It is a market where shares are traded. Shares can be bought and sold. It is also called stock exchange.
Generally the origin of the stock exchange is traced back to the stock exchange in Antwerp (1460). Still the Amsterdam Stock Exchange is considered as the oldest stock Exchange in the World. This was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or called VOC) that issued the first shares on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. The company was the first in issuing the stocks and bonds. It was later renamed as the Amsterdam Bourse and was the first to begin trading in securities. 
Following are few of the renowned stock exchanges around the globe
The Warsaw stock exchange is the hub for Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). With increased liquidity the Bucharest stock exchange will be the hub for Southern Eastern Europe 
14c Stocks were instruments of punishment.  The original Stock Market was a fish and meat market in the City of London on or near the later site of Mansion House, so called perhaps because it occupied the site of a former stocks. 1809 Place where securities are bought and sold. Stock + market. 
12c Markets were a place to meet at a fixed time for buying and selling livestock and provisions, to trade, deal in, buy, wares, merchandise, public building or space where markets are held" first attested mid-13c. Sense of "sales, as controlled by supply and demand" is from 1680s, market research is from 1926.