The Economic Times  42 min ago  Comment 
The Doha-based firm has picked a number of banks including ANZ, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Citigroup and HSBC, the sources said.
newratings.com  4 hrs ago  Comment 
CANBERA (dpa-AFX) - The U.S. dollar extended overnight rally against its key counterparts in pre-European trading on Thursday, as minutes from the Federal Reserve's April meeting showed an optimistic outlook about the U.S. economy and hinted...
newratings.com  4 hrs ago  Comment 
WisdomTree Issuer plc - Daily Fund Prices 18-May-16 Dealing Fund Date ISIN Code Shares Base Net Assets NAV/Share in       Issue...
newratings.com  5 hrs ago  Comment 
KUALA LUMPUR (dpa-AFX) - The Malaysian ringgit weakened against the U.S. dollar in the pre-European session on Thursday, as investor sentiment dampened after minutes from the Federal Reserve's most recent meeting indicated that "most" of its...
The Economic Times  5 hrs ago  Comment 
The rupee had closed 10 paise lower at 66.97 on Wednesday after falling below 67-mark on sustained dollar demand from banks and importers.
newratings.com  7 hrs ago  Comment 
BRUSSELS (dpa-AFX) - The New Zealand dollar weakened against most major currencies in the Asian session on Thursday. The NZ dollar fell to 1.6665 against the euro and 74.05 against the yen, from yesterday's closing quotes of 1.6633 and...
newratings.com  9 hrs ago  Comment 
CANBERA (dpa-AFX) - Asian stock markets, with the exception of Japan and China, are lower on Thursday after minutes of the U.S. Federal Reserve's latest monetary policy meeting hinted that the central bank could soon raise interest rates....
The Hindu Business Line  9 hrs ago  Comment 
The US dollar touched a seven-week high against major currencies on Wednesday after the Federal Reserve signalled an interest rate rise could happen as soon as June, while stocks on Wall Street were ...
Yahoo  May 18  Comment 
The U.S. dollar hit its highest level against the euro in more than three weeks on Wednesday.


This article is about the U.S Dollar Currency. You may also be looking for ETF ProShares Ultra Semiconductors (USD).

The U.S. dollar (USD) (also known as the Greenback or Buck[1]) is the official currency used in the United States of America. 85% of all currency transactions across the world involve the US dollar. It is the world's primary reserve currency and 25 different currencies are pegged to the US dollar.

The dollar's value refers to the purchasing power of the dollar versus other currencies, or the exchange rate between the two currencies. When the dollar is strong, foreign goods are relatively less expensive. This can benefit businesses that import raw materials or manufactured goods into the United states, such as Wal-Mart Stores (WMT). A weakening dollar benefits companies with foreign competitors, such as US Steel (X), as their competitors' goods become more expensive. A weakening dollar can also lead to rising interest rates, as investors require higher rates to compensate for the added currency risk. Higher interest rates, in turn, have significant consequences for the housing market and business investment in general. A strong dollar means lower oil prices, as the US purchase much of its oil abroad. As the dollar weakens oil producers charge more to protect their margins.

The chart at left shows the exchange rate between the US Dollar and the Euro (EUR) - specifically, this chart is the number of Dollars per 1 Euro.

Companies that benefit from a rising dollar

  • Companies that export goods to the United States will benefit from a stronger dollar. This is because a strong dollar makes foreign goods relatively inexpensive and so increase US imports. This applies to companies like Volkswagen and dragons(DCX) and EADS NV which all sell foreign cars and airplanes to the US.
  • Companies using foreign goods extensively as inputs or for retail will also benefit from a rising dollar. This means that companies like Wal-Mart benefit from a stronger dollar as it makes it goods that they buy in China and sell in the U.S. relatively cheap.

Companies that benefit from a falling dollar

  • As the dollar falls, US exports become relatively less expensive; therefore making them more attractive to foreign investors and consumers. This means that companies like Boeing, 3M Company (MMM) and other exporters which sells a substantial portion of its products to foreign customers stand to benefit.
  • Advanced Medical Optics (EYE), which gets a large portion of its revenues from outside of the United States, benefits from a falling dollar, which makes its exports more competitive.

