Derivatives

RECENT NEWS
Financial Times  5 hrs ago  Comment 
Giancarlo raises concerns over whether asset managers and banks are ready
Reuters  Dec 9  Comment 
The U.S. derivatives regulator will move on from reforms created in the wake of the 2007-09 financial crisis to a new focus on U.S. competitiveness and the potential for shocks to the global $710 trillion swaps markets under President-elect Donald...
Mondo Visione  Dec 7  Comment 
The Board of Directors of Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEX) today (Wednesday) approved the appointment of Mr Alexander Longman as a member of the Derivatives Market Consultative Panel  to fill the vacancy arising from Mr Craig...
Mondo Visione  Dec 5  Comment 
With today’s repreposal, the Commission moves one step closer to the implementation of position limits as directed by Congress in 2010. CFTC staff has worked laboriously with market users and the exchanges we regulate to craft a rule that will...
Mondo Visione  Nov 24  Comment 
MEFF, BME’s derivatives market, makes it available to its Members derivative contracts allowing producers of renewable energy to enjoy easier access to hedging instruments in the electricity forward market As of 13 December, MEFF, the...
Mondo Visione  Nov 24  Comment 
Oslo Børs will change the expiration date for standardised equity- and equity index derivatives, to the third Friday of the expiration month.  The change will apply to all standardised derivatives listed on Oslo Børs with expiration date...
Mondo Visione  Nov 22  Comment 
In its response, FESE urges ESMA to consider the overall impact the work on the EMIR Clearing Obligation will ultimately have on the final implementation of the MiFIR Trading Obligation, since any instrument which does not fall under the scope of...
Financial Times  Nov 22  Comment 
Regulations force banks to examine all aspects of trading operations to squeeze costs
Financial Times  Nov 17  Comment 
CFTC data show five largest clearing houses demanded extra money to cover volatility
Mondo Visione  Nov 13  Comment 
Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEX) has decided to defer the rollout of the Volatility Control Mechanism (VCM) for the derivatives market scheduled for tomorrow, 14 November 2016, to a date to be announced after a potential technical...




RELATED WIKI ARTICLES
 

Derivatives are investment vehicles whose price is dependent on an underlying asset. The most common form of derivatives include stock options, futures & swaps. Options are contracts that give the holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a specific security at a pre-determined price on a pre-determined date. The two kinds of options are call and put options. A call holder has the right but not the obligation to “call” stock away from the call writer. So as the price of the underlying security, in this case a stock moves up (or down) the call option becomes worth more (or less). Since derivatives are essentially a contract with an associated value there are many forms of derivatives. Some companies use derivatives to hedge against natural resource price swings or fluctuations in weather that may affect yields.

Derivatives are used by investors to:

  • Provide leverage (or gearing), such that a small movement in the underlying value can cause a large difference in the value of the derivative
  • Speculate and make a profit if the value of the underlying asset moves the way they expect (e.g., moves in a given direction, stays in or out of a specified range, reaches a certain level)
  • Hedge or mitigate risk in the underlying, by entering into a derivative contract whose value moves in the opposite direction to their underlying position and cancels part or all of it out
  • Obtain exposure to the underlying where it is not possible to trade in the underlying (e.g., weather derivatives)
  • create option ability where the value of the derivative is linked to a specific condition or event (e.g. the underlying reaching a specific price level)


Example: A lease option to buy a house. The lease contract has terms that give you the right to buy the house at a specific price any time you want (until the lease contract expires). Suppose the terms stated that you could buy the house anytime within the first year of leasing from the owner for 100,000. If the price of the house (local real estate boom) increased to 150,000 you could buy the house for 100,000 and then sell it for 150,000 for a profit of 50,000. If the price of house price dropped (perhaps crime increase) you would have no incentive to exercise your option to buy, so you let that contract expire (worthless) and you do not buy the house. As illustrated here, the contract derives its value NOT from the paper on which it is written, but from the actual market price of another object (the house in this case). This is the basic premise for instruments of specualation known as derivatives.

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