Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA)
Formed in July 2007, FINRA stands for the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a non-governmental agency regulating the securities industry which used to be called the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD). The organization is responsible for self-regulating securities industry participants, including stock brokers, brokerage firms, and exchanges such as NASDAQ. FINRA can expel its members in the case of wrongdoing, but it cannot take legal action other than reporting the violator to the SEC. Half of the representatives on FINRA's managing Board are from the securities industry, and half are from the general public.
FINRA administers test which some participants in the financial markets (such as stock brokers) are required to pass, such as: