of interest rate changes, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, and changes in the market values of our investments.
Interest Rate Risk. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our cash and marketable debt securities portfolio. We invest excess cash in money market funds, time deposits, and liquid debt instruments of the U.S. and foreign governments and their agencies, U.S. municipalities, and high-credit corporate issuers which are classified as marketable debt securities and cash equivalents.
Investments in fixed rate and floating rate interest earning instruments carry a degree of interest rate risk. Fixed rate securities may have their fair market value adversely impacted due to a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall. Due in part to these factors, our future investment income may fall short of expectations due to changes in interest rates or we may suffer losses in principal if forced to sell securities that have declined in market value due to changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, we had investments in short-term marketable debt securities of approximately $2.0 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively. Such investments had a weighted-average yield of less than 1.0 percent and 1.2 percent, respectively. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, we had investments in long-term marketable debt securities of approximately $1.2 billion and $70 million, respectively. Such investments had a weighted average yield of approximately 1.0 percent and 4.0 percent, respectively. A hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates would result in an approximate $25 million and $2 million decrease in the fair value of our available-for-sale debt securities as of December 31, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
Foreign Currency Risk. Revenues and related expenses generated from our international subsidiaries are generally denominated in the currencies of the local countries. Primary currencies include Australian dollars, British pounds, Euros, Korean won, and Taiwan dollars. The statements of income of our international operations are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates indicative of market rates during each applicable period. To the extent the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency-denominated transactions results in reduced revenues, operating expenses, and net income for our International segment. Similarly, our revenues, operating expenses, and net income will increase for our International segment if the U.S. dollar weakens against foreign currencies. Using the foreign currency exchange rates from 2008, our international revenues for 2009 would have been higher than we reported by approximately $176 million and our International segment operating income before depreciation, amortization, and stock-based compensation expense would have been higher than we reported by $18 million.
We are also exposed to foreign exchange rate fluctuations as we convert the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries and our investments in equity interests into U.S. dollars in consolidation. If there is a change in foreign currency exchange rates, the conversion of the foreign subsidiaries financial statements into U.S. dollars results in a gain or loss which is recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income which is part of stockholders equity. In addition, we have certain assets and liabilities that are denominated in currencies other than the respective entitys functional currency. Changes in the functional currency value of these assets and liabilities create fluctuations that will lead to a gain or loss. We record these foreign currency transaction gains and losses, realized and unrealized, in other income, net on the consolidated statements of income. During 2009, our net realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction loss was not material. During 2008 and 2007, we recorded realized and unrealized foreign currency transaction net losses of $25 million and foreign currency transaction net gains of $7 million, respectively.
Investment Risk. We are exposed to investment risk as it relates to changes in the market value of our investments.
We have investments in marketable debt securities. Our cash and debt investment policy and strategy attempt primarily to preserve capital and meet liquidity requirements. A large portion of our cash is managed by external managers within the guidelines of our investment policy. We protect and preserve invested funds by limiting default, market, and reinvestment risk. To achieve this objective, we maintain our portfolio of cash and cash equivalents and short-term and long-term investments in a variety of liquid fixed income securities, including both government and corporate obligations and money market funds. As of December 31, 2009 and 2008, net unrealized gains and losses on these investments were not material.
We invest in equity instruments of public companies for business and strategic purposes and have classified these securities as available-for-sale or investment in equity interests. These investments may be subject to significant fluctuations in fair value due to the volatility of the stock market and the industries in which these companies participate. Our investments in available-for-sale equity securities amounted to $3 million and $87 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2009 and 2008. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we realized gains of $67 million related to the sale of our investment in Gmarket. Our realized gains and losses from the sale of available-for-sale investments were not material in 2008. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded an other-than-temporary impairment charge of $30 million, net of tax, within earnings in equity interests to reduce the carrying value of our direct investment in Alibaba.com to fair value. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we sold our direct investment in Alibaba.com for net proceeds of $145 million and recorded a pre-tax gain of $98 million in other income, net.
Our objective in managing exposure to stock market fluctuations is to minimize the impact of stock market declines to earnings and cash flows. Using a hypothetical reduction of 10 percent in the stock price of these available-for-sale investments, the fair value of our equity investments would decrease by less than $1 million as of December 31, 2009 and $9 million as of December 31, 2008.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Yahoo! Inc.:
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements listed in the accompanying index present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Yahoo! Inc. and its subsidiaries at December 31, 2008 and December 31, 2009, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2009 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2009, based on criteria established in Internal ControlIntegrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Companys management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Managements Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Companys internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
As discussed in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements, effective January 1, 2007, the Company adopted new authoritative guidance on accounting for uncertain tax benefits. In addition, as discussed in Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements, effective January 1, 2009, the Company adopted new authoritative guidance on accounting for convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash upon conversion.
A companys internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A companys internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the companys assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
San Jose, California
February 26, 2010
Consolidated Statements of Income
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
Consolidated Balance Sheets