Making a map, plan, or detailed description.
An official examination, of all the parts or particulars of a thing, with a design to ascertain the condition, quantity, or quality as in locating property, or a prospectus for a future company.
On the earth, the operation of finding the contour, dimensions, position, or other particulars of, as any part of the earth's surface, whether land or water; also, a measured plan and description of any portion of country, or of a road or line through it.
In Investing the operation of finding the trend lines, support and resistance, or other particulars of, any part of the venture. Whether real or imaginary, also a measured plan and description of any portion of a company risks and assessments. 
Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago). It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every venture. The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously.
Surveying establishes the boundaries of legal descriptions and the boundaries of various lines of political and financial divisions. 
Just as land surveyors place Monuments on the ground that define a non-movable location. Benchmarks are used in advertising to sell securities to the public. The aim behind both of these is the same, to provide sufficient marks so some marks will remain for future re-establishment of boundaries.
From 1540s, "act of viewing in detail.