Factors affecting the dollar

Trade Deficit

Trade deficits lead to a net outflow of a country's currency. Countries on the other side of the transaction will typically sell the importing country's currency on the open market. As supply of the country's currency increases in the global market the currency depreciates. As a net importer, the US has seen its trade deficit grow rapidly. This trade deficit weakens the US dollar relative to other currencies since forein goods are denominated in foreign currency, thus demand for foreign goods increases the demand for foreign currency and decreases the demand for US dollars. This causes the US dollar to depreciate.[2]

Budget Deficit

When a country's government spends more than it earns from taxes or other sources of revenues, it is forced to borrow from its citizens and/or from foreign entities. As a country's debt load increases, the value of its currency may decrease as result of fears within the international community over its ability to repay the debt. In addition, by borrowing money from foreign countries, the US increases the demand for foreign currency in exchange for US Bonds. This lowers the relative value of the dollar.[3]

China, Japan,Russia may stop holding large US Dollar Reserves

Countries like Japan and China are large purchasers of US debt. China in particular has exhibited a voracious appetite for US debt. Its rapidly growing economy is heavily dependent on exports, and the US is one of its largest trading partners. In any given year, the US imports much more from China than it exports to China. As a result there is a net flow of dollars to China. Normally, one might expect China to sell these dollars on the global market, causing the dollar to weaken. Instead China reinvests its dollars in US debt. In doing so, China strengthens the US dollar and limits the appreciation of its own currency. As a result Chinese exports remain cheap to American consumers.

However, due to large deficits many countries, China, Russia and India in particular, have begun to reconsider diversifying their reserves to protect themselves from a devaluation of the US Dollar. The decision of these large countries to shift increasingly towards Gold as a reserve currency greatly decreases the demand for US Dollars and weakens the USD.[4]

Technology, Production & Investment

The level of technology and production which a country has relative to other countries alters the exchange rates. Countries which are able to produce relatively well and/or have high levels of technology increase the demand for domestic investment and domestic goods. This rise in demand for both capital and goods strengthens the currency and the exchange rate. Thus, when the US is seen as a technological and production leader, high investment and purchasing rates keeps the US dollar relatively strong.[5]

Forex Markets [1]

Most Active Currency Pairs and Trading Hours

The most active USD trading hours are from London's opening market hours (2:00AM ET / 6:00 GMT) due to London's strength in international markets and the typical time of release for U.S. Economic news (8:30AM ET/ 12:30 GMT).[1]

Factors that affect the U.S Dollar when trading

  • 1. Interest Rates are very important for the Dollar. Take a look at how USD/JPY tracks the 3 Month LIBOR rate for the U.S.
  • 2. Many Commodities are priced in Dollars, so when the dollar rises, commodity prices fall.
  • 3. Dollar strength or weakness frequently dominate the currency market on one given day, so know the risks of correlated positions!

The U.S. Economy

Key Facts

Because the US Dollar is used more extensively in the United States, the US economy has a particular effect on the dollar. The demand and breakdown of goods in the United States effects the demand for the dollar and so its relative value.

Market Moving Economic Releases

The market and the US Dollar are particularly effected by each of the following economic activities to varying degrees:

  1. The Federal Reserves Rates
  2. Retail Sales
  3. Consumer and Producer Prices
  4. Nonfarm Payroll (NFP)
  5. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
  6. Trade Balance
  7. Consumer Confidence Reports
  8. Service and Manufacturing ISM

The Federal Reserve's control over the dollar

The U.S. Federal Reserve is the U.S. central bank responsible for determining what is arguably the most important variable defining forex trends and currency values: the main interest rate. Established in 1907 in response to a particularly severe banking crisis with bankruns and many failures, the institution was further strengthened with successive legislations, and made independent in 1913, and as such, its decisions do not need the approval of the Congress, the President, or any other authority. After the U.S. abandoned the gold standard in 1971, it acquired even greater influence and power under the successive administrations of Paul Volcker and Alan Greenspan.

Federal Reserve Rates

The Federal Reserve sets its main rate during meeting of the FOMC which are always anticipated with great excitement by market participants and the news media.

Federal Funds Rate

As part of the fractional reserve system, banks are required by law to hold a percentage amount as a deposit with the Federal Reserve to ensure liquidity in the system, and as an implicit sign that they are solvent. The Fed’s main rate, the Fed Funds Rate, is the interest rate at which banks are expected to trade these deposits among themselves. This is also the main rate which markets devote great attention to, since it is the cheapest money in the economy in terms of interest rates. The lower it is, the easier it is to pay loans, and the greater risk tolerance of borrowers.

Reserve Requirements

The reserve requirement is another way of controlling the amount of credit available to the private sector. It is a somewhat more blunt tool in comparison to open-market operations, since it influences many financial institutions at the same time. As such it is used less often than the main tool and when used it is for purposes other than the management of liquidity.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 FX360.com, USD Factsheet by Kathy Lien
  2. [http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c0015.html#2008 U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Division "Trade with World, Not Seasonally Adjusted
  3. Deficits Do Matter "National Debt" 17 Nov 2009
  4. Globe Investor "Golden sale heralds economic force" 4 Nov 2009
  5. Landon, Stuart - Journal of International Money and Finance: "Investment and the exchange rate: Short run and long run aggregate and sector-level estimates"
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