Great information! I’ve been looking for something like this for a while now. Thanks!
A real benchmark |ˈbɛntʃˌmɑrk| is an unmovable surveyor's mark cut concrete or stone, and used as a reference point in measuring altitudes. There is no such thing as a movable benchmark.  From an investors view, cash is used as a benchmark to gauge the returns on there principal, and governments use cash as a benchmark to levy their taxes. Wall Street uses what they call benchmarks they themselves make up, to justify there fees.